Abstract

The detection of swimmer activity in harbor areas around piers and ships is an important aspect of Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) sensing efforts in the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard. A series of data collections and perception experiments were conducted to validate the use of thermal target acquisition models against swimmer targets. The results were analyzed to derive the discrimination criteria necessary for sensor design for maritime force protection.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Self, B. Miller, and D. Dixon, “Acquisition Level Definitions and Observables for Human Targets, Urban Operations, and The Global War on Terrorism,” US Army AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-235, (2005).
  2. R. Vollmerhausen, E. Jacobs, and R. Driggers, “New metric for predicting target acquisition performance,” Opt Eng. 43, 2806–2818 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Ratches, R. Vollmerhausen, and R. Driggers, “Target Acquisition Performance Modeling of Infrared Imaging Systems: Past, Present, and Future,” IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31–40 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. O’ Kane, G. Page, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Cycle criteria for detection of camouflaged targets,” Proceedings of the NATO Panel on Sensors and Sensor Denial by Camouflage, Concealment and Deception. (NATO, 2004).
  5. B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

2004 (1)

R. Vollmerhausen, E. Jacobs, and R. Driggers, “New metric for predicting target acquisition performance,” Opt Eng. 43, 2806–2818 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Ratches, R. Vollmerhausen, and R. Driggers, “Target Acquisition Performance Modeling of Infrared Imaging Systems: Past, Present, and Future,” IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bennett, D.

B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

Bohan, D.

B. O’ Kane, G. Page, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Cycle criteria for detection of camouflaged targets,” Proceedings of the NATO Panel on Sensors and Sensor Denial by Camouflage, Concealment and Deception. (NATO, 2004).

B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

Cook, M.

B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

Dixon, D.

M. Self, B. Miller, and D. Dixon, “Acquisition Level Definitions and Observables for Human Targets, Urban Operations, and The Global War on Terrorism,” US Army AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-235, (2005).

Driggers, R.

R. Vollmerhausen, E. Jacobs, and R. Driggers, “New metric for predicting target acquisition performance,” Opt Eng. 43, 2806–2818 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Ratches, R. Vollmerhausen, and R. Driggers, “Target Acquisition Performance Modeling of Infrared Imaging Systems: Past, Present, and Future,” IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, E.

R. Vollmerhausen, E. Jacobs, and R. Driggers, “New metric for predicting target acquisition performance,” Opt Eng. 43, 2806–2818 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miller, B.

M. Self, B. Miller, and D. Dixon, “Acquisition Level Definitions and Observables for Human Targets, Urban Operations, and The Global War on Terrorism,” US Army AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-235, (2005).

O’ Kane, B.

B. O’ Kane, G. Page, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Cycle criteria for detection of camouflaged targets,” Proceedings of the NATO Panel on Sensors and Sensor Denial by Camouflage, Concealment and Deception. (NATO, 2004).

O’Kane, B.

B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

Page, G.

B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

B. O’ Kane, G. Page, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Cycle criteria for detection of camouflaged targets,” Proceedings of the NATO Panel on Sensors and Sensor Denial by Camouflage, Concealment and Deception. (NATO, 2004).

Ratches, J.

J. Ratches, R. Vollmerhausen, and R. Driggers, “Target Acquisition Performance Modeling of Infrared Imaging Systems: Past, Present, and Future,” IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

Self, M.

M. Self, B. Miller, and D. Dixon, “Acquisition Level Definitions and Observables for Human Targets, Urban Operations, and The Global War on Terrorism,” US Army AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-235, (2005).

Vollmerhausen, R.

R. Vollmerhausen, E. Jacobs, and R. Driggers, “New metric for predicting target acquisition performance,” Opt Eng. 43, 2806–2818 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Ratches, R. Vollmerhausen, and R. Driggers, “Target Acquisition Performance Modeling of Infrared Imaging Systems: Past, Present, and Future,” IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D.

B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

B. O’ Kane, G. Page, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Cycle criteria for detection of camouflaged targets,” Proceedings of the NATO Panel on Sensors and Sensor Denial by Camouflage, Concealment and Deception. (NATO, 2004).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. Ratches, R. Vollmerhausen, and R. Driggers, “Target Acquisition Performance Modeling of Infrared Imaging Systems: Past, Present, and Future,” IEEE Sens. J. 1, 31–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt Eng. (1)

R. Vollmerhausen, E. Jacobs, and R. Driggers, “New metric for predicting target acquisition performance,” Opt Eng. 43, 2806–2818 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Self, B. Miller, and D. Dixon, “Acquisition Level Definitions and Observables for Human Targets, Urban Operations, and The Global War on Terrorism,” US Army AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-235, (2005).

B. O’ Kane, G. Page, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Cycle criteria for detection of camouflaged targets,” Proceedings of the NATO Panel on Sensors and Sensor Denial by Camouflage, Concealment and Deception. (NATO, 2004).

B. O’Kane, G. Page, M. Cook, D. Bennett, D. Wilson, and D. Bohan, “Modeling the Detection of Moving Thermal Targets,” Proceedings of the Parallel Military Sensing Symposium (SENSIAC, 2004).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ACQUIRE and TTP Process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

ACQUIRE-LC (left) and Detect05 (right) (ΔTRSS in Kelvin).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Clutter complexity levels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Imagery Collection Site Layout

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)/(b): Left picture is a night signature and right picture is a day signature.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a)/(b). Screen Captures of Perception Experiment GUI from Day and Night Respectively

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Night Data and NVTherm Model Fit.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Day Data and NVTherm Model Fit.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sensor features and specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2. Results Summary

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CTF sys = CTF eye ( ξ ) MTF ( ξ ) ( 1 + α 2 σ 2 ( ξ ) S tmp 2 ) 1 2 [ unitless ]
V = ξ low ξ lim C tgt CTF sys ( ξ ) d ξ [ cycles ]
P = ( N N 50 ) β 1 + ( N N 50 ) β ( ACQUIRE ) or P = ( V V 50 ) β 1 + ( V V 50 ) β ( TTP )
N 50 = 6 Δ T RSS + 1.5 ( woodland ) N 50 = 0.75 Δ T RSS + 0.75 ( littoral )
N 50 = 0.75 C [ ( C Δ T RSS ) 2 + 1 ]
V 50 = N 50 * 2.7 .

Metrics