Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of laterally continuous silver layers alternated with glassy amorphous polycarbonate films with the thickness of each layer much less than the wavelength. Such films exhibit physical phenomena associated with the coupled plasmon resonances. We have characterized light propagation through the resulting metal-dielectric (MD) periodic structures using collection mode Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM). In agreement with published theoretical models, our experiments provide evidence that diffraction can be inhibited for light propagating through metallodielectric nanolaminate.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Offset-apertured near-field scanning optical microscope probes

M. C. Quong and A. Y. Elezzabi
Opt. Express 15(16) 10163-10174 (2007)

Miniature planar solid immersion mirror with focused spot less than a quarter wavelength

William A. Challener, Christophe Mihalcea, Chubing Peng, and Kalman Pelhos
Opt. Express 13(18) 7189-7197 (2005)

Wedge nanostructures for plasmonic nanofocusing

D. Garoli, P. Zilio, M. Natali, M. Carli, F. Enrichi, and F. Romanato
Opt. Express 20(15) 16224-16233 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. M. Pustai, S. Shi, C. Chen, A. Sharkawy, and D. W. Prather, “Analysis of splitters for self-collimated beams in planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 1823–1831 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Feng, J. M. Elson, B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74, 115116 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nondiffracting beams in periodic media,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2611 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. G. Zuccarello, D. Scribner, R. Sands, and L. J. Buckley, “Materials for bio-inspired optics,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1261 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  85, 3966–3969 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Kwon, P. Kim, W. Chang, and S. Jeong, “Fabrication of nano dot and line arrays using NSOM Lithography,” Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Nanomanufacturing, pp.252–255, November 3–5 2004 Daejon Korea.
  10. M. J. Roberts, A. Guenthner, G. Lindsay, and S. Feng, “Fabrication of Multilayer Metal-Dielectric Nanofilms for Coupled Plasmon Resonant Devices”, in Negative Index Materials From Microwave to Optical, S-Y. Wang, N.X. Fang, L. Thylen, and M.S. Islam, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 919E, Warrendale, PA, 2006), 0919-J02-06.
  11. M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, Boca Raton 98–99, (1997).

2006 (1)

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nondiffracting beams in periodic media,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2611 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Zuccarello, D. Scribner, R. Sands, and L. J. Buckley, “Materials for bio-inspired optics,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augustin, M.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blaikie, R. J.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Buckley, L. J.

G. Zuccarello, D. Scribner, R. Sands, and L. J. Buckley, “Materials for bio-inspired optics,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

S. Kwon, P. Kim, W. Chang, and S. Jeong, “Fabrication of nano dot and line arrays using NSOM Lithography,” Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Nanomanufacturing, pp.252–255, November 3–5 2004 Daejon Korea.

Chen, C.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Dahlem, M. S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elson, J. M.

S. Feng, J. M. Elson, B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74, 115116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Etrich, C.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

S. Feng, J. M. Elson, B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74, 115116 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. J. Roberts, A. Guenthner, G. Lindsay, and S. Feng, “Fabrication of Multilayer Metal-Dielectric Nanofilms for Coupled Plasmon Resonant Devices”, in Negative Index Materials From Microwave to Optical, S-Y. Wang, N.X. Fang, L. Thylen, and M.S. Islam, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 919E, Warrendale, PA, 2006), 0919-J02-06.

Fuchs, H.-J.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guenthner, A.

M. J. Roberts, A. Guenthner, G. Lindsay, and S. Feng, “Fabrication of Multilayer Metal-Dielectric Nanofilms for Coupled Plasmon Resonant Devices”, in Negative Index Materials From Microwave to Optical, S-Y. Wang, N.X. Fang, L. Thylen, and M.S. Islam, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 919E, Warrendale, PA, 2006), 0919-J02-06.

Ibanescu, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iliew, R.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ippen, Erich P.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, S.

S. Kwon, P. Kim, W. Chang, and S. Jeong, “Fabrication of nano dot and line arrays using NSOM Lithography,” Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Nanomanufacturing, pp.252–255, November 3–5 2004 Daejon Korea.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

S. Kwon, P. Kim, W. Chang, and S. Jeong, “Fabrication of nano dot and line arrays using NSOM Lithography,” Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Nanomanufacturing, pp.252–255, November 3–5 2004 Daejon Korea.

