Abstract

We demonstrate that a negative-permittivity material (silicon carbide) sandwiched between two layers of positive-permittivity material (silicon oxide) can be used for enhancement of the resolution of near-field imaging via the superlensing effect. The resulting three-layer metamaterial is also shown to exhibit an enhanced transmission when its effective dielectric permittivity matches that of the vacuum. Experimental far-field diagnostics of the superlensing based on measuring transmission coefficients through the metal-coated superlens is implemented using Fourier-transformed infrared microscopy. Superlensing is shown to be a highly resonant phenomenon manifested in a narrow frequency range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  19. F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).
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  35. J R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Interreflection errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy: a preliminary appraisal," Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 369-378 (1999).
  36. E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
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2005 (5)

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Electromagnetic wave tunneling through negative permittivity media with high magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, "Far-field detection of the superlensing effect in mid-infrared: theory and experiment," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2351-2364 (2005).

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, "Near-sighted superlens," Opt. Lett. 30, 75-77 (2005).

2004 (4)

R. Merlin, "Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1290-1292 (2004).

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Polariton-enhanced near field lithography and imaging with infrared light," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 820, R1.2.1 (2004).

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Engineering the electromagnetic properties of periodic nanostructures using electrostatic resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, "Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4403-4405 (2004).

2003 (7)

G. Shvets, "Photonic approach to making a material with a negative index of refraction," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735-745 (2003).

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

G. Shvets, "Applications of surface plasmon and phonon polaritons to developing left-handed materials and nanolithography," Proc. SPIE 5221, 124-132 (2003).

2002 (3)

J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, "Near-field imaging with negative dielectric constant lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3286-3288 (2002).

S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen, L. Ley, C. A. Zorman, and M. Mehregany, "Quantitative evaluation of biaxial strain in epitaxial 3C-SiC layers on Si(100) substrates by Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1113-1117 (2002).

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

2001 (2)

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, "Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 359, 635-644 (2001).

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).

2000 (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).

1999 (3)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).

J R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Interreflection errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy: a preliminary appraisal," Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 369-378 (1999).

R. S. Benninnk, Y.-K. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, and J. E. Sipe, "Accessing the optical nonlinearity of metals with metal-dielectric photonic bandgap structures," Opt. Lett. 24, 1416-1418 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. J. Bloemer and M. Scalora, "Transmissive properties of Ag-MgF2 photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1676-1678 (1998).

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).

1995 (2)

A. J. Ward, J. B. Pendry, and W. J. Stewart, "Photonic dispersion surfaces," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2217-2224 (1995).

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

1991 (1)

X. Tang, K. G. Irvine, D. Zhang, and M. G. Spencer, "Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1938-1940 (1991).

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, "Local field effects and effective medium theory: a microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).

1968 (1)

1959 (1)

W. G. Spitzer, D. Kleinman, and D. Walsh, "Infrared properties of hexagonal silicon carbide," Phys. Rev. 113, 127-132 (1959).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, "Local field effects and effective medium theory: a microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).

Awschalom, D. D.

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benninnk, R. S.

Bethea, C. G.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Birch, R.

J R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Interreflection errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy: a preliminary appraisal," Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 369-378 (1999).

Blaikie, R. J.

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, "Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4403-4405 (2004).

Bloemer, M. J.

M. J. Bloemer and M. Scalora, "Transmissive properties of Ag-MgF2 photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1676-1678 (1998).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999.)

Boyd, R. W.

Brock, J. B.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burch, K. S.

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Chan, C. T.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Electromagnetic wave tunneling through negative permittivity media with high magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Chuang, I. L.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F. J. J.

J R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Interreflection errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy: a preliminary appraisal," Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 369-378 (1999).

Colombelli, R.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Dewa, A. S.

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

Fleischman, A. J.

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

Gannot, I.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, "Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 359, 635-644 (2001).

Gmachl, C.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).

Houck, A. A.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hundhausen, M.

S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen, L. Ley, C. A. Zorman, and M. Mehregany, "Quantitative evaluation of biaxial strain in epitaxial 3C-SiC layers on Si(100) substrates by Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1113-1117 (2002).

