Abstract

We propose a novel detection technique for scanning probe microscopy based on the measuring of the feedback-induced voltage change of 780-nm VCSEL operating at constant current in far-field regime when we modulate mechanically the length of a coupled-cavity generating the feedback conditions. The voltage change of the VCSEL is produced by light back reflected from the sample to the laser cavity. Two-dimensional image probing is successfully demonstrated with high temporal resolution, offering a viable solution for miniature parallel scanning probe optical microscopes, such as confocal microscope, where the use of a photodetector is avoided. This approach opens the possibility to perform imaging tasks in a low cost and hand-held miniature device with much improved effective-space.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, W. J. O. Boyle and A. W. Palmer, "Active optical feedback in a dual-diode laser configuration applied to displacement measurement with wide dynamic range," Appl. Opt. 33, 1795-1801 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. J. de Groot, M. Gallatin, and S. H. Macomber, "Ranging and velocimetry signal generation in a backscatter-modulated laser diode," Appl. Opt. 27, 4475-4480 (1988).
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  4. A. Dandrige, R. O. Milles, and T. G. Giallorenzi, "Diode laser sensor," Electron. Lett. 16, 948-949 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Juskaitis, N. Rea, and T. Wilson, "Fibre-optic based confocal microscopy using laser detection," Opt. Commun. 99, 105-113 (1993).
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  6. D. Sarid, in Scanning force microscopy, (Oxford University Press, 1991), Chap. 8.
  7. E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Ito, T. Shintani, S. Hosaka, and M. Muranishi, "A cavity-SNOM head using a laser diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3759-3763 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. Schwartz, M. L. Berthié, D. Courjon and H. Bielefeldt, "Simple reflection scanning near-field optical microscope using the back reflected light inside the laser cavity as detection mode," Opt. Commun. 134, 301-309 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Heisig, W. Steffens, and E. Oesterschultze, "Optical active gallium arsenide probes for scanning probe microscopy," Proc. SPIE 3467, 305-312(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Martin, S. Rishton, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1-3 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing," Opt. Rev. 9, 186-188 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).
  15. S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).
  16. C. Gorecki, S. Khalfallah, H. Kawakatsu, and Y. Arakawa, "New SNOM sensor using optical feedback in a VCSEL-based compound-cavity," Sens. Actuators 2799, 113-123, (2000).
  17. S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Intracavity resonant quantum-well photodetection of a verticale-cavity Surface-Emitting Laser". Electron. Lett. 33, 597-598, (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. .J. Kim, S. Y. Ye, and S. Goto "Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the vertical cavity emitting laser microprobe head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1636-1637 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Farnault and B. Cretin "Distance control of a thermoelastic probe using optical fiber," Progress in Natural Science 6, 111-114 (1996).
  21. B. Cavallier and B. Cretin, "Distance control of photothermoelastic probe: application to multi-acquisition and high resolution microscopy," Proc. of AIP Conference 463, 99-101, (1998).

2005

D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

.J. Kim, S. Y. Ye, and S. Goto "Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the vertical cavity emitting laser microprobe head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1636-1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing," Opt. Rev. 9, 186-188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Gorecki, S. Khalfallah, H. Kawakatsu, and Y. Arakawa, "New SNOM sensor using optical feedback in a VCSEL-based compound-cavity," Sens. Actuators 2799, 113-123, (2000).

1998

S. Heisig, W. Steffens, and E. Oesterschultze, "Optical active gallium arsenide probes for scanning probe microscopy," Proc. SPIE 3467, 305-312(1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Ito, T. Shintani, S. Hosaka, and M. Muranishi, "A cavity-SNOM head using a laser diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3759-3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

U. Schwartz, M. L. Berthié, D. Courjon and H. Bielefeldt, "Simple reflection scanning near-field optical microscope using the back reflected light inside the laser cavity as detection mode," Opt. Commun. 134, 301-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1-3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Intracavity resonant quantum-well photodetection of a verticale-cavity Surface-Emitting Laser". Electron. Lett. 33, 597-598, (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Farnault and B. Cretin "Distance control of a thermoelastic probe using optical fiber," Progress in Natural Science 6, 111-114 (1996).

1994

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, W. J. O. Boyle and A. W. Palmer, "Active optical feedback in a dual-diode laser configuration applied to displacement measurement with wide dynamic range," Appl. Opt. 33, 1795-1801 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

R. Juskaitis, N. Rea, and T. Wilson, "Fibre-optic based confocal microscopy using laser detection," Opt. Commun. 99, 105-113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

1980

A. Dandrige, R. O. Milles, and T. G. Giallorenzi, "Diode laser sensor," Electron. Lett. 16, 948-949 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Almuneau, G.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amat, C.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

C. Gorecki, S. Khalfallah, H. Kawakatsu, and Y. Arakawa, "New SNOM sensor using optical feedback in a VCSEL-based compound-cavity," Sens. Actuators 2799, 113-123, (2000).

