Abstract

A magnetically actuated MEMS scanner with a microfabricated ferromagnetic nickel platform and thermosetting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microlens is demonstrated. The device is driven by an external AC magnetic field, eliminating chip circuitry and thermal deformation from joule heating. The resonant frequency of 215.2 Hz and scanning angle of 23° of the scanner have been demonstrated. Experimental studies and optical modeling have shown that this microlens scanner achieves a scanning range of 125 µm when actuated by an external magnetic field of 22.2×10-3 Tesla flux density. The device has potential applications in in vivo medical imaging for minimally invasive diagnoses.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (1)

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (6)

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope,” Opt. Lett. 29, 706–708 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, A. McWilliams, and S. Lam, “Optical spectroscopy and imaging for early lung cancer detection: a review,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 1, 111–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Shao, D. L. Dickensheets, and P. Himmer, “3-D MOEMS Mirror for Laser Beam Pointing and Focus Control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 528–535 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro. “MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 514–527 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable -focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng 14, 675–680 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

D. Poelman and P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85, 572–580 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Out-of-Plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349–1351 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. L. Barkley, J. E. Morna, Y. Takanashi, and N. Tepley, “Techniques for DC magnetoencephalography,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 189–99 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

Ache, H. J.

J. Burck, J. Mayer, and H. J. Ache, “Determination of hydrocarbons by near-infrared evanescent wave sensing with a planar waveguide structure,” in Proceedings of The 8th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors IX (Transducers’95, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995), pp.779–782.

Aguirre, A. D.

Ahn, C.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, S. H.

S. H. Ahn and Y. K. Kim, “Proposal of human eye’s crystalline lens-like variable focusing lens,” in Proceeding of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings in Broadband Optical Networks and Technology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 1998), pp. 89–90.

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, Y.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asaoka, N.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barkley, G. L.

G. L. Barkley, J. E. Morna, Y. Takanashi, and N. Tepley, “Techniques for DC magnetoencephalography,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 189–99 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boissevain, J.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burck, J.

J. Burck, J. Mayer, and H. J. Ache, “Determination of hydrocarbons by near-infrared evanescent wave sensing with a planar waveguide structure,” in Proceedings of The 8th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors IX (Transducers’95, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995), pp.779–782.

Caspers, P. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85, 572–580 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable -focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng 14, 675–680 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Collier, W.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cranfield, C.

Dickensheets, D. L.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Shao, D. L. Dickensheets, and P. Himmer, “3-D MOEMS Mirror for Laser Beam Pointing and Focus Control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 528–535 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. A. Himmer, D. L. Dickensheets, and R. A. Friholm, “Micromachined silicon nitride deformable mirrors for focus control,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1280–1282 (2001).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, L.

Fang, J.

W. Wang and J. Fang, “Design, fabrication and testing of a micromachined integrated tunable microlens,” J. Micromech. Microeng 16, 1221–1226 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable -focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng 14, 675–680 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fisher, R. E.

R. E. Fisher and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (SPIE press, McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Friholm, R. A.

Fu, L.

Fujimori, O.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

A. D. Aguirre, P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Piyawattanametha, L. Fan, and M. C. Wu, “Two-axis MEMS scanning catheter for ultrahigh resolution three-dimensional and en face imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 2445–2453 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, H.

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gordon, L. M.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Heineman, W. R.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

Himmer, A. P.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Himmer, P.

Y. Shao, D. L. Dickensheets, and P. Himmer, “3-D MOEMS Mirror for Laser Beam Pointing and Focus Control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 528–535 (2004).
[Crossref]

Himmer, P. A.

Imai, M.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Isokawa, T.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jacak, B. V.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jain, A.

Jeong, K. H.

K. H. Jeong and L. P. Lee, “A new method of increasing numerical aperture of microlens for biophotonic MEMS,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 2002), pp.380–383.

Katashiro, M.

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro. “MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 514–527 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. K.

