Abstract

We built and characterized an optical system that emulates the optical characteristics of an 8m-class telescope like the Very Large Telescope. The system contains rotating glass phase-screens to generate realistic atmosphere-like optical turbulence, as needed for testing multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems. In this paper we present an investigation of the statistical properties of two phase-screens etched on glass-plate surfaces, obtained from Silios Technologies. Those etched screens are highly transmissive (above 85%) from 0.45 to 2.5μm. From direct imaging, their Fried parameter r0 values (0.43±0.04 mm and 0.81±0.03 mm, respectively, at 0.633μm) agree with the expectation to within 10%. This is also confirmed by a comparison of measured and expected Zernike coefficient variances. Overall, we find that those screens are quite reproducible, allowing sub-millimetre r0 values, which were difficult to achieve in the past. We conclude that the telescope emulator and phase-screens form a powerful atmospheric turbulence generator allowing systematic testing of different kinds of AO instrumentation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kolmogorov, "The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluids at very large Reynolds numbers," Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 30, 301-305 (1941). Reprinted in: S.K. Friedlander and L. Topper (editors). 1961. Turbulence: Classic Papers on Statistical Theory, Interscience Publications, New York, pp. 151-155.
  2. V. I. Tatarskii and V. U. Zavorotny, "Atmospheric turbulence and the resolution limits of large ground-based telescopes: comment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2410-2414 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and P.-Y. Madec, "Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559-1570 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Weiß, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, N. Wooder, and J. Quartel, "Simultaneous measurements of the Fried parameter r0 and the isoplanatic angle θ0 using SCIDAR and adaptive optics - First results," in ASP Conf. Ser. 266: Astronomical Site Evaluation in the Visible and Radio Range, J. Vernin, Z. Benkhaldoun, and C. Munoz-Tunon, eds., pp. 86-+ (2002).
  5. T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, and S. Hippler, "Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics with Two Deformable Mirrors - Requirements and Performance," Exp. Astron. 11, 1-21 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. LeLouarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, "MAD the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II. Edited by Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 317-328 (2003)., P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., pp. 317-328 (2003).
  7. A. Tokovinin, "Seeing Improvement with Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics," PASP 116, 941-951 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Koehler, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, R. Gratton, D. Gisler, R. Stuik, and J. Lima, "Optimizing wavefront sensing for extreme AO," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 586-592 (2004)., D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds., pp. 586-592 (2004).
  9. R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).
  10. B. Neichel, T. Fusco, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, M. Lelouarn, E. Gendron, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, P. Jagourel, and P. Bouchet, "Adaptive Optics Concept For Multi-Objects 3D Spectroscopy on ELTs," astro-ph 0512525 (2005).
  11. D. J. Butler, E. Marchetti, J. Baehr,W. Xu, S. Hippler,M. E. Kasper, and R. Conan, "Phase screens for astronomical multi-conjugate adaptive optics: application to MAPS," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II. Edited by Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 623-634 (2003)., P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., pp. 623-634 (2003).
  12. D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Hippler, F. Hormuth, W. Brandner, D. Butler, T. Henning, and S. Egner, "The MPIA multipurpose laboratory atmospheric turbulence simulator MAPS," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272 (2006).
  14. V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).
  15. A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the "Generalized SCIDAR,"PASP 110, 86-91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. McKenna, R. Avila, J. M. Hill, S. Hippler, P. Salinari, P. C. Stanton, and R. Weiss, "LBT facility SCIDAR: recent results," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II. Edited by Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 825-836 (2003)., P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., pp. 825-836 (2003).
  17. R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Egner, E. Mascidari, D. McKenna, T.M. Herbst, andW. Gaessler, "G-SCIDAR measurements onMt. Graham: recent results," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272 (2006).
  19. J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonte, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 794-804 (2004)., D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds., pp. 794-804 (2004).

