Abstract

We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  13. A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, M. L. Kok, P. J. Harmsma, J. Greve, R. Graaff, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Laser doppler velocimetry and Monte Carlo simulations on models for blood perfusion in tissue," Appl. Opt. 34, 6595-6611 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. G. Yodh, P. D, Kaplan, and D. J.Pine, "Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy: High resolution through nonlinear optical gating," Phys. Rev. B 42, 4744 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J. J. Greffet, "Beyond the diffusing-wave spectroscopy model for the temporal fluctuations of scattered light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Morales, R. Graaff, A. J. Smit, R. Gush, and G. Rakhorst, "The influence of probe fibre distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements," Microcirculation 10, 433-441 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

1998 (3)

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7664-7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp 36, 740-747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera, and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. Steenbergen and F. F. M. de Mul, "New optical tissue phantom and its use for studying laser Doppler blood flowmetry," Proc. SPIE 3196, 12 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "A calibration standard for laser-Doppler perfusion measurements," Rev. Sci. Inst. 66, 5169-5173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Durian, "Accuracy of diffusing-wave spectroscopy theories," Phys. Rev. E 51, 3350 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, M. L. Kok, P. J. Harmsma, J. Greve, R. Graaff, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Laser doppler velocimetry and Monte Carlo simulations on models for blood perfusion in tissue," Appl. Opt. 34, 6595-6611 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Yodh, P. D, Kaplan, and D. J.Pine, "Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy: High resolution through nonlinear optical gating," Phys. Rev. B 42, 4744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

I. Freund, M. Kaveh, and M. Rosenbluh, 'Dynamic multiple scattering: Ballistic photons and the breakdown of the photon-diffusion approximation,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1130-1133 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, 'Multiple light-scattering from disordered media - the effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

E. Gratton and M. Limkerman, "A continuously variable frequency cross-correlation phase fluorometer with picosecond resolution," Biophys. J 44, 315-324 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Alfano, R. R.

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K. K.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7664-7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7664-7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J. J. Greffet, "Beyond the diffusing-wave spectroscopy model for the temporal fluctuations of scattered light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

de Mul, F F. M.

de Mul, F. F. M.

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Steenbergen and F. F. M. de Mul, "New optical tissue phantom and its use for studying laser Doppler blood flowmetry," Proc. SPIE 3196, 12 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, M. L. Kok, P. J. Harmsma, J. Greve, R. Graaff, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Laser doppler velocimetry and Monte Carlo simulations on models for blood perfusion in tissue," Appl. Opt. 34, 6595-6611 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durian, D. J.

P. A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera, and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Durian, "Accuracy of diffusing-wave spectroscopy theories," Phys. Rev. E 51, 3350 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Elaloufi, R.

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J. J. Greffet, "Beyond the diffusing-wave spectroscopy model for the temporal fluctuations of scattered light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Kaveh, and M. Rosenbluh, 'Dynamic multiple scattering: Ballistic photons and the breakdown of the photon-diffusion approximation,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1130-1133 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

F. Morales, R. Graaff, A. J. Smit, R. Gush, and G. Rakhorst, "The influence of probe fibre distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements," Microcirculation 10, 433-441 (2003).
[PubMed]

F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, M. L. Kok, P. J. Harmsma, J. Greve, R. Graaff, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Laser doppler velocimetry and Monte Carlo simulations on models for blood perfusion in tissue," Appl. Opt. 34, 6595-6611 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

E. Gratton and M. Limkerman, "A continuously variable frequency cross-correlation phase fluorometer with picosecond resolution," Biophys. J 44, 315-324 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greffet, J. J.

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J. J. Greffet, "Beyond the diffusing-wave spectroscopy model for the temporal fluctuations of scattered light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Gush, R.

F. Morales, R. Graaff, A. J. Smit, R. Gush, and G. Rakhorst, "The influence of probe fibre distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements," Microcirculation 10, 433-441 (2003).
[PubMed]

Harmsma, P. J.

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kap, M. H.

Kaplan, P. D.

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaveh, M.

I. Freund, M. Kaveh, and M. Rosenbluh, 'Dynamic multiple scattering: Ballistic photons and the breakdown of the photon-diffusion approximation,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1130-1133 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelink, M. H.

Kok, M. L.

Larsson, M.

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser doppler flowmetry," J.Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leahy, M.

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp 36, 740-747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "A calibration standard for laser-Doppler perfusion measurements," Rev. Sci. Inst. 66, 5169-5173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemieux, P. A.

P. A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera, and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp 36, 740-747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "A calibration standard for laser-Doppler perfusion measurements," Rev. Sci. Inst. 66, 5169-5173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limkerman, M.

