Abstract

Effects of GSM 900MHz signals (EMF) typical for a handheld mobile phone on the cerebral blood circulation were investigated using near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) in a three armed (12W/kg, 1.2W/kg, sham), double blind, randomized crossover trial in 16 healthy volunteers. During exposure we observed borderline significant short term responses of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration, which correspond to a decrease of cerebral blood flow and volume and were smaller than regular physiological changes. Due to the relatively high number of statistical tests, these responses may be spurious and require further studies. There was no detectable dose-response relation or long term response within 20min. The detection limit was a fraction of the regular physiological changes elicited by functional activation. Compared to previous studies using PET, NIRS provides a much higher time resolution, which allowed investigating the short term effects efficiently, noninvasively, without the use of radioactive tracers and with high sensitivity.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (1)

S. Aalto, C. Haarala, A. Bruck, H. Sipila, H. Hamalainen, and J. O. Rinne, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006).

2005 (4)

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Haensse, P. Szabo, D. Brown, J. C. Fauchere, P. Niederer, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, "New multichannel near infrared spectrophotometry system for functional studies of the brain in adults and neonates," Opt. Express 13, 4525-4538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (5)

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, J. R. Henty, and D. T. Delpy, "Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 510, 385-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible--imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi, "Functional near-infrared optical imaging: utility and limitations in human brain mapping," Psychophysiology 40, 511-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wobst, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Linear aspects of changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration and cytochrome oxidase oxidation during brain activation," Neuroimage 13, 520-530 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neurosci. Lett. 275, 207-210 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, "Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot," Exp. Brain. Res. 129, 457-461 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

M. Wolf, N. Brun, G. Greisen, M. Keel, K. von Siebenthal, and H. Bucher, "Optimising the methodology of calculating the cerebral blood flow of newborn infants from near infra-red spectrophotometry data," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 221-226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, E. Watanabe, and H. Koizumi, "Visualizing human motor activity by using non-invasive optical topography," Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 7, 285-297 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

C. D. Kurth, H. Liu, W. S. Thayer, and B. Chance, "A dynamic phantom brain model for near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2079-2092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalto, S.

S. Aalto, C. Haarala, A. Bruck, H. Sipila, H. Hamalainen, and J. O. Rinne, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006).

Achermann, P.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neurosci. Lett. 275, 207-210 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkadhi, H.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berthold, T.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borbely, A. A.

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neurosci. Lett. 275, 207-210 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandt, S. A.

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D.

Bruck, A.

S. Aalto, C. Haarala, A. Bruck, H. Sipila, H. Hamalainen, and J. O. Rinne, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006).

Brun, N.

M. Wolf, N. Brun, G. Greisen, M. Keel, K. von Siebenthal, and H. Bucher, "Optimising the methodology of calculating the cerebral blood flow of newborn infants from near infra-red spectrophotometry data," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 221-226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucher, H.

M. Wolf, N. Brun, G. Greisen, M. Keel, K. von Siebenthal, and H. Bucher, "Optimising the methodology of calculating the cerebral blood flow of newborn infants from near infra-red spectrophotometry data," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 221-226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucher, H. U.

D. Haensse, P. Szabo, D. Brown, J. C. Fauchere, P. Niederer, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, "New multichannel near infrared spectrophotometry system for functional studies of the brain in adults and neonates," Opt. Express 13, 4525-4538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, A.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

Chance, B.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Kurth, H. Liu, W. S. Thayer, and B. Chance, "A dynamic phantom brain model for near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2079-2092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clemence, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colier, W. N.

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, "Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot," Exp. Brain. Res. 129, 457-461 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cote, K. A.

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, J. R. Henty, and D. T. Delpy, "Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 510, 385-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

Dietsche, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietz, V.

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirnagl, U.

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Edwards, A. D.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

Einhaupl, K.

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbert, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, J. R. Henty, and D. T. Delpy, "Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 510, 385-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P.

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallon, P.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fauchere, J. C.

Ferrari, M.

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, "Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot," Exp. Brain. Res. 129, 457-461 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, B.

A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neurosci. Lett. 275, 207-210 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallmann, E.

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neurosci. Lett. 275, 207-210 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottselig, J. M.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, T.

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neurosci. Lett. 275, 207-210 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

Greisen, G.

M. Wolf, N. Brun, G. Greisen, M. Keel, K. von Siebenthal, and H. Bucher, "Optimising the methodology of calculating the cerebral blood flow of newborn infants from near infra-red spectrophotometry data," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 221-226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haarala, C.

S. Aalto, C. Haarala, A. Bruck, H. Sipila, H. Hamalainen, and J. O. Rinne, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006).

Haensse, D.

Hamalainen, H.

S. Aalto, C. Haarala, A. Bruck, H. Sipila, H. Hamalainen, and J. O. Rinne, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006).