2006 (1)

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tokovinin, "Seeing Improvement with Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics," PASP 116, 941-951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, and S. Hippler, "Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics with Two Deformable Mirrors - Requirements and Performance," Exp. Astron. 11, 1-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the "Generalized SCIDAR,"PASP 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and P.-Y. Madec, "Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559-1570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. I. Tatarskii and V. U. Zavorotny, "Atmospheric turbulence and the resolution limits of large ground-based telescopes: comment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2410-2414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adcock, M. J.

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

Avila, R.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr, J.

D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berkefeld, T.

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, and S. Hippler, "Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics with Two Deformable Mirrors - Requirements and Performance," Exp. Astron. 11, 1-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Butler, D.

D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrasco, E.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and P.-Y. Madec, "Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559-1570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, D. X.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

Diolaiti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

Egner, S.

D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farinato, J.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

Fedrigo, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

Fuchs, A.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the "Generalized SCIDAR,"PASP 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glindemann, A.

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, and S. Hippler, "Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics with Two Deformable Mirrors - Requirements and Performance," Exp. Astron. 11, 1-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hippler, S.

D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, and S. Hippler, "Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics with Two Deformable Mirrors - Requirements and Performance," Exp. Astron. 11, 1-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ibanez, F.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirkman, D.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

Klueckers, V. A.

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

Madec, P.-Y.

J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and P.-Y. Madec, "Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559-1570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

Munro, I.

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

Nicholls, T. W.

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

Prieur, J.-L.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

Rousset, G.

J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and P.-Y. Madec, "Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559-1570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the "Generalized SCIDAR,"PASP 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tatarskii, V. I.

V. I. Tatarskii and V. U. Zavorotny, "Atmospheric turbulence and the resolution limits of large ground-based telescopes: comment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2410-2414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

A. Tokovinin, "Seeing Improvement with Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics," PASP 116, 941-951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tordi, M.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

Vernin, J.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the "Generalized SCIDAR,"PASP 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wooder, N. J.

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

Xu, W.

D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavorotny, V. U.

V. I. Tatarskii and V. U. Zavorotny, "Atmospheric turbulence and the resolution limits of large ground-based telescopes: comment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2410-2414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A&A (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond," A&A 396, 731-744 (2002).

A&A Supplement (1)

V. A. Klueckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised SCIDAR technique," A&A Supplement 130, 141-155 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Baehr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-AG ionexchange phase screens and telescope simulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Astron. (1)

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, and S. Hippler, "Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics with Two Deformable Mirrors - Requirements and Performance," Exp. Astron. 11, 1-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

V. I. Tatarskii and V. U. Zavorotny, "Atmospheric turbulence and the resolution limits of large ground-based telescopes: comment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2410-2414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and P.-Y. Madec, "Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559-1570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

PASP (3)

A. Tokovinin, "Seeing Improvement with Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics," PASP 116, 941-951 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the "Generalized SCIDAR,"PASP 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro M artir. II. Wind Profile Statistics," PASP 118, 503-515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

S. Egner, E. Mascidari, D. McKenna, T.M. Herbst, andW. Gaessler, "G-SCIDAR measurements onMt. Graham: recent results," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272 (2006).

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonte, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 794-804 (2004)., D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds., pp. 794-804 (2004).

A. Kolmogorov, "The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluids at very large Reynolds numbers," Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 30, 301-305 (1941). Reprinted in: S.K. Friedlander and L. Topper (editors). 1961. Turbulence: Classic Papers on Statistical Theory, Interscience Publications, New York, pp. 151-155.

D. L. McKenna, R. Avila, J. M. Hill, S. Hippler, P. Salinari, P. C. Stanton, and R. Weiss, "LBT facility SCIDAR: recent results," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II. Edited by Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 825-836 (2003)., P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., pp. 825-836 (2003).

S. Hippler, F. Hormuth, W. Brandner, D. Butler, T. Henning, and S. Egner, "The MPIA multipurpose laboratory atmospheric turbulence simulator MAPS," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272 (2006).

R. Koehler, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, R. Gratton, D. Gisler, R. Stuik, and J. Lima, "Optimizing wavefront sensing for extreme AO," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics. Edited by Domenico B. Calia, Brent L. Ellerbroek, and Roberto Ragazzoni. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5490, pp. 586-592 (2004)., D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds., pp. 586-592 (2004).

