Abstract

Abstract

A theoretical model is presented and experimentally validated that allows the prediction of the effect of speckles on the depth sensitivity of laser Doppler perfusion imaging. It is shown that the influence of speckles on depth sensitivity is large. In particular the sensitivity to particle motion in superficial layers is strongly beam diameter dependent: decreasing the beam diameter on the tissue surface increases the sensitivity to superficial motion to a much stronger extent than sensitivity to motion at a larger depth. This can be explained through the effect of beam diameter changes on the fractional coherence areas generated by photons with different penetration depths in the tissue.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, "A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin," J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189-193 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Speckles in Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 468-470 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Jakobsson and G. E. Nilsson, "Prediction of sampling depth and photon pathlength in laser Doppler flowmetry," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 301-307 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. J. Droog, W. Steenbergen and F. Sjöberg, "Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Burns 27,561-568 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E. D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann "Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report," J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 22,301-306 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, "Prediction of the photodetector signal generated by Doppler-induced speckle fluctuations: theory and some validations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 622-630 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of spatial intensity correlations and photodetector intensity fluctuations of coherent light reflected from turbid particle suspensions," Phys. Rev. E 75, 060901-4 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, M. L. Kok, P. J. Harmsma, J. Greve, R. Graaff, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Laser Doppler velocimetry and Monte Carlo simulations on models for blood perfusion in tissue," Appl. Opt. 34, 6595-6611 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. C. Hebden, B. D Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51,5581-5590 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Fullerton, B. Rode, and J. Serup, "Skin irritation typing and grading based on laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Skin Res. Technol. 8, 23-31 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of spatial intensity correlations and photodetector intensity fluctuations of coherent light reflected from turbid particle suspensions," Phys. Rev. E 75, 060901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. C. Hebden, B. D Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51,5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Speckles in Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 468-470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Fullerton, B. Rode, and J. Serup, "Skin irritation typing and grading based on laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Skin Res. Technol. 8, 23-31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E. D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann "Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report," J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 22,301-306 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jakobsson and G. E. Nilsson, "Prediction of sampling depth and photon pathlength in laser Doppler flowmetry," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 301-307 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, "A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin," J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189-193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Auer, T.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E. D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann "Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report," J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 22,301-306 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolt, R. A.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrne, P. O.

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, "A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin," J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189-193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F. M.

Droog, E. J.

E. J. Droog, W. Steenbergen and F. Sjöberg, "Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Burns 27,561-568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichhorn, W.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E. D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann "Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report," J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 22,301-306 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essex, T. J. H.

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, "A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin," J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189-193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fullerton, A.

A. Fullerton, B. Rode, and J. Serup, "Skin irritation typing and grading based on laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Skin Res. Technol. 8, 23-31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

J. C. Hebden, B. D Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51,5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

Greve, J.

Harmsma, P. J.

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, B. D Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51,5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E. D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann "Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report," J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 22,301-306 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakobsson, A.

A. Jakobsson and G. E. Nilsson, "Prediction of sampling depth and photon pathlength in laser Doppler flowmetry," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 301-307 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kharine, A.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelink, M. H.

Kok, M. L.

Kolkman, R. G. M.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manohar, S.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, G. E.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jakobsson and G. E. Nilsson, "Prediction of sampling depth and photon pathlength in laser Doppler flowmetry," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 301-307 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, B. D

J. C. Hebden, B. D Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51,5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajan, V.

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of spatial intensity correlations and photodetector intensity fluctuations of coherent light reflected from turbid particle suspensions," Phys. Rev. E 75, 060901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Speckles in Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 468-470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rode, B.

A. Fullerton, B. Rode, and J. Serup, "Skin irritation typing and grading based on laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Skin Res. Technol. 8, 23-31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royle, G.

J. C. Hebden, B. D Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51,5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeton, R.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serov, A.

Serup, J.

A. Fullerton, B. Rode, and J. Serup, "Skin irritation typing and grading based on laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Skin Res. Technol. 8, 23-31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöberg, F.

E. J. Droog, W. Steenbergen and F. Sjöberg, "Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Burns 27,561-568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of spatial intensity correlations and photodetector intensity fluctuations of coherent light reflected from turbid particle suspensions," Phys. Rev. E 75, 060901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Speckles in Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 468-470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, "Prediction of the photodetector signal generated by Doppler-induced speckle fluctuations: theory and some validations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 622-630 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Droog, W. Steenbergen and F. Sjöberg, "Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Burns 27,561-568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of spatial intensity correlations and photodetector intensity fluctuations of coherent light reflected from turbid particle suspensions," Phys. Rev. E 75, 060901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Speckles in Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 468-470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varghese, B.

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of spatial intensity correlations and photodetector intensity fluctuations of coherent light reflected from turbid particle suspensions," Phys. Rev. E 75, 060901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Speckles in Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 468-470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voy, E. D.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E. D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann "Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report," J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 22,301-306 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wårdell, K.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Burns (1)

E. J. Droog, W. Steenbergen and F. Sjöberg, "Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Burns 27,561-568 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Craniomaxillofac Surg. (1)

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E. D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann "Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report," J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 22,301-306 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Eng. (1)

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, "A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin," J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189-193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

A. Jakobsson and G. E. Nilsson, "Prediction of sampling depth and photon pathlength in laser Doppler flowmetry," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 31, 301-307 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. M. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, F. F. M de Mul "Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,"Phys. Med. Biol. 48,357-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, B. D Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51,5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

V. Rajan, B. Varghese, T. G. van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of spatial intensity correlations and photodetector intensity fluctuations of coherent light reflected from turbid particle suspensions," Phys. Rev. E 75, 060901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

A. Fullerton, B. Rode, and J. Serup, "Skin irritation typing and grading based on laser Doppler perfusion imaging," Skin Res. Technol. 8, 23-31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2489 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2512 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Speckle pattern of light diffusely reflected from a scattering medium which is illuminated with a narrow (to the left, 2.51 MB file, A) [Media 1] and a broad beam (to the right, 2.49 MB file, B). Please see also the movies [Media 2].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of optical scattering phantom with static and dynamic layers. Solid lines represent the back scattered intensity distribution and dashed line represents the solid angle generated on the detector by photons traveled superficially and deep.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Field correlation coefficients as a function of beam diameter for a two layered medium with a static layer of 0.5mm and a dynamic layer of 20mm. Left: field correlation coefficient γ 0 EE of non-Doppler shifted photons γ 1 EE Right: of Doppler shifted photons (note the different horizontal scales).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of modulation depth of a particle suspension for various thicknesses of static top layer. Left: measurement (Error bar represents standard deviation, error is very small); Right: simulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Modulation depth (normalized to zero depth) vs static layer thickness with speckle effects (closed symbols) and without the speckle effects (shaded symbols, Acoh =1).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Theoretical prediction vs measured modulation depth

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M 0 DC 2 = < i ac 2 > i dc 2 1 N
< i ac 2 > = A det R 2 I 2 [ 2 f 0 f 1 A coh 01 + f 1 2 A coh 11 ]
A coh ij = 2 π 0 γ EE i ( Δ x ) γ EE * j ( Δ x ) Δ xd Δ x
< i ac 2 > i dc 2 = [ 2 f 0 f 1 A coh 01 + f 1 2 A coh 11 ] 2 A det

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