Kley, E.-B.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon, P. Kim, W. Chang, and S. Jeong, “Fabrication of nano dot and line arrays using NSOM Lithography,” Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Nanomanufacturing, pp.252–255, November 3–5 2004 Daejon Korea.

Lederer, F.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lindsay, G.

M. J. Roberts, A. Guenthner, G. Lindsay, and S. Feng, “Fabrication of Multilayer Metal-Dielectric Nanofilms for Coupled Plasmon Resonant Devices”, in Negative Index Materials From Microwave to Optical, S-Y. Wang, N.X. Fang, L. Thylen, and M.S. Islam, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 919E, Warrendale, PA, 2006), 0919-J02-06.

Madou, M.

M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, Boca Raton 98–99, (1997).

Manela, O.

Melville, D. O. S.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, J. M. Elson, B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74, 115116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Petrich, G. S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D. M.

Rakich, P. T.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roberts, M. J.

M. J. Roberts, A. Guenthner, G. Lindsay, and S. Feng, “Fabrication of Multilayer Metal-Dielectric Nanofilms for Coupled Plasmon Resonant Devices”, in Negative Index Materials From Microwave to Optical, S-Y. Wang, N.X. Fang, L. Thylen, and M.S. Islam, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 919E, Warrendale, PA, 2006), 0919-J02-06.

Sands, R.

G. Zuccarello, D. Scribner, R. Sands, and L. J. Buckley, “Materials for bio-inspired optics,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schelle, D.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scribner, D.

G. Zuccarello, D. Scribner, R. Sands, and L. J. Buckley, “Materials for bio-inspired optics,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Segev, M.

Sharkawy, A.

Shi, S.

Soljacic, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tandon, S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Feng, J. M. Elson, B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74, 115116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wood, B.

S. Feng, J. M. Elson, B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74, 115116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zuccarello, G.

G. Zuccarello, D. Scribner, R. Sands, and L. J. Buckley, “Materials for bio-inspired optics,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. Zuccarello, D. Scribner, R. Sands, and L. J. Buckley, “Materials for bio-inspired optics,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1261 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl Phys B (1)

M. Augustin, R. Iliew, C. Etrich, D. Schelle, H.-J. Fuchs, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, E.-B. Kley, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-guiding of infrared and visible light in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl Phys B 81, 313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, and Erich P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area twodimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, D. O. S. Melville, and R. J. Blaikie, “Analysis and optimization of multilayer silver superlenses for near-field optical lithography,” Physica B394, 197–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Kwon, P. Kim, W. Chang, and S. Jeong, “Fabrication of nano dot and line arrays using NSOM Lithography,” Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Nanomanufacturing, pp.252–255, November 3–5 2004 Daejon Korea.

M. J. Roberts, A. Guenthner, G. Lindsay, and S. Feng, “Fabrication of Multilayer Metal-Dielectric Nanofilms for Coupled Plasmon Resonant Devices”, in Negative Index Materials From Microwave to Optical, S-Y. Wang, N.X. Fang, L. Thylen, and M.S. Islam, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 919E, Warrendale, PA, 2006), 0919-J02-06.

M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, Boca Raton 98–99, (1997).

S. Feng, J. M. Elson, B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74, 115116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of experimental setup. ‘A’ is NSOM cantilever, ‘B’ is microscope objective, and ‘C’ is metal-dielectric nanolaminate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). AFM image of positive photoresist surface patterned using NSOM lithography. Scan size is 10 µm×10 µm. (b) Tapping Mode AFM of APC/Ag/APC/Ag film over aperture. Scan size is 10 µm×10 µm. (c) SEM of APC/Ag/APC/Ag/APC/Ag/APC cross-section. The overall thickness of the nanolaminate is measured between the two horizontal green lines. Scale bar is 200 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

NSOM collection mode image of an ‘H’-shaped aperture through a titanium film. Aperture is illuminated with 488 nm light from below at the focal plane of microscope objective. Scan size is 10 µm×10 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evidence for inhibition of light diffraction. (a) NSOM collection mode image scanned in air, 500 nm above aperture; (b) scanned at surface of metal-dielectric stack, 560 nm from aperture. Scan size is 10 µm×10 µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Series of NSOM scans as a function of propagation distance from the aperture. All images are 10 µm×10 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of diffusion in each image of Fig. 5. quantified by width of normalized light intensity.

Metrics