Abstract

Optical elastography is an imaging modality that relies on variations in the local mechanical properties of biological tissues as the contrast mechanism for image formation. Skin lesions, such as melanomas and other invasive conditions, are known to alter the arrangement of collagen fibers in the skin and thus should lead to alterations in local skin mechanical properties. We report on an acousto-optical elastography (AOE) imaging modality for quantifying the mechanical behavior of skin lesions. The method relies upon stimulating the tissue with a low frequency acoustic force and imaging the resulting strains in the tissue by means of quantifying the magnitude of the dynamic shift in a back-reflected laser speckle pattern from the skin. The magnitude of the shift reflects the local stiffness of the tissue. We demonstrate AOE on a tissue-mimicking phantom, an in vivo mouse melanoma lesion and two types of in vivo human melanocytic nevi. The skin lesions we examined were found to have distinct mechanical properties that appear to correlate with the varying degrees of dermal involvement of the lesions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Srinivasan, F. Kallel, R. Souchon, and J. Ophir, "Analysis of an adaptive strain estimation technique in elastography," Ultrason. Imaging 24,109-118 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  3. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, H. Ponnekanti, and N. Maklad, "Elastography: Elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo," Ultrason. Imaging 15, 73-88 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  5. T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, "Elastic moduli of breast and prostate issues under compression," Ultrason Imaging 20, 260-274 (1998).
  6. D. B. Plewes, J. Bishop, A. Samani, and J. Sciarretta, "Visualization and quantification of breast cancer biomechanical properties with magnetic resonance elastography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1591-1610 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lorenzen,  et al., "MR elastography of the breast: preliminary clinical results," Rofo. Fortsch.r Geb. Rontgenstr. Neuen Bildgeb. Verfahr,  174, 830-834 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. A. el-Gabry, E. J. Halpern, S. E. Strup, and L. G. Gomella, "Imaging prostate cancer: Current and future applications," Oncology 15, 325-336 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  11. D. L. Cochlin, R. H. Ganatra, and D. F. Griffiths, "Elastography in the detection of prostatic cancer," Clin. Radiol. 57,1014-1020 (2002).
  12. C. L. de Korte, and A. F. van der Steen, "Intravascular ultrasound elastography: An overview", Ultrasonics 40, 859-865 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Dresner,  et al., "Magnetic resonance elastography of skeletal muscle," J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13, 269-276 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Rukavina, and N. Mohar, "An approach of ultrasound diagnostic techniques of the skin and subcutaneous tissue," Dermatologica 158, 81-92 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. Strasser, H. Wokalek, W. Vanscheidt, and E. Schopf, "B-scan ultrasound in dermatology," Hautartz 38, 660-663 (1987).
  16. R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, E. M. Buras, "The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo," J. Biomech. 16, 365-372 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. V. Kazkov, and B. N. Klochkov, "Low frequency mechanical properties of the soft tissue of the human arm," Biophysics 34,742-747 (1989).
  18. S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, "Low frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,1311-1319 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. D. Duncan, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 418-426 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Performance analysis of a maximum-likelihood speckle motion estimator," Opt. Express 10, 927-941 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  21. C. U. Devi, R. M. Vasu, and A. K. Sood, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of a tissue-equivalent phantom for optical elastography," J. Biomed. Opt,  10, 044020 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. K. Wang, and Z. Ma, "A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artifacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3239 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. K. Wang, and Z. Ma, "A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artifacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. U. Devi, R. M. Vasu, and A. K. Sood, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of a tissue-equivalent phantom for optical elastography," J. Biomed. Opt,  10, 044020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, "Low frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,1311-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Performance analysis of a maximum-likelihood speckle motion estimator," Opt. Express 10, 927-941 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, F. Kallel, R. Souchon, and J. Ophir, "Analysis of an adaptive strain estimation technique in elastography," Ultrason. Imaging 24,109-118 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. L. Cochlin, R. H. Ganatra, and D. F. Griffiths, "Elastography in the detection of prostatic cancer," Clin. Radiol. 57,1014-1020 (2002).

