Abstract

The imaging principle of the scanning surface plasmon microscope (SSPM) springs from the high sensitivity of surface plasmons to modifications of material properties near the dielectric–metal interface. In this paper, we show that tomographic techniques can be applied to SSPM imaging of dielectric objects to reach resolutions beyond the diffraction-limited half-wavelength scale. Furthermore, this high resolution is not limited to the multiple scattering regime. Finally, we conclude that SSPM is less sensitive to noise because it provides higher contrast ratio than other far-field microscopies.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).
  2. A. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, “Beyond the Rayleigh criterion: grating assisted far-field optical diffraction tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Ruan, P. Bon, E. Mudry, G. Maire, P. C. Chaumet, H. Giovannini, K. Belkebir, A. Talneau, B. Wattellier, S. Monneret, and A. Sentenac, “Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1631–1633 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kano, S. Mizuguchi, and S. Kawata, “Excitation of surface-plasmon polaritons by a focused laser beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1381–1386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. G. Somekh, S. Liu, and T. S. Velinov, “Optical V(z) for high-resolution 2π surface plasmon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 823–825 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Berguiga, S.-J. Zhang, F. Argoul, and J. Elezgaray, “High-resolution surface-plasmon imaging in air and in water: V(z) curve and operating conditions,” Opt. Lett. 32, 509–511 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Berguiga, E. Boyer-Provera, C. Martinez-Torres, J. Elezgaray, A. Arneodo, and F. Argoul, “Guided wave microscopy: mastering the inverse problem,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4269–4272 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. G. Somekh, “Surface plasmon and surface wave microscopy,” in Optical imaging and Microscopy, A. Török and A. Tao, eds., Vol. 87, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 275–307.
  11. E. M. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1091–1092 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Belkebir and A. Sentenac, “High-resolution optical diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 1223–1229 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Elezgaray, T. Roland, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, “Modeling of the scanning surface plasmon microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 450–457 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Roland, L. Berguiga, J. Elezgaray, and F. Argoul, “Scanning surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 235419 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Elezgaray, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, “Optimization of branched resonant nanostructures illuminated by a strongly focused beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 243103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. C. Chew and Y. M. Wang, “Efficient ways to compute the vector addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves. Appl. 7, 651–665 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere behind a surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 110–117 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Doicu, Y. A. Eremin, and T. Wriedt, “Convergence of the T-matrix method for light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun. 159, 266–277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

2010

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Roland, L. Berguiga, J. Elezgaray, and F. Argoul, “Scanning surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 235419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Elezgaray, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, “Optimization of branched resonant nanostructures illuminated by a strongly focused beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 243103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Elezgaray, T. Roland, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, “Modeling of the scanning surface plasmon microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 450–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, “Beyond the Rayleigh criterion: grating assisted far-field optical diffraction tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. S. Carney and J. C. Schotland, “Theory of total-internal-reflection tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 542–547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Belkebir and A. Sentenac, “High-resolution optical diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 1223–1229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

A. Doicu, Y. A. Eremin, and T. Wriedt, “Convergence of the T-matrix method for light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun. 159, 266–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

C. E. H. Berger, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829–2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. C. Chew and Y. M. Wang, “Efficient ways to compute the vector addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves. Appl. 7, 651–665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere behind a surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 110–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. M. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1091–1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1959

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Argoul, F.

Arneodo, A.

Ash, E. A.

E. M. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1091–1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Belkebir, K.

Y. Ruan, P. Bon, E. Mudry, G. Maire, P. C. Chaumet, H. Giovannini, K. Belkebir, A. Talneau, B. Wattellier, S. Monneret, and A. Sentenac, “Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1631–1633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, “Beyond the Rayleigh criterion: grating assisted far-field optical diffraction tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Belkebir and A. Sentenac, “High-resolution optical diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 1223–1229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C. E. H.

C. E. H. Berger, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829–2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berguiga, L.

Bon, P.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Boyer-Provera, E.

Carney, P. S.

Chaumet, P. C.

Y. Ruan, P. Bon, E. Mudry, G. Maire, P. C. Chaumet, H. Giovannini, K. Belkebir, A. Talneau, B. Wattellier, S. Monneret, and A. Sentenac, “Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1631–1633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, “Beyond the Rayleigh criterion: grating assisted far-field optical diffraction tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chew, W. C.

