Abstract

Tm3+ -doped acid-resistant aluminum germanate (NMAG) glasses and a K+Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguide have been fabricated and characterized. Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters indicate a high asymmetry and strong covalent environment in NMAG glasses. A remarkable internal gain coefficient of 0.48dBcm at 1.482μm wavelength was achieved in the 3.15cm long channel waveguide. Based on absorption and emission cross-sections, the ideal internal gain coefficient at 1.675μm and 1.815μm is given to be 0.5dBcm and 2.0dBcm, respectively, as the population inversion equals 1.0. Experimental results and theoretical anticipation indicate that Tm3+ -doped NMAG glasses are potential and attractive substrates in developing S- and U-band waveguide amplifiers and an eye-safe medical laser.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

A. Kermaoui and F. Pelle, “Synthesis and infrared spectroscopic properties of Tm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 469, 601–608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Yang, E. Y. B. Pun, B. J. Chen, and H. Lin, “Radiative transitions and optical gains in Er3+∕Yb3+ codoped acid-resistant ion exchanged germanate glass channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 357–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jiang and L. Jin, “Numerical model of an Er3+–Tm3+–Pr3+-codoped fiber amplifier pumped with an 800 nm laser diode,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2220–2227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, and K. P. Lor, “Refractive-index profiling of buried planar waveguides by an inverse Wentzel–Kramer–Brillouin Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1367–1373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, A. Festa, G. Sorbello, K. Ennser, C. Cassagnetes, D. Barbier, and S. Taccheo, “Single-mode and high power waveguide lasers fabricated by ion-exchange,” Opt. Express 16, 12334–12341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Simpson, W. E. K Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+∕Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 16, 13781–13799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 μm,” Opt. Express 16, 19146–19151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, B. C. Wu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical absorption and spectroscopic characteristics of Tm3+ ions doped NaY(MoO4)2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 458, 462–466 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. F. H. Librantz, L. Gomes, G. Pairier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm and Tm–Tb-doped germanate glasses for S-band amplifiers,” J. Lumin. 128, 51–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, M. N. Cizmeciyan, A. Sennaroglu, and Gonul Ozen, “Spectroscopic investigation of Tm3+:TeO2–WO3 glass,” J. Lumin. 128, 1501–1506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. V. Sudhakar, T. Satyanarayana, L. Srinivasa Rao, M. S. Reddy, and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and self activated upconversion fluorescence spectra of Tm3+ ions in antimony borate glass systems,” Solid State Commun. 146, 441–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (8)

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Han, “Experimental realization of silica-glass Tm-doped fiber amplifier with 11.3-dB gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1478–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+∕Ho3+∕Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kozak, D. Goebel, R. Caspary, and W. Kowalsky, “Systematic investigation of the avalanche effect in highly thulium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 55–59 (2007).

J. H. Song, Y. G. Choi, K. Kadono, K. Fukumi, H. Kageyama, and J. Heo, “Emission properties and local structure of Tm3+ in Ge–Ga–S–Br glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1676–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, Q. Tang, L. F. Liang, J. Wang, H. B. Liang, and Q. Su, “Optical transitions and up-conversion emission of Tm3+-singly doped and Tm3+∕Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 436, 272–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, S. Garcia-Revilla, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and concentration quenching of the infrared emissions in Tm3+-doped TeO2–TiO2–Nb2O5 glass,” Opt. Express 15, 6750–6761 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Tikhomirov, K. Driesen, C. Gorller-Walrand, and M. Mortier, “Broadband telecommunication wavelength emission in Yb3+–Er3+–Tm3+ co-doped nano-glass-ceramics,” Opt. Express 15, 9535–9540 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Androz, D. Faucher, D. Gingras, and R. Vallee, “Self-pulsing dynamics of a dual-wavelength Tm3+:ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser emitting around 800 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2907–2913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. B. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344–5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Y. Hou, D. L. Yang, T. C. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+∕Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 65, 702–707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Balda, L. M. Lacha, J. Fernandez, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Optical spectroscopy of Tm3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Nb2O5 glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 27, 1771–1775 (2005).

