Abstract

Scattering optical coherence angiography (S-OCA) is a noninvasive imaging method that is based on the high-speed standard 800nm band spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the ultra-high-resolution SD-OCT which has the axial resolution of 6.1 μm and 2.9 μm in tissue, respectively. In this paper, we have demonstrated the use of this method for in vivo human retinal imaging. A three-dimensional view of the choroidal vasculature was obtained by segmenting the choroidal vessels; this was done using intensity threshold based binarization at each depth plane relative to the retinal pigment epithelium. A vascular projection image was obtained by integrating the segmented choroidal vasculature. In order to assess the feasibility of the proposed method, we compared these images with those obtained using existing invasive methods such as fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography. Clinically worthful images are obtained from the application of S-OCA to the age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

2002 (2)

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, andd A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619,16-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence rader" and "spectral radar" —New tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).

1997 (1)

E. Friedman, "A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677-682 (1997).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy," BMJ 305, 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

Akiba, M.

Akkin, T.

Araki, T.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bizheva, K.

Bouma, B. E.

Bressler, N. M.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bressler, S. B.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Costa, V. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Dörschel, K.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

Fine, S. L.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Flammer, J.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friebel, M.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, E.

E. Friedman, "A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677-682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gragoudas, E.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyer, D.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hahn, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence rader" and "spectral radar" —New tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).

Hee, T. F. M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and T. Bajraszewski, "Phase-shifting algorithm to achieve high-speed long-depth-range probing by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2201-2203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, andd A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619,16-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, Y. J.

Hope-Ross, M.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hori, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Joo, C.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Knighton, R.

Ko, T.

Kohner, E.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy," BMJ 305, 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Krieglstein, G. K.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupsky, S.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Kwiterovich, K. A.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Le, T.

Lee, E. C. W.

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, andd A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619,16-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lim, H.

Lin, W. G. S. C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence rader" and "spectral radar" —New tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).

Madjarova, V. D.

Maguire, M. G.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Makita, S.

Matsumoto, M.

Mei, M.

Miura, M.

Mujat, M.

Müller, G.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, R. P.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

Nelson, J. S.

Newsom, R.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy," BMJ 305, 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orgul, S.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlock, D.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Orzalesi, N.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Patel, V.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy," BMJ 305, 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 444-452 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rassam, S.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy," BMJ 305, 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renard, J.-P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Russel, P. S.

Sakai, S.

Sattman, H.

Sattmann, H.

Saxer, C.

Schachat, A. P.

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

Schmetterer, L. F.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, andd A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619,16-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serra, L. M.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slakter, J.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sorenson, J.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Stefansson, E.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, andd A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619,16-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

Sugawara, T.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

White, B. R.

Wiek, J.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy," BMJ 305, 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker," Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, andd A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619,16-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Yamanari, M.

Yannuzzi, L.

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Yasui, T.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zhao, Y.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Friedman, "A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677-682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

BMJ (1)

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy," BMJ 305, 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence rader" and "spectral radar" —New tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, "Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (2)

K. A. Kwiterovich, M. G. Maguire, R. P. Murphy, A. P. Schachat, N. M. Bressler, S. B. Bressler, and S. L. Fine, "Frequency of adverse systemic reactions after fluorescein angiography. Results of a prospective stud," Ophthalmology 98, 1139−1142 (1991).
[PubMed]

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. J. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 14, 7821-7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russel, "Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm," Opt. Express 11, 1980-1986 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, "In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroids," Opt. Express 13, 3252-3258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, S. H. Yun, "In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid," Opt. Express 14, 4403-4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, "In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-μm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 15, 6121-6139 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker," Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hori, Y. Yasuno, S. Sakai, M. Matsumoto, T. Sugawara, V. D. Madjarova, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yasui, T. Araki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Automatic characterization and segmentation of human skin using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 1862-1877 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 444-452 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, andd A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurements by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619,16-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson,"The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359−393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, W. G. S. C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. Chang, T. F. M. R. Hee, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. D. Gass, Stereoscopic atlas of macular diseases, 4th ed., (Mosby, 1997).

American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers: ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Florida, 2000).

Supplementary Material (12)

» Media 1: AVI (1390 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1457 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2528 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (2510 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (1978 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (1966 KB)     
» Media 7: AVI (2552 KB)     
» Media 8: AVI (2537 KB)     
» Media 9: AVI (2031 KB)     
» Media 10: AVI (2002 KB)     
» Media 11: AVI (1911 KB)     
» Media 12: AVI (5013 KB)     

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Procedure of 3D choroidal vessel segmentation

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

3D choroidal vascular images obtained using S-OCA; (A) is the macular area (1.35MB movie) and (B) is the ONH area (1.42 MB movie). [Media 1] [Media 2]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

2D S-OCA of the ONH, (A) a shadowgram of the retinal vessels and (B) segmented choroidal vascular image are obtained by the projection in the RPE and choroidal regions, respectively. (C) is a combination of (A) and (B).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

2D S-OCA of the macula, (A) a shadowgram of the retinal vessels and (B) segmented choroidal vascular image are obtained by the projection in the RPE and choroidal regions, respectively. (C) is a combination of (A) and (B).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of angiography images of the ONH; each image is obtained using (A) FA, (B) ICGA, (C) D-OCA and (D) S-OCA. Subsections (E), (F) and (G) represent sliced images of the segmented choroidal vasculature at different depths relative to the RPE, i.e., at 71, 107, and 142 μm, respectively (2.46MB movie). [Media 3]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of angiography images of the macula; each image is obtained using (A) FA, (B) ICGA, (C) D-OCA and (D) S-OCA. Subsections (E), (F) and (G) represent sliced images of the segmented choroidal vasculature at different depths relative to the RPE, i.e., at 71, 107, and 142 μm, respectively (2.45MB movie). [Media 4]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

3D image of the choroidal vasculature obtained using the measurement results of UHR-SD-OCT with regard to (A) macula (1.93MB movie) [Media 5] and (B) ONH (1.91MB movie) [Media 6]. (C) reveals an attached 2D S-OCA angiogram of ONH and macula

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

En-face slice images of the macula are sliced every 14.5 μm relative to the RPE (2.49MB movie). [Media 7]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

En-face slice images of ONH are sliced every 14.5 μm relative to the RPE (2.47MB movie). [Media 8]

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Simple inversion of intensity volume of the (A) macula (1.98MB movie) [Media 9] and (B) ONH (1.95MB movie) processed using the UHR-SD-OCT results. [Media 10]

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Choroidal vascular images of the macula of an AMD patient were obtained using, (A) ICGA and (B) by projecting the segmented choroidal vessels. Subsections (C) and (D) are en-face slice images of the segmented vessels obtained at depths of 88.8 μm and 124.3 μm, respectively, from the RPE.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(1.86MB movie) Fine choroidal vessels are visible beneath the epithelium in the ocular images of a PCV patient. (A) A 3D image of the segmented choroidal vasculature; (B) this image combined with an image of the structure of retinal volume; (C) projection image of the segmented choroidal vessels. [Media 11] (D), (E), and (F) reveal several slice images within the retinal volume and (G), (H), and (I) are zoom-in images of the PED region (4.89MB movie version). [Media 12]

Equations (1)

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I n < I x y < μ σ 2

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