Abstract

We report near-field scanning optical imaging with an active tip made of a single fluorescent CdSe nanocrystal attached at the apex of an optical tip. Although the images are acquired only partially because of the random blinking of the semiconductor particle, our work validates the use of such tips in ultra-high spatial resolution optical microscopy.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lamda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Karrai and R.D. Grober, "Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near field optical microscopes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842-1844 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek and V. Sandoghdar, "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source," Nature 405, 325-328 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-150 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. .O. Sqalli, M.-P. Bernal, P. Hoffmann, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopy by the attachment of a single gold nanoparticle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2134-2136 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, "A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 72-76 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. Barsegova, A. Lewis, A. Khatchatouriants, A. Manevitch, A. Ignatov, N. Axelrod and Chaim Sukenik, "Controlled fabrication of silver or gold nanoparticle near-field optical atomic force probes: Enhancement of second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3461-3463 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, "Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Querner, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse and A. Pron, "Chelating Ligands for Nanocrystals' Surface Functionalization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11574-11582 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. See e.g.: K.T. Shimizu, R.G. Neuhauser, C.A. Leatherdale, S.A. Empedocles, W.K. Woo and M.G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N.F. van Hulst, J-A. Veerman, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and L.K. Kuipers, "Analysis of individual (macro)molecules and proteins using near field optics," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7799 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Querner, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse and A. Pron, "Chelating Ligands for Nanocrystals' Surface Functionalization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11574-11582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, "Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

See e.g.: K.T. Shimizu, R.G. Neuhauser, C.A. Leatherdale, S.A. Empedocles, W.K. Woo and M.G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, "A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 72-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

.O. Sqalli, M.-P. Bernal, P. Hoffmann, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopy by the attachment of a single gold nanoparticle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2134-2136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek and V. Sandoghdar, "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source," Nature 405, 325-328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.F. van Hulst, J-A. Veerman, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and L.K. Kuipers, "Analysis of individual (macro)molecules and proteins using near field optics," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Karrai and R.D. Grober, "Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near field optical microscopes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842-1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lamda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basché, T.

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernal, M.-P.

.O. Sqalli, M.-P. Bernal, P. Hoffmann, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopy by the attachment of a single gold nanoparticle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2134-2136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bleuse, J.

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Querner, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse and A. Pron, "Chelating Ligands for Nanocrystals' Surface Functionalization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11574-11582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, "Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bol, A.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chandezon, F.

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chevalier, N.

N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Wilde, Y.

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

den Heuvel, D. V.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lamda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dietler, G.

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donega, C.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frederix, P.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Parajo, M.F.

N.F. van Hulst, J-A. Veerman, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and L.K. Kuipers, "Analysis of individual (macro)molecules and proteins using near field optics," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grober, R.D.

K. Karrai and R.D. Grober, "Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near field optical microscopes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842-1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hettich, C.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek and V. Sandoghdar, "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source," Nature 405, 325-328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, P.

.O. Sqalli, M.-P. Bernal, P. Hoffmann, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopy by the attachment of a single gold nanoparticle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2134-2136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huant, S.

N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Julié, G.

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalkbrenner, T.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, "A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 72-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karrai, K.

N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Karrai and R.D. Grober, "Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near field optical microscopes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842-1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.K.

N.F. van Hulst, J-A. Veerman, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and L.K. Kuipers, "Analysis of individual (macro)molecules and proteins using near field optics," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lamda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lequeux, N.

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lingen, J. V.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marquis-Weible, F.

.O. Sqalli, M.-P. Bernal, P. Hoffmann, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopy by the attachment of a single gold nanoparticle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2134-2136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mathet, V.

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, K.

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijerink, A.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mews, A.

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaelis, J.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek and V. Sandoghdar, "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source," Nature 405, 325-328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihara, M.

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, "A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 72-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek and V. Sandoghdar, "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source," Nature 405, 325-328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortier, M.

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motte, J.-F.

N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nair, S.

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasse, M.J.

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ni, C.

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, S.

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lamda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, J.-P.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potapova, I.

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pron, A.

C. Querner, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse and A. Pron, "Chelating Ligands for Nanocrystals' Surface Functionalization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11574-11582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, "Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Querner, C.

C. Querner, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse and A. Pron, "Chelating Ligands for Nanocrystals' Surface Functionalization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11574-11582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramstein, M.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, "A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 72-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiss, P.

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Querner, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse and A. Pron, "Chelating Ligands for Nanocrystals' Surface Functionalization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11574-11582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, "Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saiki, T.

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samson, B.

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, "A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 72-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek and V. Sandoghdar, "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source," Nature 405, 325-328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sark, W.

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, C.

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekatskii, S.K.

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubeita, G.T.

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sqalli, O.

.O. Sqalli, M.-P. Bernal, P. Hoffmann, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopy by the attachment of a single gold nanoparticle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2134-2136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takagahara, T.