E. Gratton and M. Limkerman, "A continuously variable frequency cross-correlation phase fluorometer with picosecond resolution," Biophys. J 44, 315-324 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp 36, 740-747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "A calibration standard for laser-Doppler perfusion measurements," Rev. Sci. Inst. 66, 5169-5173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, 'Multiple light-scattering from disordered media - the effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morales, F.

F. Morales, R. Graaff, A. J. Smit, R. Gush, and G. Rakhorst, "The influence of probe fibre distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements," Microcirculation 10, 433-441 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petoukhova, A. L.

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, "Path-length distribution and path-length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 26, 1492-1494 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

P. D. Kaplan, M. H. Kap, A.G. Yodh, and D. J. Pine, "Geometric constraints for the design of diffusing-wave spectroscopy experiments," Appl. Opt. 32, 3828 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajan, V.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakhorst, G.

F. Morales, R. Graaff, A. J. Smit, R. Gush, and G. Rakhorst, "The influence of probe fibre distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements," Microcirculation 10, 433-441 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Freund, M. Kaveh, and M. Rosenbluh, 'Dynamic multiple scattering: Ballistic photons and the breakdown of the photon-diffusion approximation,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1130-1133 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, A. M.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7664-7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smit, A. J.

F. Morales, R. Graaff, A. J. Smit, R. Gush, and G. Rakhorst, "The influence of probe fibre distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements," Microcirculation 10, 433-441 (2003).
[PubMed]

Smith, D. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser doppler flowmetry," J.Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, "Path-length distribution and path-length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 26, 1492-1494 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Steenbergen and F. F. M. de Mul, "New optical tissue phantom and its use for studying laser Doppler blood flowmetry," Proc. SPIE 3196, 12 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strömberg, T.

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser doppler flowmetry," J.Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Leeuwen, T. G.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, B.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vera, M. U.

P. A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera, and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

Weitz, D. A.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, 'Multiple light-scattering from disordered media - the effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yodh, A. G.

A. G. Yodh, P. D, Kaplan, and D. J.Pine, "Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy: High resolution through nonlinear optical gating," Phys. Rev. B 42, 4744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A.G.

Yoo, K. M.

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J (1)

E. Gratton and M. Limkerman, "A continuously variable frequency cross-correlation phase fluorometer with picosecond resolution," Biophys. J 44, 315-324 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.Biomed. Opt (1)

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser doppler flowmetry," J.Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Med. Bio. Eng. Comp (1)

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp 36, 740-747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Microcirculation (1)

F. Morales, R. Graaff, A. J. Smit, R. Gush, and G. Rakhorst, "The influence of probe fibre distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements," Microcirculation 10, 433-441 (2003).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. G. Yodh, P. D, Kaplan, and D. J.Pine, "Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy: High resolution through nonlinear optical gating," Phys. Rev. B 42, 4744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Siegel, and D. A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7664-7667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Durian, "Accuracy of diffusing-wave spectroscopy theories," Phys. Rev. E 51, 3350 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera, and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Kaveh, and M. Rosenbluh, 'Dynamic multiple scattering: Ballistic photons and the breakdown of the photon-diffusion approximation,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1130-1133 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion approximation fail to describe photon transport in random media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J. J. Greffet, "Beyond the diffusing-wave spectroscopy model for the temporal fluctuations of scattered light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Steenbergen and F. F. M. de Mul, "New optical tissue phantom and its use for studying laser Doppler blood flowmetry," Proc. SPIE 3196, 12 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "A calibration standard for laser-Doppler perfusion measurements," Rev. Sci. Inst. 66, 5169-5173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. B (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, 'Multiple light-scattering from disordered media - the effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Vol. 2 of Trends in Optics and Photonics, 41-44 (1996).

P. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

R. Pecora, Dynamic light scattering: Applications of photon correlation spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1985).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (IEEE Press, Piscataway, 1997).

A. Liebert, P. Lukasiewicz, D. Boggett and R. Maniewski, "Optoelectronic standardization of laser doppler perfusion monitors," 70, 1352-1354 (1999).

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Phase modulation peaks appearing in the photodetector signal power spectrum fitted with Lorentzian functions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured (points) and Monte Carlo simulated (lines) optical path length distributions for a particle suspension of ∅0.20 µm (g=0.18) for two scattering levels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured (points) and Monte Carlo simulated (line) optical path length distributions for a particle suspension of ∅0.77 µm (g=0.85).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental (points) and DWS-predicted (lines) average Doppler shift (FWHM of the Lorentzian fit to the phase modulation peak), vs. optical path length, for a particle suspension of ∅0.20 µm (g=0.18). Inset and lower line in main graph: prediction for single scattering.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental (points) and DWS-predicted (line) average Doppler shift (FWHM of the Lorentzian fit to the phase modulation peak) vs. optical path length for a particle suspension of ∅0.77 µm (g=0.85).. Inset and lower line in main graph: prediction for single scattering.

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