Heekeren, H. H.

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henty, J. R.

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, J. R. Henty, and D. T. Delpy, "Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 510, 385-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hock, C.

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

Hoshi, Y.

Y. Hoshi, "Functional near-infrared optical imaging: utility and limitations in human brain mapping," Psychophysiology 40, 511-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Borbely, R. Huber, T. Graf, B. Fuchs, E. Gallmann, and P. Achermann, "Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram," Neurosci. Lett. 275, 207-210 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hueber, D.

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jutz, K.

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keel, M.

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, N. Brun, G. Greisen, M. Keel, K. von Siebenthal, and H. Bucher, "Optimising the methodology of calculating the cerebral blood flow of newborn infants from near infra-red spectrophotometry data," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 221-226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, E.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, M.

P. Wobst, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Linear aspects of changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration and cytochrome oxidase oxidation during brain activation," Neuroimage 13, 520-530 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koizumi, H.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, E. Watanabe, and H. Koizumi, "Visualizing human motor activity by using non-invasive optical topography," Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 7, 285-297 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kollias, S. S.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurth, C. D.

C. D. Kurth, H. Liu, W. S. Thayer, and B. Chance, "A dynamic phantom brain model for near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2079-2092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuster, N.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, K. K.

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Landolt, H. P.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, T. S.

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, J. R. Henty, and D. T. Delpy, "Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 510, 385-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

C. D. Kurth, H. Liu, W. S. Thayer, and B. Chance, "A dynamic phantom brain model for near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2079-2092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maki, A.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, E. Watanabe, and H. Koizumi, "Visualizing human motor activity by using non-invasive optical topography," Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 7, 285-297 (1996).
[PubMed]

Maret, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matter, D.

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meek, J. H.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalos, A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minoshima, S.

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

Moller, M.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadler, A.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neufang, M.

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederer, P.

D. Haensse, P. Szabo, D. Brown, J. C. Fauchere, P. Niederer, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, "New multichannel near infrared spectrophotometry system for functional studies of the brain in adults and neonates," Opt. Express 13, 4525-4538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible--imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wobst, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Linear aspects of changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration and cytochrome oxidase oxidation during brain activation," Neuroimage 13, 520-530 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

Oeseburg, B.

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, "Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot," Exp. Brain. Res. 129, 457-461 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L. A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quaresima, V.

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, "Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot," Exp. Brain. Res. 129, 457-461 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, E. O.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, C.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

Rinne, J. O.

S. Aalto, C. Haarala, A. Bruck, H. Sipila, H. Hamalainen, and J. O. Rinne, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006).

Rinneberg, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstroh, B.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuderer, J.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwaiger, M.

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

Sipila, H.

S. Aalto, C. Haarala, A. Bruck, H. Sipila, H. Hamalainen, and J. O. Rinne, "Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006).

Skipetrov, S. E.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strebel, R.

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szabo, P.

Thayer, W. S.

C. D. Kurth, H. Liu, W. S. Thayer, and B. Chance, "A dynamic phantom brain model for near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2079-2092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treyer, V.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyszczuk, L.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 889-894 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

Villringer, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible--imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wobst, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Linear aspects of changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration and cytochrome oxidase oxidation during brain activation," Neuroimage 13, 520-530 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, K.

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

von Siebenthal, K.

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, N. Brun, G. Greisen, M. Keel, K. von Siebenthal, and H. Bucher, "Optimising the methodology of calculating the cerebral blood flow of newborn infants from near infra-red spectrophotometry data," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 221-226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Watanabe, E.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, E. Watanabe, and H. Koizumi, "Visualizing human motor activity by using non-invasive optical topography," Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 7, 285-297 (1996).
[PubMed]

Webb, A.

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, R.

P. Wobst, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Linear aspects of changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration and cytochrome oxidase oxidation during brain activation," Neuroimage 13, 520-530 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Obrig, M. Neufang, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, K. Einhaupl, and A. Villringer, "Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults," Neuroimage 12, 623-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werth, E.

R. Huber, V. Treyer, A. A. Borbely, J. Schuderer, J. M. Gottselig, H. P. Landolt, E. Werth, T. Berthold, N. Kuster, A. Buck, and P. Achermann, "Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG," J. Sleep. Res. 11, 289-295 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, L.

R. Huber, T. Graf, K. A. Cote, L. Wittmann, E. Gallmann, D. Matter, J. Schuderer, N. Kuster, A. A. Borbely, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG," Neuroreport 11, 3321-3325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wobst, P.

