Abstract

We demonstrate an electric-field-induced second-harmonic microscope that measures both amplitude and phase of imaged second-harmonic light with submicrometer spatial resolution, thus characterizing the electrostatic field variations near metal-semiconductor junctions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, 1994), p. 534.
  2. G. Lüpke, "Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation," Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75-161 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the vector character of electric fields by optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1059-1061 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Jiang, L. Sun, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic spectroscopy of two-dimensional Si nanocrystal layers embedded in SiO2 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3034-3036 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, "Detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by use of optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 23, 67-69 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Wu, J. D. Canterbury, P. T. Wilson, and M. C. Downer, "Electric-field-induced second-harmonic microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 3081-3085 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, F. Bresson, M.-C. Tien, J.-W. Shi, and C.-K. Sun, "Three-dimensional electric field visualization utilizing electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 1338-1340 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation as a probe of electric fields," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 68, 333-341 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Yazdanfar, L. H. Laiho, and P. T. C. So, "Interferometric second-harmonic microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 2739-2745 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, R. Carriles, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic amplitude and phase spectroscopy by use of broad-bandwidth femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2548-3561 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Uesu and N. Kato, "Multi-purpose nonlinear optical microscope: its principles and applications to polar thin-film observation," Phys. Solid State 41, 688-692 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. R. Yankelevich, P. Pretre, A. Knoesen, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. J. Twieg, "Molecular engineering of polymer films for amplitude and phase measurements of Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 1487-1489 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

Y. Jiang, L. Sun, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic spectroscopy of two-dimensional Si nanocrystal layers embedded in SiO2 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3034-3036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the vector character of electric fields by optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1059-1061 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation as a probe of electric fields," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 68, 333-341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Lüpke, "Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation," Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75-161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uesu and N. Kato, "Multi-purpose nonlinear optical microscope: its principles and applications to polar thin-film observation," Phys. Solid State 41, 688-692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, "Detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by use of optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 23, 67-69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Yankelevich, P. Pretre, A. Knoesen, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. J. Twieg, "Molecular engineering of polymer films for amplitude and phase measurements of Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 1487-1489 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alberts, B.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, 1994), p. 534.

Anderson, M. H.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bray, D.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, 1994), p. 534.

Bresson, F.

Canterbury, J. D.

K. Wu, J. D. Canterbury, P. T. Wilson, and M. C. Downer, "Electric-field-induced second-harmonic microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 3081-3085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carriles, R.

Chen, I.-H.

Chu, S.-W.

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, F. Bresson, M.-C. Tien, J.-W. Shi, and C.-K. Sun, "Three-dimensional electric field visualization utilizing electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 1338-1340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the vector character of electric fields by optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1059-1061 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation as a probe of electric fields," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 68, 333-341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, A. P.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

K. Wu, J. D. Canterbury, P. T. Wilson, and M. C. Downer, "Electric-field-induced second-harmonic microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 3081-3085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, R. Carriles, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic amplitude and phase spectroscopy by use of broad-bandwidth femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2548-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, L. Sun, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic spectroscopy of two-dimensional Si nanocrystal layers embedded in SiO2 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3034-3036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, A. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

Hu, X. F.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, R. Carriles, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic amplitude and phase spectroscopy by use of broad-bandwidth femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2548-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, L. Sun, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic spectroscopy of two-dimensional Si nanocrystal layers embedded in SiO2 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3034-3036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kato, N.

Y. Uesu and N. Kato, "Multi-purpose nonlinear optical microscope: its principles and applications to polar thin-film observation," Phys. Solid State 41, 688-692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knoesen, A.

Kurz, H.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laiho, L. H.

Lewis, J.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, 1994), p. 534.

Löffler, T.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lowell, J. K.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lüpke, G.

G. Lüpke, "Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation," Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75-161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, A. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, C.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Misewich, J. A.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the vector character of electric fields by optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1059-1061 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation as a probe of electric fields," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 68, 333-341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, E. D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nahata, A.

Ohlhoff, C.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petukhov, A. V.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pretre, P.

Raff, M.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, 1994), p. 534.

Rasing, Th.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, K.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, 1994), p. 534.

Roskos, H. G.

C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, T. Löffler, T. Pfeifer, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, "Optical second-harmonic probe for silicon millimeter-wave circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1699-1701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubtsov, A. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the vector character of electric fields by optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1059-1061 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation as a probe of electric fields," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 68, 333-341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.-W.