C. L. de Korte, and A. F. van der Steen, "Intravascular ultrasound elastography: An overview", Ultrasonics 40, 859-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lorenzen,  et al., "MR elastography of the breast: preliminary clinical results," Rofo. Fortsch.r Geb. Rontgenstr. Neuen Bildgeb. Verfahr,  174, 830-834 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. A. el-Gabry, E. J. Halpern, S. E. Strup, and L. G. Gomella, "Imaging prostate cancer: Current and future applications," Oncology 15, 325-336 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. A. Dresner,  et al., "Magnetic resonance elastography of skeletal muscle," J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13, 269-276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Duncan, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 418-426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. B. Plewes, J. Bishop, A. Samani, and J. Sciarretta, "Visualization and quantification of breast cancer biomechanical properties with magnetic resonance elastography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1591-1610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, "Elastic moduli of breast and prostate issues under compression," Ultrason Imaging 20, 260-274 (1998).

1997

B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
[PubMed]

1993

I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, H. Ponnekanti, and N. Maklad, "Elastography: Elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo," Ultrason. Imaging 15, 73-88 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

V. V. Kazkov, and B. N. Klochkov, "Low frequency mechanical properties of the soft tissue of the human arm," Biophysics 34,742-747 (1989).

1987

W. Strasser, H. Wokalek, W. Vanscheidt, and E. Schopf, "B-scan ultrasound in dermatology," Hautartz 38, 660-663 (1987).

1983

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, E. M. Buras, "The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo," J. Biomech. 16, 365-372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

B. Rukavina, and N. Mohar, "An approach of ultrasound diagnostic techniques of the skin and subcutaneous tissue," Dermatologica 158, 81-92 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anver, M. R.

F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, J.

D. B. Plewes, J. Bishop, A. Samani, and J. Sciarretta, "Visualization and quantification of breast cancer biomechanical properties with magnetic resonance elastography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1591-1610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buras, E. M.

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, E. M. Buras, "The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo," J. Biomech. 16, 365-372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cespedes, E. I.

B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
[PubMed]

Cespedes, I.

I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, H. Ponnekanti, and N. Maklad, "Elastography: Elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo," Ultrason. Imaging 15, 73-88 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrisman, D. A.

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, E. M. Buras, "The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo," J. Biomech. 16, 365-372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cochlin, D. L.

D. L. Cochlin, R. H. Ganatra, and D. F. Griffiths, "Elastography in the detection of prostatic cancer," Clin. Radiol. 57,1014-1020 (2002).

Dargatz, M.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Fabo, E. C.

F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Korte, C. L.

C. L. de Korte, and A. F. van der Steen, "Intravascular ultrasound elastography: An overview", Ultrasonics 40, 859-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devi, C. U.

C. U. Devi, R. M. Vasu, and A. K. Sood, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of a tissue-equivalent phantom for optical elastography," J. Biomed. Opt,  10, 044020 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dresner, M. A.

M. A. Dresner,  et al., "Magnetic resonance elastography of skeletal muscle," J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13, 269-276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, D. D.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, "Low frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,1311-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Performance analysis of a maximum-likelihood speckle motion estimator," Opt. Express 10, 927-941 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. D. Duncan, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 418-426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duray, P.

F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

el-Gabry, E. A.

E. A. el-Gabry, E. J. Halpern, S. E. Strup, and L. G. Gomella, "Imaging prostate cancer: Current and future applications," Oncology 15, 325-336 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ermet, H.

K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fang, L.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, "Low frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,1311-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fruger, M.

K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ganatra, R. H.

D. L. Cochlin, R. H. Ganatra, and D. F. Griffiths, "Elastography in the detection of prostatic cancer," Clin. Radiol. 57,1014-1020 (2002).

Garra, B. S.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, "Elastic moduli of breast and prostate issues under compression," Ultrason Imaging 20, 260-274 (1998).

B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
[PubMed]

Gomella, L. G.

E. A. el-Gabry, E. J. Halpern, S. E. Strup, and L. G. Gomella, "Imaging prostate cancer: Current and future applications," Oncology 15, 325-336 (2001).
[PubMed]

Griffiths, D. F.