B. Neichel, T. Fusco, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, M. Lelouarn, E. Gendron, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, P. Jagourel, and P. Bouchet, "Adaptive Optics Concept For Multi-Objects 3D Spectroscopy on ELTs," astro-ph 0512525 (2005).

D. J. Butler, E. Marchetti, J. Baehr,W. Xu, S. Hippler,M. E. Kasper, and R. Conan, "Phase screens for astronomical multi-conjugate adaptive optics: application to MAPS," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II. Edited by Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 623-634 (2003)., P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., pp. 623-634 (2003).

A. Weiß, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, N. Wooder, and J. Quartel, "Simultaneous measurements of the Fried parameter r0 and the isoplanatic angle θ0 using SCIDAR and adaptive optics - First results," in ASP Conf. Ser. 266: Astronomical Site Evaluation in the Visible and Radio Range, J. Vernin, Z. Benkhaldoun, and C. Munoz-Tunon, eds., pp. 86-+ (2002).

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. LeLouarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, "MAD the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator," in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II. Edited by Wizinowich, Peter L.; Bonaccini, Domenico. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4839, pp. 317-328 (2003)., P. L. Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., pp. 317-328 (2003).

Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Phase maps of the ground layer phase-screen PS1 (left) and mid- to high-altitude phase-screen PS2 (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission in % as a function of wavelength, measured for phase-screen PS2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Four representative images of both short- and long-exposure point spread functions for PS1 and PS2, at 632.8nm and 831.5nm. The data was taken using an aperture size of 13mm. The size of each image is 200×200 CCD pixel2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase structure function of the computer generated screens for a wavelength of 632.8nm (optical phase differences scaled to this wavelength, calculated on 360 randomly selected apertures of 13mm diameter with 106 point pairs in each). The solid lines represent a fit with L0=22m and the values of r0 as listed in Table 1

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Demonstrating the close agreement between the expected (Template) and measured (Manufactured) long exposure PSFs for phase-screen PS1 (upper row) and PS2 (lower row). Shown are the normalized radial intensity profiles at λ=632.8nm (left column) and λ=831.5nm (right column). Please note the different ranges of the abscissa.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Examples of reconstructed phase maps of wavefronts using the AOA Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for three lenslet sizes, namely 133μm, 300μm, and 480μm (left to right). The isolated bad pixels visible in the right panel result from dirty lenslets. [Media 1] [Media 2] [Media 3]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Zernike coefficient variances of phase-screen PS1 at a wavelength of λ= 632.8μm. Measurements are based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront gradients obtained with the 300μm-lenslet array. The wavefronts of 100 randomly distributed test apertures with a diameter of 10mm were reconstructed with a least-squares Zernike decomposition. The plotted line (dashed) results from a fit to the Zernike variances calculated for the computer generated phase map under the assumption of a finite outer scale of L0=22m. Zernike mode number 1 corresponds to the piston term and is omitted in the plot. A Zernike decomposition of the computer generated phase-screen with a 3 by 3 pixel binning corresponding to a cell size of 300μm is shown for comparison.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Left: same as Fig. 7, but for the 133μm-lenslet array. A Zernike decomposition of the original computer-generated phase-screen (i.e. without additional pixel binning), corresponding to a cell size of 100μm, is shown for comparison. Right: Also the same as Fig. 7, but for the 480μm-lenslet array. A Zernike decomposition of the computer-generated phase-screen with a 5 by 5 pixel binning, corresponding to a cell size of 500μm, is shown for comparison.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Results of the r0 measurement from direct imaging of the PSF.

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Table 2. MAPS set-up parameters and MPEG demo movies.

Equations (4)

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FWHM DL = 1.02 · λ D · S ,
r 0 = 0.98 · λ FWHM SL · S
D Φ ( x ) = < [ Φ ( x ) Φ ( x + x ) ] 2 > .
OTF ( x ) = exp [ 0.5 D Φ ( x ) ] .

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