Bardinal, V.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bargiel, S.

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

Berthié, M. L.

U. Schwartz, M. L. Berthié, D. Courjon and H. Bielefeldt, "Simple reflection scanning near-field optical microscope using the back reflected light inside the laser cavity as detection mode," Opt. Commun. 134, 301-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

U. Schwartz, M. L. Berthié, D. Courjon and H. Bielefeldt, "Simple reflection scanning near-field optical microscope using the back reflected light inside the laser cavity as detection mode," Opt. Commun. 134, 301-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, W. J. O.

Bringer, C.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camps, T.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Intracavity resonant quantum-well photodetection of a verticale-cavity Surface-Emitting Laser". Electron. Lett. 33, 597-598, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clichester, R. J.

E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

U. Schwartz, M. L. Berthié, D. Courjon and H. Bielefeldt, "Simple reflection scanning near-field optical microscope using the back reflected light inside the laser cavity as detection mode," Opt. Commun. 134, 301-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cretin, B.

E. Farnault and B. Cretin "Distance control of a thermoelastic probe using optical fiber," Progress in Natural Science 6, 111-114 (1996).

Dagenais, M.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dandrige, A.

A. Dandrige, R. O. Milles, and T. G. Giallorenzi, "Diode laser sensor," Electron. Lett. 16, 948-949 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Daran, E.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P. J.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doucet, J. B.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, P.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dziuban, J.

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

Farnault, E.

E. Farnault and B. Cretin "Distance control of a thermoelastic probe using optical fiber," Progress in Natural Science 6, 111-114 (1996).

Fontaine, C.

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gallatin, M.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandrige, R. O. Milles, and T. G. Giallorenzi, "Diode laser sensor," Electron. Lett. 16, 948-949 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gogol, P.

D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).

Górecka-Drzazga, A.

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

Gorecki, C.

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Gorecki, S. Khalfallah, H. Kawakatsu, and Y. Arakawa, "New SNOM sensor using optical feedback in a VCSEL-based compound-cavity," Sens. Actuators 2799, 113-123, (2000).

Goto, S.

.J. Kim, S. Y. Ye, and S. Goto "Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the vertical cavity emitting laser microprobe head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1636-1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Grubb, S. G.

E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, J.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing," Opt. Rev. 9, 186-188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heinis, D.

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heisig, S.

S. Heisig, W. Steffens, and E. Oesterschultze, "Optical active gallium arsenide probes for scanning probe microscopy," Proc. SPIE 3467, 305-312(1998).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, S.

K. Ito, T. Shintani, S. Hosaka, and M. Muranishi, "A cavity-SNOM head using a laser diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3759-3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing," Opt. Rev. 9, 186-188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

K. Ito, T. Shintani, S. Hosaka, and M. Muranishi, "A cavity-SNOM head using a laser diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3759-3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Józwik, M.

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

Juskaitis, R.

R. Juskaitis, N. Rea, and T. Wilson, "Fibre-optic based confocal microscopy using laser detection," Opt. Commun. 99, 105-113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawakatsu, H.

C. Gorecki, S. Khalfallah, H. Kawakatsu, and Y. Arakawa, "New SNOM sensor using optical feedback in a VCSEL-based compound-cavity," Sens. Actuators 2799, 113-123, (2000).

Khalfallah, S.

C. Gorecki, S. Khalfallah, H. Kawakatsu, and Y. Arakawa, "New SNOM sensor using optical feedback in a VCSEL-based compound-cavity," Sens. Actuators 2799, 113-123, (2000).

Kim, J.

.J. Kim, S. Y. Ye, and S. Goto "Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the vertical cavity emitting laser microprobe head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1636-1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing," Opt. Rev. 9, 186-188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lesuffleur, A.

D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).

Li, G. S.

S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Intracavity resonant quantum-well photodetection of a verticale-cavity Surface-Emitting Laser". Electron. Lett. 33, 597-598, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. F.

S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Intracavity resonant quantum-well photodetection of a verticale-cavity Surface-Emitting Laser". Electron. Lett. 33, 597-598, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macomber, S. H.

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1-3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milles, R. O.

A. Dandrige, R. O. Milles, and T. G. Giallorenzi, "Diode laser sensor," Electron. Lett. 16, 948-949 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muranishi, M.

K. Ito, T. Shintani, S. Hosaka, and M. Muranishi, "A cavity-SNOM head using a laser diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3759-3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oesterschultze, E.

S. Heisig, W. Steffens, and E. Oesterschultze, "Optical active gallium arsenide probes for scanning probe microscopy," Proc. SPIE 3467, 305-312(1998).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

Pan, Z.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poujet, Y.