D. L. Cochlin, R. H. Ganatra, and D. F. Griffiths, "Elastography in the detection of prostatic cancer," Clin. Radiol. 57,1014-1020 (2002).

Hall, T.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, "Elastic moduli of breast and prostate issues under compression," Ultrason Imaging 20, 260-274 (1998).

Halpern, E. J.

E. A. el-Gabry, E. J. Halpern, S. E. Strup, and L. G. Gomella, "Imaging prostate cancer: Current and future applications," Oncology 15, 325-336 (2001).
[PubMed]

Heuser, L.

K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hiltasky, K. M.

K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holz, D.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, A.

K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kallel, F

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, "Elastic moduli of breast and prostate issues under compression," Ultrason Imaging 20, 260-274 (1998).

Kallel, F.

S. Srinivasan, F. Kallel, R. Souchon, and J. Ophir, "Analysis of an adaptive strain estimation technique in elastography," Ultrason. Imaging 24,109-118 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kazkov, V. V.

V. V. Kazkov, and B. N. Klochkov, "Low frequency mechanical properties of the soft tissue of the human arm," Biophysics 34,742-747 (1989).

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, and L. Fang, "Low frequency surface wave propagation and the viscoelastic behavior of porcine skin," J. Biomed. Opt. 9,1311-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Performance analysis of a maximum-likelihood speckle motion estimator," Opt. Express 10, 927-941 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. D. Duncan, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, "Processing algorithms for tracking speckle shifts in optical elastography of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 418-426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klochkov, B. N.

V. V. Kazkov, and B. N. Klochkov, "Low frequency mechanical properties of the soft tissue of the human arm," Biophysics 34,742-747 (1989).

Krouskop, T. A.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, "Elastic moduli of breast and prostate issues under compression," Ultrason Imaging 20, 260-274 (1998).

Li, X.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzen, J.

J. Lorenzen,  et al., "MR elastography of the breast: preliminary clinical results," Rofo. Fortsch.r Geb. Rontgenstr. Neuen Bildgeb. Verfahr,  174, 830-834 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzen, M.

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, and Z. Ma, "A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artifacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnant, C. M.

B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
[PubMed]

Maklad, N.

I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, H. Ponnekanti, and N. Maklad, "Elastography: Elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo," Ultrason. Imaging 15, 73-88 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merlino, G.

F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohar, N.

B. Rukavina, and N. Mohar, "An approach of ultrasound diagnostic techniques of the skin and subcutaneous tissue," Dermatologica 158, 81-92 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noonan, F. P.

F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophir, J.

S. Srinivasan, F. Kallel, R. Souchon, and J. Ophir, "Analysis of an adaptive strain estimation technique in elastography," Ultrason. Imaging 24,109-118 (2002).
[PubMed]

B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
[PubMed]

I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, H. Ponnekanti, and N. Maklad, "Elastography: Elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo," Ultrason. Imaging 15, 73-88 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pennanen, M.

B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
[PubMed]

Plewes, D. B.

D. B. Plewes, J. Bishop, A. Samani, and J. Sciarretta, "Visualization and quantification of breast cancer biomechanical properties with magnetic resonance elastography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1591-1610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponnekanti, H.

I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, H. Ponnekanti, and N. Maklad, "Elastography: Elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo," Ultrason. Imaging 15, 73-88 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potts, R. O.

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, E. M. Buras, "The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo," J. Biomech. 16, 365-372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Recio, J. A.

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F. P. Noonan, J. A. Recio, H. Takayama, P. Duray, M. R. Anver, W. L. Rush, E. C. De Fabo, and G. Merlino, "Neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice," Nature 413, 271-272 (2001).
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R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
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D. B. Plewes, J. Bishop, A. Samani, and J. Sciarretta, "Visualization and quantification of breast cancer biomechanical properties with magnetic resonance elastography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1591-1610 (2000).
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R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
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C. U. Devi, R. M. Vasu, and A. K. Sood, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of a tissue-equivalent phantom for optical elastography," J. Biomed. Opt,  10, 044020 (2005).
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B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
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J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oncology

