Abstract

We investigate the influence of a non-scattering layer on the temporal field autocorrelation function of multiple scattered light from a multilayer turbid medium such as the human head. Data from Monte Carlo simulations show very good agreement with the predictions of the correlation-diffusion equation with boundary conditions taking into account non-diffusive light transport within the non-scattering layer. Field autocorrelation functions measured at the surface of a multilayer phantom including a non-scattering layer agree well with theory and simulations when the source-receiver distance is significantly larger than the depth and the thickness of the non-scattering layer. Our results show that for source-receiver distances large enough to probe the dynamics in the human cortex, the cortical diffusion coefficient obtained by analyzing field autocorrelation functions neglecting the presence of the non-scattering cerebrospinal fluid layer is underestimated by about~$40\,\%$ in situations representative of the human head.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).
  8. M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
  11. H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer, and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 061404-1-11 (2001).
  13. J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, S. R. Arridge, and H. Dehghani, "Boundary conditions for light propagation in diffusive media with nonscattering regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1671-1681 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Gisler, H. Ruger, S. U. Egelhaaf, J. Tschumi, P. Schurtenberger, and J. Ricka, "Mode-selective dynamic light scattering: theory versus experimental realization," Appl. Opt. 34, 3546-3553 (1995).
  19. S. Feng, F. Zeng, and B. Chance, "Photon migration in the presence of a single defect: a perturbation analysis," Appl. Opt. 34, 3826-3837 (1995).
  20. L. Kou, D. Labrie, and P. Chylek, "Refractive indices of water and ice in the 0.65- to 2.5- ?m spectral range," Appl. Opt. 32, 3531-3540 (1993).
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2005 (2)

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J.-J. Greffet, "Beyond the Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy Model for the Temporal Fluctuations of Scattered Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903-1-4 (2004).

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer, and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 061404-1-11 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

S. E. Skipetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217, 181-185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, "Dynamic Light Scattering by Non-ergodic Media," Physica A 157, 705-741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, S. R. Arridge, and H. Dehghani, "Boundary conditions for light propagation in diffusive media with nonscattering regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1671-1681 (2000).

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Burnett, M. G.

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J.-J. Greffet, "Beyond the Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy Model for the Temporal Fluctuations of Scattered Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903-1-4 (2004).

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

Choi, J. H.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Cope, M.

Dehghani, H.

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, S. R. Arridge, and H. Dehghani, "Boundary conditions for light propagation in diffusive media with nonscattering regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1671-1681 (2000).

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Detre, J. A.

Dietsche, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

Durduran, T.

Elaloufi, R.

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J.-J. Greffet, "Beyond the Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy Model for the Temporal Fluctuations of Scattered Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903-1-4 (2004).

Elbert, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

Firbank, M.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gisler, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

T. Gisler, H. Ruger, S. U. Egelhaaf, J. Tschumi, P. Schurtenberger, and J. Ricka, "Mode-selective dynamic light scattering: theory versus experimental realization," Appl. Opt. 34, 3546-3553 (1995).

Gratton, E.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, J. H.

Greffet, J.-J.

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J.-J. Greffet, "Beyond the Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy Model for the Temporal Fluctuations of Scattered Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903-1-4 (2004).

Hatazawa, J.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

Ito, H.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).

Jacques, S. L.

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, I.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).

Kim, S.-G.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).

Kou, L.

Labrie, D.

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

Maret, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

S. E. Skipetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217, 181-185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meek, J. H.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michalos, A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Okada, E.

Paunescu, L. A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pusey, P. N.

P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, "Dynamic Light Scattering by Non-ergodic Media," Physica A 157, 705-741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ripoll, J.

Rockstroh, B.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

Romer, S.

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer, and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 061404-1-11 (2001).

Scheffold, F.

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer, and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 061404-1-11 (2001).

Schurtenberger, P.

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer, and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 061404-1-11 (2001).

Schweiger, M.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skipetrov, S. E.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer, and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 061404-1-11 (2001).

S. E. Skipetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217, 181-185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).

Toronov, V.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Megen, W.

P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, "Dynamic Light Scattering by Non-ergodic Media," Physica A 157, 705-741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. E.

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, U.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

Yu, G.

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, F.

Zheng, L.

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed. (1)

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

H. Ito, K. Takahashi, J. Hatazawa, S.-G. Kim, and I. Kanno, "Changes in Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume During Visual Stimulation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 608-612 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

NeuroImage (1)

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different Time Evolution of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin Concentration Changes in the Visual and Motor Cortices during Functional Stimulation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," NeuroImage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

S. E. Skipetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217, 181-185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer, and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 061404-1-11 (2001).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, R. Elaloufi, and J.-J. Greffet, "Beyond the Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy Model for the Temporal Fluctuations of Scattered Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213903-1-4 (2004).

Physica A (1)

P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, "Dynamic Light Scattering by Non-ergodic Media," Physica A 157, 705-741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. B (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Ishimaru, Wave propagation and scattering in random media (IEEE Press, New York, 1997).

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