P. Wobst, R. Wenzel, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Linear aspects of changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration and cytochrome oxidase oxidation during brain activation," Neuroimage 13, 520-530 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wenzel, P. Wobst, H. H. Heekeren, K. K. Kwong, S. A. Brandt, M. Kohl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Saccadic suppression induces focal hypooxygenation in the occipital cortex," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 1103-1110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

D. Haensse, P. Szabo, D. Brown, J. C. Fauchere, P. Niederer, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, "New multichannel near infrared spectrophotometry system for functional studies of the brain in adults and neonates," Opt. Express 13, 4525-4538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton, and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, N. Brun, G. Greisen, M. Keel, K. von Siebenthal, and H. Bucher, "Optimising the methodology of calculating the cerebral blood flow of newborn infants from near infra-red spectrophotometry data," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 221-226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, "Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Neuroimage 16, 704-712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. van der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. Reynolds, "Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884-1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, E. Watanabe, and H. Koizumi, "Visualizing human motor activity by using non-invasive optical topography," Front. Med. Biol. Eng. 7, 285-297 (1996).
[PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

Yonekawa, Y.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

Zhou, C.

Ziegler, S.

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (3)

K. Villringer, S. Minoshima, C. Hock, H. Obrig, S. Ziegler, U. Dirnagl, M. Schwaiger, and A. Villringer, "Assessment of local brain activation. A simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy study," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 149-153 (1997).
[PubMed]

T. S. Leung, C. E. Elwell, J. R. Henty, and D. T. Delpy, "Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 510, 385-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, P. Evans, H. U. Bucher, V. Dietz, M. Keel, R. Strebel, and K. von Siebenthal, "Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 219-227 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bioelectromagnetics (1)

R. Huber, J. Schuderer, T. Graf, K. Jutz, A. A. Borbely, N. Kuster, and P. Achermann, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate," Bioelectromagnetics 24, 262-276 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Neurosci. (1)

R. Huber, V. Treyer, J. Schuderer, T. Berthold, A. Buck, N. Kuster, H. P. Landolt, and P. Achermann, "Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow," Eur. J. Neurosci. 21, 1000-1006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Brain. Res. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The configuration of the sensor. Purple quadrangles indicate source positions with LEDs and blue squares indicate PIN photodiode detectors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the experimental set-up. The sensors were placed above area B (MNI coordinates: x=-56, y=10, z=20) on the left hemisphere and the respective position on the other hemisphere

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The short term changes in deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) concentration during three types of exposure: 12W/kg, 1.2W/kg and sham. Data were obtained from the left side of the head, which was towards the antenna. The symbols indicate the mean and the whiskers the 95% confidence interval (CI 95%). The results are displayed separately for the three different interoptode distances of 1.25cm (left), 2.5cm (middle) and 3.75cm (right). The depth of the interrogated tissue depends on the interoptode distance, i.e. the short distance of 1.25 mostly detects changes in the superficial layer of the head (skin and skull), while the longest distance also contains information about the brain. The data are displayed for the different periods of measurement: the 20s of exposure (Exp), the first 20s after exposure (Post1) and the second 20s after exposure (Post2). At 1.25cm the difference between HHb during exposure with 12W/kg and 1.2W/kg is statistically significant (p=0.011, Wilcoxon). Furthermore, the CI 95% between sham and 1.2W/kg was significantly different at 2.5cm distance for the Exp (p=0.001) and Post1 (p=0.015) periods. Otherwise there were no significant differences between the three types of exposure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The short term changes in oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) concentration during three types of exposure: 12W/kg, 1.2W/kg and sham. Data were obtained from the left side of the head, which was towards the antenna. This figure is analogous to Fig. 3. At 2.5cm the difference between O2Hb during exposure with 12W/kg and sham is statistically significant (p=0.016, Wilcoxon). Otherwise there were no significant differences between the three types of exposure.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The short term changes in deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) concentration during three types of exposure: 12W/kg, 1.2W/kg and sham. Data were obtained from the right side of the head, which was on the opposite side of the antenna. This figure is analogous to Fig. 3. The CI 95% between sham and 12W/kg was significantly different at 3.75cm distance for the Post1 (p=0.011) period. There were no other significant differences between the three types of exposure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The short term changes in oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) concentration during three types of exposure: 12W/kg, 1.2W/kg and sham. Data were obtained from the right side of the head, which was on the opposite side of the antenna. This figure is analogous to Fig. 3. At 2.5cm the difference between O2Hb during exposure with 12W/kg and 1.2W/kg is statistically significant (p=0.009, Wilcoxon) and analysis of variance showed a significant difference between the three types of exposure during this period (p=0.009). Otherwise there were no significant differences between the three types of exposure.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The long term changes over 20min in oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) concentration during three types of exposure: 12W/kg, 1.2W/kg and sham. The results are displayed separately for the three different interoptode distances of 1.25cm (left), 2.5cm (middle) and 3.75cm (right). The data from the left side was close to the antenna while the right side was further away form the antenna. The whiskers correspond to the CI 95%. There were no significant differences between the three exposure types.

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