S. H. Ahn and Y. K. Kim, “Proposal of human eye’s crystalline lens-like variable focusing lens,” in Proceeding of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings in Broadband Optical Networks and Technology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 1998), pp. 89–90.

King, C. R.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Out-of-Plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349–1351 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kwon, H. N.

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope,” Opt. Lett. 29, 706–708 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Stacked two dimensional micro-lens scanner of micro confocal imaging array,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 2002), pp. 483–486.

Lam, S.

H. Zeng, A. McWilliams, and S. Lam, “Optical spectroscopy and imaging for early lung cancer detection: a review,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 1, 111–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

Lee, L. P.

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope,” Opt. Lett. 29, 706–708 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Stacked two dimensional micro-lens scanner of micro confocal imaging array,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 2002), pp. 483–486.

K. H. Jeong and L. P. Lee, “A new method of increasing numerical aperture of microlens for biophotonic MEMS,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 2002), pp.380–383.

Lee, S. H.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Limbach, P. A.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L. Y.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Out-of-Plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349–1351 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lock, J. S.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lucassen, G. W.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85, 572–580 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maitland, K. C.

Matsumoto, K.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mayer, J.

J. Burck, J. Mayer, and H. J. Ache, “Determination of hydrocarbons by near-infrared evanescent wave sensing with a planar waveguide structure,” in Proceedings of The 8th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors IX (Transducers’95, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995), pp.779–782.

McWilliams, A.

H. Zeng, A. McWilliams, and S. Lam, “Optical spectroscopy and imaging for early lung cancer detection: a review,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 1, 111–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mita, M.

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miyajima, H.

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro. “MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 514–527 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moller, H. J.

H. J. Moller, Semiconductors for Solar Cells (Artech House, 1993).

Morna, J. E.

G. L. Barkley, J. E. Morna, Y. Takanashi, and N. Tepley, “Techniques for DC magnetoencephalography,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 189–99 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, K.

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro. “MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 514–527 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nikcevic, I.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogata, M.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Piruska, A.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

Poelman, D.

D. Poelman and P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).
[Crossref]

Puppels, G. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85, 572–580 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ra, H.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Roybal, P.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Saruta, K.

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seliskar, C. J.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaheen, S.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shao, Y.

Y. Shao, D. L. Dickensheets, and P. Himmer, “3-D MOEMS Mirror for Laser Beam Pointing and Focus Control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 528–535 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shin, H. J.

Simon-Gillo, J.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Smet, P. F.

D. Poelman and P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).
[Crossref]

Solgaard, O.

Sondheim, W.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, J. P.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tadic-Galeb, B.

R. E. Fisher and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (SPIE press, McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Takahashi, K.

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takanashi, Y.

G. L. Barkley, J. E. Morna, Y. Takanashi, and N. Tepley, “Techniques for DC magnetoencephalography,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 189–99 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatian, B.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tepley, N.

G. L. Barkley, J. E. Morna, Y. Takanashi, and N. Tepley, “Techniques for DC magnetoencephalography,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 189–99 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toshiyoshi, H.

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

Varahramyan, K.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable -focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng 14, 675–680 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vitkin, I. A.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, Biomedical Photonics Handbook (CRC Press, 2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

W. Wang and J. Fang, “Design, fabrication and testing of a micromachined integrated tunable microlens,” J. Micromech. Microeng 16, 1221–1226 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable -focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng 14, 675–680 (2004).
[Crossref]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

Xie, H.

Yang, S. Y.

Yang, X. D. V.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, A. McWilliams, and S. Lam, “Optical spectroscopy and imaging for early lung cancer detection: a review,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 1, 111–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ziock, H.