2004 (5)

B. G. Aitken, M. J. Dejneka, and M. L. Powley, “Tm-doped alkaline earth aluminate glass for optical amplification at 1460 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 115–119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Man, S. F. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, “1.47-μm emission and multiphonon relaxation of Tm3+ ions in potassium bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 313–317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Floridia, M. T. Carvalho, S. R. Luthi, and A. S. L. Gomes, “Modeling the distributed gain of single- (1050 or 1410 nm) and dual-wavelength- (800+1050 nm or 800+1410 nm) pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1983–1985 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24, 563–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. S. S de Camargo, S. L. de Oliveira, D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+ ions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 9495–9505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, and H. Buerger, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112–117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136, A954–A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24, 563–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aitken, B. G.

B. G. Aitken, M. J. Dejneka, and M. L. Powley, “Tm-doped alkaline earth aluminate glass for optical amplification at 1460 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 115–119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

An, Q. D.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Y. Hou, D. L. Yang, T. C. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+∕Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 65, 702–707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Androz, G.

Balda, R.

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, S. Garcia-Revilla, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and concentration quenching of the infrared emissions in Tm3+-doped TeO2–TiO2–Nb2O5 glass,” Opt. Express 15, 6750–6761 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balda, L. M. Lacha, J. Fernandez, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Optical spectroscopy of Tm3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Nb2O5 glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 27, 1771–1775 (2005).

Barbier, D.

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. B. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344–5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

Blanc, W.

Brown, C. T. A.

Bueno, L. A.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+∕Ho3+∕Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buerger, H.

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, and H. Buerger, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112–117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cankaya, H.

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, M. N. Cizmeciyan, A. Sennaroglu, and Gonul Ozen, “Spectroscopic investigation of Tm3+:TeO2–WO3 glass,” J. Lumin. 128, 1501–1506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caponi, R.

E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. T.

Caspary, R.

M. M. Kozak, D. Goebel, R. Caspary, and W. Kowalsky, “Systematic investigation of the avalanche effect in highly thulium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 55–59 (2007).

Cassagnetes, C.

Chen, B. J.

Chen, D. P.

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. R.

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Choi, Y. G.

J. H. Song, Y. G. Choi, K. Kadono, K. Fukumi, H. Kageyama, and J. Heo, “Emission properties and local structure of Tm3+ in Ge–Ga–S–Br glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1676–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, M. N. Cizmeciyan, A. Sennaroglu, and Gonul Ozen, “Spectroscopic investigation of Tm3+:TeO2–WO3 glass,” J. Lumin. 128, 1501–1506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. F.

da Costa, E. B.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+∕Ho3+∕Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. A.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+∕Ho3+∕Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Oliveira, S. L.

A. S. S de Camargo, S. L. de Oliveira, D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+ ions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 9495–9505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Sousa, D. F.

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M. M. Kozak, D. Goebel, R. Caspary, and W. Kowalsky, “Systematic investigation of the avalanche effect in highly thulium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 55–59 (2007).

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R. Balda, L. M. Lacha, J. Fernandez, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Optical spectroscopy of Tm3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Nb2O5 glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 27, 1771–1775 (2005).

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X. Lu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, B. C. Wu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical absorption and spectroscopic characteristics of Tm3+ ions doped NaY(MoO4)2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 458, 462–466 (2008).
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Ma, T. C.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Y. Hou, D. L. Yang, T. C. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+∕Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 65, 702–707 (2006).
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A. F. H. Librantz, L. Gomes, G. Pairier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm and Tm–Tb-doped germanate glasses for S-band amplifiers,” J. Lumin. 128, 51–59 (2008).
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Monnom, G.

Montagne, J.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24, 563–574 (2003).
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E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
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M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
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A. S. S de Camargo, S. L. de Oliveira, D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+ ions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 9495–9505 (2002).
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M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
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M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
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E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
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A. F. H. Librantz, L. Gomes, G. Pairier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm and Tm–Tb-doped germanate glasses for S-band amplifiers,” J. Lumin. 128, 51–59 (2008).
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A. Kermaoui and F. Pelle, “Synthesis and infrared spectroscopic properties of Tm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 469, 601–608 (2009).
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Potenza, M.