Hwang, H. Y.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Ilev, I. K.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, "Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 359, 635-644 (2001).

Irvine, K. G.

X. Tang, K. G. Irvine, D. Zhang, and M. G. Spencer, "Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1938-1940 (1991).

Jacob, C.

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

Kawakami, R.

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid-State Physics, 8th Ed. (Wiley, 2005).

Kleinman, D.

W. G. Spitzer, D. Kleinman, and D. Walsh, "Infrared properties of hexagonal silicon carbide," Phys. Rev. 113, 127-132 (1959).

Koltenbah, B. E. C.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korobkin, D.

D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, "Far-field detection of the superlensing effect in mid-infrared: theory and experiment," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2351-2364 (2005).

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

Ley, L.

S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen, L. Ley, C. A. Zorman, and M. Mehregany, "Quantitative evaluation of biaxial strain in epitaxial 3C-SiC layers on Si(100) substrates by Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1113-1117 (2002).

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

Liu, H. C.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Martini, R.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Mehregany, M.

S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen, L. Ley, C. A. Zorman, and M. Mehregany, "Quantitative evaluation of biaxial strain in epitaxial 3C-SiC layers on Si(100) substrates by Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1113-1117 (2002).

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

Melville, D. O. S.

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, "Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4403-4405 (2004).

Merlin, R.

R. Merlin, "Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1290-1292 (2004).

Mikolaitis, K. J.

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

Moses, D.

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

Myers, T. L.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Narimanov, E. E.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).

Nilsson, P.-O.

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).

Paiella, R.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).

A. J. Ward, J. B. Pendry, and W. J. Stewart, "Photonic dispersion surfaces," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2217-2224 (1995).

Pirouz, P.

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

Platzman, P. M.

J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, "Near-field imaging with negative dielectric constant lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3286-3288 (2002).

Podolskiy, V. A.

Ramakrishna, S. A.

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).

Rohmfeld, S.

S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen, L. Ley, C. A. Zorman, and M. Mehregany, "Quantitative evaluation of biaxial strain in epitaxial 3C-SiC layers on Si(100) substrates by Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1113-1117 (2002).

Rosenbluth, M.

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

Sarychev, A. K.

Scalora, M.

M. J. Bloemer and M. Scalora, "Transmissive properties of Ag-MgF2 photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1676-1678 (1998).

Schultz, S.

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).

Schurig, D.

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

Sergent, A. M.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Shalaev, V. M.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735-745 (2003).

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media: Fractal Composites and Metal-Dielectric Films, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 2000), Vol. 158.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).

Shen, J. T.

J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, "Near-field imaging with negative dielectric constant lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3286-3288 (2002).

Sheng, P.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Electromagnetic wave tunneling through negative permittivity media with high magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, "Far-field detection of the superlensing effect in mid-infrared: theory and experiment," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2351-2364 (2005).

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Engineering the electromagnetic properties of periodic nanostructures using electrostatic resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Polariton-enhanced near field lithography and imaging with infrared light," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 820, R1.2.1 (2004).

G. Shvets, "Photonic approach to making a material with a negative index of refraction," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets, "Applications of surface plasmon and phonon polaritons to developing left-handed materials and nanolithography," Proc. SPIE 5221, 124-132 (2003).

Singley, E. J.

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Sivco, D. L.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Smith, D. R.

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).

Spencer, M. G.

X. Tang, K. G. Irvine, D. Zhang, and M. G. Spencer, "Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1938-1940 (1991).

Spitzer, W. G.

W. G. Spitzer, D. Kleinman, and D. Walsh, "Infrared properties of hexagonal silicon carbide," Phys. Rev. 113, 127-132 (1959).

Stephens, J.

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).

A. J. Ward, J. B. Pendry, and W. J. Stewart, "Photonic dispersion surfaces," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2217-2224 (1995).

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

Tang, X.

X. Tang, K. G. Irvine, D. Zhang, and M. G. Spencer, "Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1938-1940 (1991).

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Unterrainer, K.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Urzhumov, Y.

D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, "Far-field detection of the superlensing effect in mid-infrared: theory and experiment," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2351-2364 (2005).