W. C. Chew and Y. M. Wang, “Efficient ways to compute the vector addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves. Appl. 7, 651–665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doicu, A.

A. Doicu, Y. A. Eremin, and T. Wriedt, “Convergence of the T-matrix method for light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun. 159, 266–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elezgaray, J.

Eremin, Y. A.

A. Doicu, Y. A. Eremin, and T. Wriedt, “Convergence of the T-matrix method for light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun. 159, 266–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Giovannini, H.

Y. Ruan, P. Bon, E. Mudry, G. Maire, P. C. Chaumet, H. Giovannini, K. Belkebir, A. Talneau, B. Wattellier, S. Monneret, and A. Sentenac, “Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1631–1633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Girard, J.

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

C. E. H. Berger, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829–2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

C. E. H. Berger, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829–2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Maire, G.

Y. Ruan, P. Bon, E. Mudry, G. Maire, P. C. Chaumet, H. Giovannini, K. Belkebir, A. Talneau, B. Wattellier, S. Monneret, and A. Sentenac, “Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1631–1633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Torres, C.

Mizuguchi, S.

Monneret, S.

Mudry, E.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Roland, T.

J. Elezgaray, T. Roland, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, “Modeling of the scanning surface plasmon microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 450–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Roland, L. Berguiga, J. Elezgaray, and F. Argoul, “Scanning surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 235419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rothenhausler, B.

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Schotland, J. C.

Sentenac, A.

Y. Ruan, P. Bon, E. Mudry, G. Maire, P. C. Chaumet, H. Giovannini, K. Belkebir, A. Talneau, B. Wattellier, S. Monneret, and A. Sentenac, “Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1631–1633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, “Beyond the Rayleigh criterion: grating assisted far-field optical diffraction tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Belkebir and A. Sentenac, “High-resolution optical diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 1223–1229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

M. G. Somekh, S. Liu, and T. S. Velinov, “Optical V(z) for high-resolution 2π surface plasmon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 823–825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, “Surface plasmon and surface wave microscopy,” in Optical imaging and Microscopy, A. Török and A. Tao, eds., Vol. 87, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 275–307.

Talneau, A.

Y. Ruan, P. Bon, E. Mudry, G. Maire, P. C. Chaumet, H. Giovannini, K. Belkebir, A. Talneau, B. Wattellier, S. Monneret, and A. Sentenac, “Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1631–1633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Velinov, T. S.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Videen, G.

G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere behind a surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 110–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. M.

W. C. Chew and Y. M. Wang, “Efficient ways to compute the vector addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves. Appl. 7, 651–665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wattellier, B.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Wriedt, T.

A. Doicu, Y. A. Eremin, and T. Wriedt, “Convergence of the T-matrix method for light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun. 159, 266–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

E. M. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1091–1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.-J.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Elezgaray, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, “Optimization of branched resonant nanostructures illuminated by a strongly focused beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 243103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

E. M. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1091–1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Electromagn. Waves. Appl.

W. C. Chew and Y. M. Wang, “Efficient ways to compute the vector addition theorem,” J. Electromagn. Waves. Appl. 7, 651–665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere behind a surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 10, 110–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Belkebir and A. Sentenac, “High-resolution optical diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 1223–1229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

B. Rothenhausler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Doicu, Y. A. Eremin, and T. Wriedt, “Convergence of the T-matrix method for light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun. 159, 266–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J. Girard, G. Maire, H. Giovannini, A. Talneau, K. Belkebir, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Sentenac, “Nanometric resolution using far-field optical tomographic microscopy in the multiple scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 061801(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

T. Roland, L. Berguiga, J. Elezgaray, and F. Argoul, “Scanning surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 235419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Sentenac, P. C. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, “Beyond the Rayleigh criterion: grating assisted far-field optical diffraction tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. E. H. Berger, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829–2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. G. Somekh, “Surface plasmon and surface wave microscopy,” in Optical imaging and Microscopy, A. Török and A. Tao, eds., Vol. 87, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 275–307.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

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