E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
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B. G. Aitken, M. J. Dejneka, and M. L. Powley, “Tm-doped alkaline earth aluminate glass for optical amplification at 1460 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 115–119 (2004).
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B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. B. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344–5352 (2006).
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A. F. H. Librantz, L. Gomes, G. Pairier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm and Tm–Tb-doped germanate glasses for S-band amplifiers,” J. Lumin. 128, 51–59 (2008).
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E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, and H. Buerger, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112–117 (2002).
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J. H. Song, Y. G. Choi, K. Kadono, K. Fukumi, H. Kageyama, and J. Heo, “Emission properties and local structure of Tm3+ in Ge–Ga–S–Br glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1676–1680 (2007).
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Sordo, B.

E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
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K. S. V. Sudhakar, T. Satyanarayana, L. Srinivasa Rao, M. S. Reddy, and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and self activated upconversion fluorescence spectra of Tm3+ ions in antimony borate glass systems,” Solid State Commun. 146, 441–445 (2008).
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L. Feng, Q. Tang, L. F. Liang, J. Wang, H. B. Liang, and Q. Su, “Optical transitions and up-conversion emission of Tm3+-singly doped and Tm3+∕Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 436, 272–277 (2007).
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K. S. V. Sudhakar, T. Satyanarayana, L. Srinivasa Rao, M. S. Reddy, and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and self activated upconversion fluorescence spectra of Tm3+ ions in antimony borate glass systems,” Solid State Commun. 146, 441–445 (2008).
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Tanabe, S.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Y. Hou, D. L. Yang, T. C. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+∕Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 65, 702–707 (2006).
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L. Feng, Q. Tang, L. F. Liang, J. Wang, H. B. Liang, and Q. Su, “Optical transitions and up-conversion emission of Tm3+-singly doped and Tm3+∕Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 436, 272–277 (2007).
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E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, and H. Buerger, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112–117 (2002).
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E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
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Tu, C. Y.

X. Lu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, B. C. Wu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical absorption and spectroscopic characteristics of Tm3+ ions doped NaY(MoO4)2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 458, 462–466 (2008).
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Veeraiah, N.

K. S. V. Sudhakar, T. Satyanarayana, L. Srinivasa Rao, M. S. Reddy, and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and self activated upconversion fluorescence spectra of Tm3+ ions in antimony borate glass systems,” Solid State Commun. 146, 441–445 (2008).
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Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. B. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344–5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

L. Feng, Q. Tang, L. F. Liang, J. Wang, H. B. Liang, and Q. Su, “Optical transitions and up-conversion emission of Tm3+-singly doped and Tm3+∕Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 436, 272–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watekar, P. R.

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Han, “Experimental realization of silica-glass Tm-doped fiber amplifier with 11.3-dB gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1478–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. F.

Wu, B. C.

X. Lu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, B. C. Wu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical absorption and spectroscopic characteristics of Tm3+ ions doped NaY(MoO4)2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 458, 462–466 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. S.

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. L.

D. L. Yang, E. Y. B. Pun, B. J. Chen, and H. Lin, “Radiative transitions and optical gains in Er3+∕Yb3+ codoped acid-resistant ion exchanged germanate glass channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 357–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Y. Hou, D. L. Yang, T. C. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+∕Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 65, 702–707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

You, Z. Y.

X. Lu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, B. C. Wu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical absorption and spectroscopic characteristics of Tm3+ ions doped NaY(MoO4)2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 458, 462–466 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. Y.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Y. Hou, D. L. Yang, T. C. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+∕Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 65, 702–707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. D.

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. J.

X. Lu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, B. C. Wu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical absorption and spectroscopic characteristics of Tm3+ ions doped NaY(MoO4)2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 458, 462–466 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

M. M. Kozak, D. Goebel, R. Caspary, and W. Kowalsky, “Systematic investigation of the avalanche effect in highly thulium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 86, 55–59 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, “White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+∕Ho3+∕Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germanate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Han, “Experimental realization of silica-glass Tm-doped fiber amplifier with 11.3-dB gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1478–1480 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. R. M. Taylor, L. N. Ng, J. Nilsson, R. Caponi, A. Pagano, M. Potenza, and B. Sordo, “Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 777–779 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (3)

