Abstract

We present the first demonstration of human retinal imaging in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) in the 800-nm range. With 460-µW incident power on the eye, the sensitivity is 91 dB at maximum and >85 dB over 2-mm depth range. The axial resolution is 13 µm in air. We acquired images of retina at 43,200 depth profiles per second and a continuous acquisition speed of 84 frames/s (512 A-lines per frame) could be maintained over more than 2 seconds.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (4)

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2004 (7)

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed Opt 9, 47–74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Pulsed-source and swept-source spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with reduced motion artifacts,” Opt. Express 12, 5614–5624 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

2002 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly, III, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10, 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. Mitsui, “Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6133–6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Artal, P.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Campbell, M.

Cense, B.

Chan, K. P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, T. C.

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, M. A.

Chong, C.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14, 4403–4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. You, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Pulsed illumination spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for human retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14, 6739–6748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815–870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14, 5937–5944 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, III, W.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, E. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebert, T.

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E. C.

Lee, E. C. W.

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Lim, H.

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Miller, D. T.

Mitsui, T.

T. Mitsui, “Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6133–6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morosawa, A.

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol.7, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Nassif, N. A.

Olivier, S.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Park, B. Hyle

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Sakai, T.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yelin, R.

You, J. W.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Archives of Ophthalmology (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biomed Opt (1)

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J Biomed Opt 9, 47–74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Mitsui, “Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6133–6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (14)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly, III, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10, 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 11, 3598–3604 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Pulsed-source and swept-source spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with reduced motion artifacts,” Opt. Express 12, 5614–5624 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13, 10652–10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol.7, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (2479 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2481 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3620 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (6540 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the wavelength-swept laser. TF: tunable filter, SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier, FLM: fiber loop mirror, PC: Polarization controller. The focal length f1 and f2 is 75 and 40 mm, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Wavelength-swept laser output characteristics. Oscilloscope trace shows 43.2-kHz sweep rate. (b). Instantaneous optical power in the reference arm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental configuration of the optical frequency domain imaging system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Sensitivity as a function of depth. (b). Axial resolution in air as a function of depth. Dashed line is the theoretical axial resolution calculated from the raw laser spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Macular region, 6.4 mm wide×1.4 mm deep (in tissue). Scale bar, 500 µm. RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer. IPL: inner plexiform layer. INL: inner nuclear layer. OPL: outer plexiform layer. ONL: outer nuclear layer. IPRL: inner photoreceptor layer. RPE: retinal pigment epithelium. C: choroids. [Media 1, Media 3]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Area that includes optic disk and fovea, 6.4 mm wide×1.9 mm deep (in tissue). Scale bar, 500 µm. Inset; en face image with a red line whose cross section is shown in the left, 6.4 mm×3.5 mm. [Media 2, Media 4]

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