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85, 572–580 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Shao, D. L. Dickensheets, and P. Himmer, “3-D MOEMS Mirror for Laser Beam Pointing and Focus Control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 528–535 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro. “MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 514–527 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Out-of-Plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349–1351 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

K. Takahashi, H. N. Kwon, K. Saruta, M. Mita, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “A two-dimensional f-θ micro optical lens scanner with electrostatic comb-drive XY-stage,” IEICE Electron. Express 2, 542–547 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

G. L. Barkley, J. E. Morna, Y. Takanashi, and N. Tepley, “Techniques for DC magnetoencephalography,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 189–99 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microelectromechanical Syst. (1)

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto. “A MEMS electromagnetic optical scanner for a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst. 12, 243–251 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng (2)

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable -focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng 14, 675–680 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Wang and J. Fang, “Design, fabrication and testing of a micromachined integrated tunable microlens,” J. Micromech. Microeng 16, 1221–1226 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Poelman and P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5, 1348–1354 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (1)

S. Shaheen, J. Boissevain, W. Collier, B. V. Jacak, J. S. Lock, P. Roybal, J. Simon-Gillo, W. Sondheim, J. P. Sullivan, and H. Ziock, “Characterization and quality control of silicon microstrip detectors with an infrared diode laser system,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 352, 573–578 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232,123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy (1)

H. Zeng, A. McWilliams, and S. Lam, “Optical spectroscopy and imaging for early lung cancer detection: a review,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 1, 111–122 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (10)

“Metal MUMPS” (MEMSCAP), http://www.memsrus.com/nc-mumps.metal.html

H. J. Moller, Semiconductors for Solar Cells (Artech House, 1993).

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Stacked two dimensional micro-lens scanner of micro confocal imaging array,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 2002), pp. 483–486.

J. Burck, J. Mayer, and H. J. Ache, “Determination of hydrocarbons by near-infrared evanescent wave sensing with a planar waveguide structure,” in Proceedings of The 8th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors IX (Transducers’95, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995), pp.779–782.

R. E. Fisher and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (SPIE press, McGraw-Hill, 2000).

K. H. Jeong and L. P. Lee, “A new method of increasing numerical aperture of microlens for biophotonic MEMS,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 2002), pp.380–383.

S. H. Ahn and Y. K. Kim, “Proposal of human eye’s crystalline lens-like variable focusing lens,” in Proceeding of IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings in Broadband Optical Networks and Technology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 1998), pp. 89–90.

Sony CCD specification, “ICX204AL” http://products.sel.sony.com/semi/PDF/ICX204AL.pdf

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), EMF in your environments: Magnetic field measurement s of everyday electrical devices. EPA/402/R-92/008. (Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 1992).
[PubMed]

T. Vo-Dinh, Biomedical Photonics Handbook (CRC Press, 2003).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1707 KB)     

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A magnetically actuated microlens assembled with an optical fiber provides focal scanning capability.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of the magnetically actuated scanning microlens

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microphotograph of a PDMS microlens with a ferromagnetic nickel platform

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic fabrication process of the ferromagnetic lens platform

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The profile of the thermosetting PDMS microlens

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The tilting of the microlens device caused by an external magnetic field

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(1.66MB) Movie of the oscillating magnetic actuated microlens. [Media 1]

Fig.8.
Fig.8.

requency response of the magnetic actuated microlens scanner

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The change of oscillation angle of the magnetic actuated microlens at different magnetic flux density.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Optical layout setting with Zemax ray trace.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The optical scanning trajectory from the magnetic actuated microlens at 215.2 Hz on a 4.65µm pixel size CCD: (a) Computer modeling, (b) Experiment.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Experimental and computer modeling of the optical scanning distances generated from 1064 nm near infrared laser light. The microlens scanner is operated at resonant mode.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The Hygens point spread function and the wavefront surface of the 1064 nm focal spot from mcriolens tilting : (a) 0° and (b) 11.5° from the normal of the microlens device.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k = 2 z cr 2 cz 2 1
c = [ 3 V π ( 2 + cos θ c ) ( 1 cos θ c ) 2 ] 1 3
NA = [ 1 + cos θ c ( n 1 ) n 2 ( n 1 ) 2 sin 2 θ c + 1 ] 1 2
d = 1.22 λ 2 NA

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