A. Kermaoui and F. Pelle, “Synthesis and infrared spectroscopic properties of Tm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 469, 601–608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, Q. Tang, L. F. Liang, J. Wang, H. B. Liang, and Q. Su, “Optical transitions and up-conversion emission of Tm3+-singly doped and Tm3+∕Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 436, 272–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, B. C. Wu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical absorption and spectroscopic characteristics of Tm3+ ions doped NaY(MoO4)2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 458, 462–466 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, and H. Buerger, “Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112–117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (3)

A. F. H. Librantz, L. Gomes, G. Pairier, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm and Tm–Tb-doped germanate glasses for S-band amplifiers,” J. Lumin. 128, 51–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, M. N. Cizmeciyan, A. Sennaroglu, and Gonul Ozen, “Spectroscopic investigation of Tm3+:TeO2–WO3 glass,” J. Lumin. 128, 1501–1506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

J. H. Song, Y. G. Choi, K. Kadono, K. Fukumi, H. Kageyama, and J. Heo, “Emission properties and local structure of Tm3+ in Ge–Ga–S–Br glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1676–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Aitken, M. J. Dejneka, and M. L. Powley, “Tm-doped alkaline earth aluminate glass for optical amplification at 1460 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 115–119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. B. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344–5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y. S. Xu, D. P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. D. Zeng, C. Shen, J. Adam, X. H. Zhang, and G. R. Chen, “Bright red upconversion luminescence of thulium ion-doped GeS2–In2S3–CsI glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9911–9915 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

A. S. S de Camargo, S. L. de Oliveira, D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Tm3+ ions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 9495–9505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24, 563–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) (1)

R. Balda, L. M. Lacha, J. Fernandez, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Optical spectroscopy of Tm3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Nb2O5 glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 27, 1771–1775 (2005).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136, A954–A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. S. V. Sudhakar, T. Satyanarayana, L. Srinivasa Rao, M. S. Reddy, and N. Veeraiah, “Optical absorption and self activated upconversion fluorescence spectra of Tm3+ ions in antimony borate glass systems,” Solid State Commun. 146, 441–445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part A (1)

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Y. Hou, D. L. Yang, T. C. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+∕Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 65, 702–707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of 1 wt. % Tm 2 O 3 -doped NMAG glasses. Inset: 1.479 and 1.793 μ m infrared emissions of 1 wt. % Tm 2 O 3 -doped NMAG glasses under 793 nm laser excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption and emission cross-section profiles of Tm 3 + in NMAG glasses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Index profile at 632.8 nm for slab waveguide by ion-exchanged at 390 ° C for 4  h . Upper inset: intensity of reflected light versus index value with 1536 nm laser source. Lower inset: intensity of reflected light versus index value with 632.8 nm laser source. (b) Picture of 3.15 cm long K + Na + ion-exchanged NMAG channel waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical gain (◼), relative gain (●) and internal gain (▲) versus input pump power at 1482 nm signal wavelength. (b) Optical gain (◼), relative gain (●) and internal gain (▲) versus signal wavelength under the excitation of 110 mW , 793 nm laser pumping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated gain spectra of the F 4 3 H 6 3 transition for various values of population inversion ( L = 1.0 cm ) .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Oscillator Strengths of Tm 3 + in NMAG Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Judd–Ofelt Intensity Parameters ( × 10 20 cm 2 ) of Tm 3 + in NMAG and Other Various Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Predicted Spontaneous Emission Probabilities, Branching Ratios, and Radiative Lifetimes of Tm 3 + in NMAG Glasses

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ rms = [ ( P exp P calc ) 2 ( N tran N para ) ] 1 2 ,
σ a = 2.303 E ( λ ) N 0 d ,
σ e = A i j λ 5 I ( λ ) [ 8 π c n 2 λ I ( λ ) d ( λ ) ] ,
G O = 10 log 10 [ P Sig ( PumpOn ) P Sig ( PumpOff ) ] ,
G R = 10 log 10 [ ( P Sig ( PumpOn ) P ASE ) P Sig ( PumpOff ) ] ,
G INT = G R α P ,
G NET = G INT 2 α coup ,
G INT ( λ , p ) = 10 log 10 exp [ N ( p σ e ( λ ) ( 1 p ) σ a ( λ ) ) L ] α P ,

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