E. A. el-Gabry, E. J. Halpern, S. E. Strup, and L. G. Gomella, "Imaging prostate cancer: Current and future applications," Oncology 15, 325-336 (2001).
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Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

D. B. Plewes, J. Bishop, A. Samani, and J. Sciarretta, "Visualization and quantification of breast cancer biomechanical properties with magnetic resonance elastography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1591-1610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sinkus, J. Lorenzen, D. Schrader, M. Lorenzen, M. Dargatz, D. Holz, "High-resolution tensor MR elastography for breast tumor detection," Phys. Med. Biol. 45,1649-1664 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, and Z. Ma, "A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artifacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3231-3239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology

B. S. Garra, E. I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, S. R. Spratt, R. A. Zuurbier, C. M. Magnant, and M. Pennanen, "Elastography of breast lesions: Initial clinical results," Radiology 202,79-86 (1997).
[PubMed]

Rofo. Fortsch.r Geb. Rontgenstr. Neuen Bildgeb. Verfahr

J. Lorenzen,  et al., "MR elastography of the breast: preliminary clinical results," Rofo. Fortsch.r Geb. Rontgenstr. Neuen Bildgeb. Verfahr,  174, 830-834 (2002).
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Ultrason Imaging

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, "Elastic moduli of breast and prostate issues under compression," Ultrason Imaging 20, 260-274 (1998).

Ultrason. Imaging

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yadzi, and X. Li, "Elastography: A quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 111-134 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, F. Kallel, R. Souchon, and J. Ophir, "Analysis of an adaptive strain estimation technique in elastography," Ultrason. Imaging 24,109-118 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. Cespedes, J. Ophir, H. Ponnekanti, and N. Maklad, "Elastography: Elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo," Ultrason. Imaging 15, 73-88 (1993).
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Ultrasonics

C. L. de Korte, and A. F. van der Steen, "Intravascular ultrasound elastography: An overview", Ultrasonics 40, 859-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

K. M. Hiltasky, M. Fruger, C. Starke, L. Heuser, H. Ermet, and A. Jensen, "Freehand ultrasound elastography of breast lesions: clinical results," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1461-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Laboratory set-up for in vivo AOE imaging. The entire imaging system is controlled by a portable workstation. The speaker is held in place with medical wrapping tape.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Strain-encoded elastogram of the artificial lesion in the tissue phantom. The lesion appears as a region of higher strain response than the surrounding phantom material (red region in the center of the elastogram).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photograph of the mouse used in this study. The melanoma lesion of interest is circumscribed by the black rectangle. The arrow points to the location where the speaker was placed during the actual AOE imaging.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Elastograms of the murine melanoma lesion in the (a) x-, (b) y-, and (c) resultant-directions, respectively. The width of each elastogram is approximately 8 mm. The dark blue, low strain region in the center of each elastogram reveals the location of the melanoma lesion.

Figs. 6. (left) & 7 (right).
Figs. 6. (left) & 7 (right).

Spectral-domain OCT image (Fig. 6) and histopathology section (Fig. 7) showing the extent of the murine melanoma. The dark region indicated by the arrow is a portion of the lesion in Fig. 6. The top of the lesion is approximately 50 µm below the skin surface. The black-stained (H & E staining) regions in Fig. 7 are portions of the lesion.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(2.7 MB). 3-Dimensional spectral-OCT video sequence through the murine melanoma lesion. The dark regions reaching into the upper dermis are all portions of the melanoma lesion. [Media 1]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

White light photograph (a) and elastogram (b) of the JN. The JN clearly appears as a region of lower strain response than the surrounding skin (green region with yellow boarder), indicating that it is stiffer than the surrounding tissue. The box in Fig. 9(a) shows the region over which the speckle pattern was tracked and the elastogram was generated.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

White light photograph (a) and elastogram (b) of the CN. In this case the nevus presented as a region of higher strain response (deep red oval) than the surrounding tissue, indicating that it is less stiff than the surrounding tissue. The box in Fig. 10(a) shows the approximate region over which the speckle pattern was tracked and the elastogram was generated.

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