Abstract

All fiber lasers to date emit radiation only along the fiber axis. Here a fiber that exhibits laser emission that is radially directed from its circumferential surface is demonstrated. A unique and controlled azimuthally anisotropic optical wave front results from the interplay between a cylindrical photonic bandgap fiber resonator, anisotropic organic dye gain, and a linearly polarized axial pump. Low threshold (86nJ) lasing at nine different wavelengths is demonstrated throughout the visible and near-infrared spectra. We also report the experimental realization of unprecedented layer thicknesses of 29.5 nm maintained throughout meter-long fibers. Such a device may have interesting medical applications ranging from photodynamic therapy to in vivo molecular imaging, as well as textile fabric displays.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, Inc., Standford, California, 1993).
  2. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Argyros, N. Issa, I. Bassett, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Microstructured optical fiber for single-polarization air guidance," Opt. Lett. 29, 20-22 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Verdaasdonk, and C. F. P. van Swol "Laser light delivery systems for medical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 42869-887 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. NtziachristosC. Bremer, and R. Weissleder "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  7. V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-44 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Kuriki,  et al., Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Hollow-core Photonic Band gap Fibers for High-power Ultraviolet Transmission."
  12. F. P. Schafer, Dye lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).
  13. T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, and A. Yariv, "Annular Bragg Resonators: Beyond the limits of total internal reflection," Photon. Spectra 39,64 (2005).
  15. C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005

V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, and A. Yariv, "Annular Bragg Resonators: Beyond the limits of total internal reflection," Photon. Spectra 39,64 (2005).

2004

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, N. Issa, I. Bassett, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Microstructured optical fiber for single-polarization air guidance," Opt. Lett. 29, 20-22 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

V. NtziachristosC. Bremer, and R. Weissleder "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. M. Verdaasdonk, and C. F. P. van Swol "Laser light delivery systems for medical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 42869-887 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978

Anderson, E. H.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Arriaga, J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I.

Bauer, C.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benoit, G.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. NtziachristosC. Bremer, and R. Weissleder "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, and A. Yariv, "Annular Bragg Resonators: Beyond the limits of total internal reflection," Photon. Spectra 39,64 (2005).

Hall, D. G.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hart, S. D.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issa, N.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, O.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koncar, V.

V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, K.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriki, Y.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahrt, R. F.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Maskaly, G. R.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. NtziachristosC. Bremer, and R. Weissleder "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

Prideaux, P. H.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, W. H.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, and A. Yariv, "Annular Bragg Resonators: Beyond the limits of total internal reflection," Photon. Spectra 39,64 (2005).

Schmitt, C.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, B.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temelkuran, B.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

van Swol, C. F. P.

R. M. Verdaasdonk, and C. F. P. van Swol "Laser light delivery systems for medical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 42869-887 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

R. M. Verdaasdonk, and C. F. P. van Swol "Laser light delivery systems for medical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 42869-887 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viens, J. F.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

V. NtziachristosC. Bremer, and R. Weissleder "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wicks, G. W.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, and A. Yariv, "Annular Bragg Resonators: Beyond the limits of total internal reflection," Photon. Spectra 39,64 (2005).

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Adv. Mater.

C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, C. Schmitt, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, "A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 13, 1161-1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, M. J. Rooks, "Circularly symmetrical operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor-laser.App. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921-1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Elect. Lett.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Elect. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Radiol.

V. NtziachristosC. Bremer, and R. Weissleder "Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging," Eur. Radiol. 13, 195-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nature

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Express. 12, 1510-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Spectra

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, and A. Yariv, "Annular Bragg Resonators: Beyond the limits of total internal reflection," Photon. Spectra 39,64 (2005).

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. M. Verdaasdonk, and C. F. P. van Swol "Laser light delivery systems for medical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 42869-887 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. Kuriki,  et al., Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Hollow-core Photonic Band gap Fibers for High-power Ultraviolet Transmission."

F. P. Schafer, Dye lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, Inc., Standford, California, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photonic band gap fiber laser. The fiber laser emits light in the transverse direction (propagation and polarization vectors shown as solid arrows and dashed lines, respectively) having a dipole-like wave front from an extended length of the fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of the fiber laser cavity. (a), Cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the PBG multilayer structure at various magnifications. The PEI in the cladding and the layers appears black, and the As2S3 layers white. The PEI and As2S3 layers are 89 nm and 59 nm thick (except for the first and last As2S3 layers which are 29.5 nm thick; the first layer is not visible). The top left inset shows a cross-sectional fluorescence micrograph of the full cross-section of a PBG fiber with an R590 organic dye in the core and enveloped by a thick PEI protective cladding. (b), Projected band structure of a one dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternating layers of As2S3 and PEI. Transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) propagating modes are in dark and light blue, respectively; evanescent modes are in white. Light incident normally to the structure (k=0) and axially propagating modes through the hollow core are shown as regions A and B, respectively. (c), Measured reflection band gap centered around 620nm (see ‘Optical characterization’ in methods) in black; fluorescence spectrum of LDS698 (500 ppm concentration) in red; and calculated dye-in-cavity emission obtained by multiplying the last two, dashed line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lasing characteristics of an LDS698-doped PBG fiber. a, Emission spectra of the fiber laser for a dye concentration of 500 ppm and pump energy below threshold (A), 1.2Eth (B) and 1.8Eth (C), where Eth is the lasing threshold energy. Inset shows the spectral full-width at half-maximum as a function of input energy for 500 ppm (red line) and 50 ppm (dashed blue). b, Dependence of the laser energy on the pump energy showing threshold values of Eth = 86 nJ and Eth = 100 nJ for the 500 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively. c, High resolution spectral measurement reveals mode spacing of 2 nm and quality factor of 640.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometric dependence of the emission for an LDS698-doped PBG fiber laser. (a), Angular intensity pattern of the bulk dye and fiber laser emission at a fixed location along the y-axis measured by rotating the input polarization. This measurement is equivalent to fixing the pump polarization while measuring the emission intensity around the fiber. (b), Polarization of light emitted from bulk dye (dashed blue) and dye in a fiber cavity (red line) having a ratio of intensities in the x- and y-directions of 0.22 and 0.6, respectively, measured by fixing the pump polarization in the x-direction and recording the intensity as a function of polarizer rotation about the direction of maximum emission (y-axis). (c), Emission spectra from large core (200- μm) PBG fiber laser measured along the fiber axis at 10-μJ pump energy measured by scanning a probe fiber along the fiber side. The upper panel shows a photograph of the fiber showing laser light emitted from a spatially extended region along the fiber (~ 5 mm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). A photograph of an R590-doped PBG fiber showing the pump (532 nm, green) guided in the hollow-core PBG fiber. Lasing at 576 nm (orange) occurs in the R590-doped region. (b). Lasing “MIT” made out of 12 PBG fibers doped with DCM (orange) and LDS698 (red) that are simultaneously pumped in both directions. This display design illustrates the ability to finely tune dye location, size, and concentration. (c). Laser emission spectra from fibers doped with nine different dyes. The lasers producing emission spectra 1-3 are constructed using the same hollow-core PBG fibers having a fundamental reflection band gap at 500 nm, and were pumped at 355 nm. The fibers used to produce emission spectrum 4 has a fundamental reflection band gap at 600 nm, while those used for spectra 5-9 have a fundamental reflection band gap at 690nm, and all were pumped at 532 nm. Photographs of the organic dye-doped PBG fiber lasers showing the individual laser colors (blue, green and red) emitting from the fiber surface.

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