So, P. T. C.

Sun, C.-K.

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, F. Bresson, M.-C. Tien, J.-W. Shi, and C.-K. Sun, "Three-dimensional electric field visualization utilizing electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 1338-1340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

Y. Jiang, L. Sun, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic spectroscopy of two-dimensional Si nanocrystal layers embedded in SiO2 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3034-3036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taft, G.

Tai, S.-P.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

ter Beek, M.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M.-C.

Twieg, R. J.

Uesu, Y.

Y. Uesu and N. Kato, "Multi-purpose nonlinear optical microscope: its principles and applications to polar thin-film observation," Phys. Solid State 41, 688-692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, K. J.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. D.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, 1994), p. 534.

Weling, A. S.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the vector character of electric fields by optical second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1059-1061 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation as a probe of electric fields," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 68, 333-341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, P. T.

K. Wu, J. D. Canterbury, P. T. Wilson, and M. C. Downer, "Electric-field-induced second-harmonic microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 3081-3085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, R. Carriles, and M. C. Downer, "Second-harmonic amplitude and phase spectroscopy by use of broad-bandwidth femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2548-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, E. D. Mishina, A. N. Rubtsov, M. H. Anderson, P. T. Wilson, M. ter Beek, X. F. Hu, J. I. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, "dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8924-8938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

K. Wu, J. D. Canterbury, P. T. Wilson, and M. C. Downer, "Electric-field-induced second-harmonic microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 3081-3085 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yankelevich, D. R.

Yazdanfar, S.

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

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C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331-2333 (2000).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607-R7609 (1996).
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Phys. Solid State (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for phase-sensitive EFISH microscopy. The laser beam is focused onto the sample, and through the reference nonlinear film for phase measurements, at f 25 . The SHG signal is collected by a microscope objective and imaged on the entrance slit of an spectrometer for phase measurements (CCD 2), or directly on the CCD camera for intensity measurements (CCD 1). Images at top show intensity (but not phase) of SH light reflected from the sample biased at + 8 V (left) or 4 V (right). The lines labeled X1–X3 show portions of the image selected by the spectrometer slit for phase-sensitive FDISH measurements taken with CCD 2. The sample configuration is shown in the lower left corner of the figure. The thinner electrode is 5 μ m across, and the wider one 20 μ m across.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency-domain interference fringes at + 8 V bias from portion of image selected by spectrometer slit positions X1 (left), X2 (middle), and X3 (right) shown in Fig. 1. Note shift of fringes between upper and lower electrodes in position X3. Arrows (a)–(f) on right panel indicate locations of lineouts shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line-outs of FDI fringes at six selected vertical positions for + 8 V (thin curve) and 8 V (thick curve) bias, showing both spatial and bias-dependent phase shifts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bias dependence of E FD .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial dependence of E FD , E FI , ϕ FD , and ϕ FI for ± 8 V bias, at sampling positions (X2) and (X3), extracted from fits to interferograms in Fig. 3.

Equations (4)

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I 2 ω E FI e i ϕ FI + E FD e i ϕ FD 2 = E FI 2 + 2 E FI E FD cos ( ϕ FD ϕ FI ) + E FD 2 ,
I 2 ω E R + E FI e i ( ϕ FI + 2 ω τ ) + E FD e i ( ϕ FD + 2 ω τ ) 2 = E R 2 + 2 E R E FI cos ( ϕ FI + 2 ω τ ) + E FI 2 + 2 E R E FD cos ( ϕ FD + 2 ω τ ) + 2 E FI E FD cos ( ϕ FD ϕ FI ) + E FD 2 ,
E FD p ( E z 0 ) = F 2 ω p { [ χ x z x z ( 3 ) E z ω E x ω + χ x x z z ( 3 ) E x ω E z ω ] cos θ T ω + [ χ z z z z ( 3 ) ( E z ω ) 2 + χ z x x z ( 3 ) ( E x ω ) 2 ] sin θ T ω } E z 0 ,
E FD p ( E x 0 ) = F 2 ω p { [ χ x x x x ( 3 ) ( E x ω ) 2 + χ x z z x ( 3 ) ( E z ω ) 2 ] cos θ T ω + [ χ z x z x ( 3 ) E x ω E z ω + χ z z x x ( 3 ) E z ω E x ω ] sin θ T ω } E x 0 ,

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