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N.F.

N.F. van Hulst, J-A. Veerman, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and L.K. Kuipers, "Analysis of individual (macro)molecules and proteins using near field optics," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veerman, J-A.

N.F. van Hulst, J-A. Veerman, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and L.K. Kuipers, "Analysis of individual (macro)molecules and proteins using near field optics," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woehl, J.C.

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lamda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Karrai and R.D. Grober, "Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near field optical microscopes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842-1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, and M. Mortier, "Local optical imaging of nanoholes using a single fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass particle as a probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

.O. Sqalli, M.-P. Bernal, P. Hoffmann, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopy by the attachment of a single gold nanoparticle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2134-2136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. Querner, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse and A. Pron, "Chelating Ligands for Nanocrystals' Surface Functionalization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11574-11582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N.F. van Hulst, J-A. Veerman, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and L.K. Kuipers, "Analysis of individual (macro)molecules and proteins using near field optics," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (3)

G.T. Shubeita, S.K. Sekatskii, G. Dietler, I. Potapova, A. Mews, and T. Basché, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy using semiconductor nanocrystals as a local fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer source, " J. Microsc. 210, 274-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, "A single gold particle as a probe for apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 72-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J.-P. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, "Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning nearfield optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 2-6 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

W. Sark, P. Frederix, D. V. den Heuvel, H. Gerritsen, A. Bol, J. V. Lingen, C. Donega and A. Meijerink, "Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, "Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

N. Chevalier, M.J. Nasse, J.C. Woehl, P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, F. Chandezon, and S. Huant, "CdSe-single-nanoparticle based active tips for near-field optical microscopy," Nanotechnology 16, 613-618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek and V. Sandoghdar, "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source," Nature 405, 325-328 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

See e.g.: K.T. Shimizu, R.G. Neuhauser, C.A. Leatherdale, S.A. Empedocles, W.K. Woo and M.G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, S. Nomura, M. Mihara, Y. Aoyagi, S. Nair, and T. Takagahara, "Near-Field Optical Mapping of Exciton Wave Functions in a GaAs Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 177401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (2)

N. Chevalier, Y. Sonnefraud, J.-F. Motte, S. Huant, and K. Karrai, "Aperture-size-controlled optical fiber tips for high-resolution optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, B. Samson, G. Julié, V. Mathet, N. Lequeux, C. Ni. Allen, H. Diaf, and B. Dubertret, "Scanning near-field optical microscope working with a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based optical detector," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 063702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. Barsegova, A. Lewis, A. Khatchatouriants, A. Manevitch, A. Ignatov, N. Axelrod and Chaim Sukenik, "Controlled fabrication of silver or gold nanoparticle near-field optical atomic force probes: Enhancement of second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3461-3463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the home-made confocal and NSOM microscope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Blinking behavior of single CdSe NCs. (a) A confocal image of NCs deposited on glass. The scanning area is 5×5μm2. The excitation density is 200 W.cm-2 and the integration time of the APD is 10 ms per pixel. The color scale is in kilo counts per second (kcps). (b) Normalized spectra of a NC ensemble (black) and of the single object (grey) encircled in grey in Fig. 2(a). The integration time of the single particle spectrum is 60s. Red dashed lines give Gaussian fits to the spectra with a center wavelength at 582 (595) nm and a FWHM of 31.7 (30.2) nm for the ensemble (single NC). (c) The spectrum of the single NC integrated over 15s has a FWHM reduced to 27.4 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Test samples for NSOM imaging. [left] SEM image of the sample. Scale bar: 2μm. Bright parts are the gold structures and the dark background is the glass substrate. [right] Corresponding NSOM straight transmission image at 458 nm wavelength. Note the inverted contrast due to light reflection on the gold patterns. Scale bar: 2μm. The color scale refers to the optical image.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Successive spectra of the active tip. The upper (lower) spectrum is the first (second) acquisition. The integration time is 60s and the excitation density is 800 W.cm-2. Dashed red lines are Gaussian fits to the peaks with a center wavelength at 584 nm for both spectra and a FWHM of 26.2 nm (28.9 nm) for the upper (lower) spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Imaging with an active tip. (a) Forward scanning image. Light is filtered in the spectral domain of the CdSe NC emission. Image sizes are 128 pixel ×128 pixel and 10 μm ×10 μm. The scale bar is 2μm and the scan speed is 5 μm.s-1. The integration time of the APD detector is 10 ms per pixel. The excitation density is around 1.6 kW.cm-2. (b) Same as (a) for backward scanning. (c) Cross cuts through the image in Fig. 5(b). Red (black) is a cross cut along a line presenting an increase in intensity (a background line), whose positions are indicated in Fig. 5(b) by the red (black) arrows. (d) Topography image acquired simultaneously with Fig. 5(b).

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