D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).

Rea, N.

R. Juskaitis, N. Rea, and T. Wilson, "Fibre-optic based confocal microscopy using laser detection," Opt. Commun. 99, 105-113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rishton, S.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1-3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, U.

U. Schwartz, M. L. Berthié, D. Courjon and H. Bielefeldt, "Simple reflection scanning near-field optical microscope using the back reflected light inside the laser cavity as detection mode," Opt. Commun. 134, 301-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing," Opt. Rev. 9, 186-188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shintani, T.

K. Ito, T. Shintani, S. Hosaka, and M. Muranishi, "A cavity-SNOM head using a laser diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3759-3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steffens, W.

S. Heisig, W. Steffens, and E. Oesterschultze, "Optical active gallium arsenide probes for scanning probe microscopy," Proc. SPIE 3467, 305-312(1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. M.

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1-3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

R. Juskaitis, N. Rea, and T. Wilson, "Fibre-optic based confocal microscopy using laser detection," Opt. Commun. 99, 105-113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S. Y.

.J. Kim, S. Y. Ye, and S. Goto "Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the vertical cavity emitting laser microprobe head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1636-1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, W.

S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Intracavity resonant quantum-well photodetection of a verticale-cavity Surface-Emitting Laser". Electron. Lett. 33, 597-598, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett

E. Betzig, S. G. Grubb, R. J. Clichester, D. J. DiGiovanni, and J. S. Weiner, "Fiber laser probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett 63, 3550-3552 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1-3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Dandrige, R. O. Milles, and T. G. Giallorenzi, "Diode laser sensor," Electron. Lett. 16, 948-949 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Intracavity resonant quantum-well photodetection of a verticale-cavity Surface-Emitting Laser". Electron. Lett. 33, 597-598, (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Camps, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, G. Almuneau, C. Amat, E. Daran, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, " High sensitivity integrated lateral detection in VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 129-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, "Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 34-36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

D. Heinis, Y. Poujet, C. Gorecki, A. Lesuffleur, and P. Gogol, "A new concept of an integrated SNOM microscope using optical feedback within vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S1-S4 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J. B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, "A miniaturized SNOM sensor based on the optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1469-1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

.J. Kim, S. Y. Ye, and S. Goto "Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the vertical cavity emitting laser microprobe head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1636-1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ito, T. Shintani, S. Hosaka, and M. Muranishi, "A cavity-SNOM head using a laser diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3759-3763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. Bargiel, D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, A. Górecka-Drzazga, J. Dziuban, M. Józwik, "Micromachined silicon-based probe for scanning near-field optical microscope on-chip," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1-6 (2005).

Opt. Commun.

U. Schwartz, M. L. Berthié, D. Courjon and H. Bielefeldt, "Simple reflection scanning near-field optical microscope using the back reflected light inside the laser cavity as detection mode," Opt. Commun. 134, 301-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Juskaitis, N. Rea, and T. Wilson, "Fibre-optic based confocal microscopy using laser detection," Opt. Commun. 99, 105-113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing," Opt. Rev. 9, 186-188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Heisig, W. Steffens, and E. Oesterschultze, "Optical active gallium arsenide probes for scanning probe microscopy," Proc. SPIE 3467, 305-312(1998).
[CrossRef]

Progress in Natural Science

E. Farnault and B. Cretin "Distance control of a thermoelastic probe using optical fiber," Progress in Natural Science 6, 111-114 (1996).

Sens. Actuators

C. Gorecki, S. Khalfallah, H. Kawakatsu, and Y. Arakawa, "New SNOM sensor using optical feedback in a VCSEL-based compound-cavity," Sens. Actuators 2799, 113-123, (2000).

Other

B. Cavallier and B. Cretin, "Distance control of photothermoelastic probe: application to multi-acquisition and high resolution microscopy," Proc. of AIP Conference 463, 99-101, (1998).

D. Sarid, in Scanning force microscopy, (Oxford University Press, 1991), Chap. 8.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Architecture of SOMOC.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Curves of power modulation, obtained for two values of VCSEL injection current, compared to the excitation signal of PZT driver.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Curves of optical and voltage modulation induced by the mechanical modulation of the optical feedback.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Physical significance of results of Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental set-up for 2-D imaging.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

2-D imaging of the sample: (a) optical image without z-scan; (b) optical image with z-scan; and (c) voltage image with z-scan.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 0 ( 1 + C cos ( π λ z ) )
z = z 0 + δ cos ( ωt )
I I 0 [ 1 + C cos ( π λ z 0 ) C πδ cos ( ωt ) λ sin ( π λ z 0 ) ]
I M sin ( π λ z 0 )
I AC CI 0 π 2 δ cos ( ωt ) λ 2 z 0

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