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Engineering the electromagnetic properties of periodic nanostructures using electrostatic resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Polariton-enhanced near field lithography and imaging with infrared light," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 820, R1.2.1 (2004).

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).

Walsh, D.

W. G. Spitzer, D. Kleinman, and D. Walsh, "Infrared properties of hexagonal silicon carbide," Phys. Rev. 113, 127-132 (1959).

Wang, G. M.

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

Ward, A. J.

A. J. Ward, J. B. Pendry, and W. J. Stewart, "Photonic dispersion surfaces," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2217-2224 (1995).

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, "Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 359, 635-644 (2001).

Wen, W.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Electromagnetic wave tunneling through negative permittivity media with high magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Williams, R. M.

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

Wolf, C. R.

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, "Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4403-4405 (2004).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999.)

Yoon, Y.-K.

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).

Zhang, D.

X. Tang, K. G. Irvine, D. Zhang, and M. G. Spencer, "Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1938-1940 (1991).

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Electromagnetic wave tunneling through negative permittivity media with high magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zorman, C. A.

S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen, L. Ley, C. A. Zorman, and M. Mehregany, "Quantitative evaluation of biaxial strain in epitaxial 3C-SiC layers on Si(100) substrates by Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1113-1117 (2002).

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, "Local field effects and effective medium theory: a microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

J R. Birch and F. J. J. Clarke, "Interreflection errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy: a preliminary appraisal," Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 369-378 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

D. R. SmithD. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506-1508 (2003).

R. Merlin, "Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1290-1292 (2004).

J. T. Shen and P. M. Platzman, "Near-field imaging with negative dielectric constant lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3286-3288 (2002).

M. J. Bloemer and M. Scalora, "Transmissive properties of Ag-MgF2 photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1676-1678 (1998).

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, "Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4403-4405 (2004).

X. Tang, K. G. Irvine, D. Zhang, and M. G. Spencer, "Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1938-1940 (1991).

Z. Q. Li, G. M. Wang, K. J. Mikolaitis, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and D. N. Basov, "An infrared probe of tunable dielectrics in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223506-223508 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).

Int. J. Quantum Chem. (1)

F. CapassoR. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 38, 511-532 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Rohmfeld, M. Hundhausen, L. Ley, C. A. Zorman, and M. Mehregany, "Quantitative evaluation of biaxial strain in epitaxial 3C-SiC layers on Si(100) substrates by Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1113-1117 (2002).

C. A. Zorman, A. J. Fleischman, A. S. Dewa, M. Mehregany, C. Jacob, and P. Pirouz, "Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC films on 4 in. diam (100) silicon wafers by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5136-5138 (1995).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, "Far-field detection of the superlensing effect in mid-infrared: theory and experiment," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2351-2364 (2005).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

A. J. Ward, J. B. Pendry, and W. J. Stewart, "Photonic dispersion surfaces," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2217-2224 (1995).

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Polariton-enhanced near field lithography and imaging with infrared light," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 820, R1.2.1 (2004).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, "Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 359, 635-644 (2001).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. G. Spitzer, D. Kleinman, and D. Walsh, "Infrared properties of hexagonal silicon carbide," Phys. Rev. 113, 127-132 (1959).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

G. Shvets, "Photonic approach to making a material with a negative index of refraction," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Singley, K. S. Burch, R. Kawakami, J. Stephens, D. D. Awschalom, and D. N. Basov, "Electronic structure and carrier dynamics of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

G. Shvets and Y. Urzhumov, "Engineering the electromagnetic properties of periodic nanostructures using electrostatic resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's Law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Electromagnetic wave tunneling through negative permittivity media with high magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Shvets, "Applications of surface plasmon and phonon polaritons to developing left-handed materials and nanolithography," Proc. SPIE 5221, 124-132 (2003).

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

Other (5)

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid-State Physics, 8th Ed. (Wiley, 2005).

FEMLAB Reference Manual 2003 Version 2.3, Comsol AB, Sweden.

E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media: Fractal Composites and Metal-Dielectric Films, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 2000), Vol. 158.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999.)

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