Abstract

In a quantitative description of bioluminescence (BL) and chemiluminescence (CL) phenomena, it is indispensable to know the total fluxes of radiation emitted by the sources studied. Such knowledge is necessary for determining the quantum yields of the examined BL and CL reactions, for comparing the data measured by different optical radiometers (luminometers), and for expressing the power of the emitted radiation in absolute units, i.e., in watts or as a number of photons per specified time period. This paper presents an integral formula for calculating radiative fluxes incident on a planar-circular detector from a volume multiple-point BL or CL source partially or completely filling an open coaxial cylindrical reactor. The formula represents the solution to the basic radiometric equation applied to the point emitters embedded within a homogeneous substrate separated from the detector by a different optical homogeneous isotropic medium. All calculations were performed for a nontransparent cylindrical reactor when the surface reflections were neglected and when optical radiation was incident on the detector through an open end of the cylindrical reactor. No additional restrictions were made with respect to the spatial distribution of the point emitters and angular distribution of the emitted radiations, so that the formula is applicable for arbitrarily distributed and arbitrarily radiating point emitters composing a BL or CL source.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

S. Tryka, “A planar-circular detector based on multiple point chemi- or bio-luminescent source within coaxial cylindrical reactor,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1864–1878(2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

2004 (1)

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Kulmala and J. Suomi, “Current states of modern luminescence methods,” Anal. Chim. Acta 500, 21–69(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Roda, M. Guardigli, E. Michelini, M. Mirasoli, and P. Pasini, “Analytical bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 75, 462A–70A (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Tryka, “Optical radiation flux illuminating a circular disk from an off-axis point source through two different homogeneous refractive media,” Opt. Commun. 211, 15–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

1999 (1)

A. W. Knight, “A review of recent trends in analytical applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Trends Anal. Chem. 18, 47–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. Mueller-Klieser and S. Walenta, “Geographical mapping of metabolites in biological tissue with quantitative bioluminescence single photon imaging,” Histochem. J. 25, 407–420(1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. R. Batishko, K. A. Stahl, D. N. Erwin, and J. Kiel, “A quantitative luminescence imaging system for biochemical diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2289–2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Inaba, “Super-high sensitivity systems for detection and spectral analysis of ultraweak photon emission from biological cells and tissues,” Experientia 44, 550–559(1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. S. Rich Jr., C. H. Groover, and J. E. Wampler, “The spatial distribution of light emission from liquid phase bio- and chemiluminescence: variations with container types, turbidity and container frosting,” Photochem. Photobiol. 33, 727–736(1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. P. Hamman, W. H. Biggley, and H. H. Seliger, “Emission spectrum of the microsomal chemiluminescence of a proximate carcinogen, 7,8-diol-benzo[a]pyrene, determined with a wedge interference filter spectrometer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 519–524 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. Inaba, Y. Shimizu, Y. Tsuji, and A. Yamagishi, “Photon counting spectral analyzing system of extra-weak chemi- and bioluminescence for biochemical applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 169–175 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1967 (1)

A. N. Fletcher and C. A. Heller, “Oxidation and chemiluminescence of tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene. III. Kinetics, quantum yield, and mechanism of luminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. 71, 1507–1518 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. Lee and H. H. Seliger, “Absolute spectral sensitivity of phototubes and the application of the measurement of the absolute quantum yields of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence,” Photochem. Photobiol. 4, 1015–1048 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1961 (1)

1955 (1)

Ames, I.

Anding, E.

J. H. Lambert, Photometria Sive de Mensura et Gradibus Luminis Colorum et Umbrae (Eberhard Klett, 1760) [E. Anding, Lambert’s Photometrie (Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1892) (in Russian)].

Batishko, C. R.

C. R. Batishko, K. A. Stahl, D. N. Erwin, and J. Kiel, “A quantitative luminescence imaging system for biochemical diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2289–2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Becherer, R. J.

F. Grum and R. J. Becherer, Radiometry (Academic, 1979), Chap. 3.

Berthold, F.

F. Berthold, “Instrumentation for chemiluminescence immunoassays,” in Luminescence Immunoassay and Molecular Applications, K.Van Dyke and R.Van Dyke, eds. (CRC Press, 1990), pp. 11–25.

Biggley, W. H.

J. P. Hamman, W. H. Biggley, and H. H. Seliger, “Emission spectrum of the microsomal chemiluminescence of a proximate carcinogen, 7,8-diol-benzo[a]pyrene, determined with a wedge interference filter spectrometer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 519–524 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1959), Chap. 1.

Bouguer, P.

P. Bouguer, Essai d’Optique sur la Gradation de la Lumière (Chez Claude Jombert, 1729).

Bradley, D. D.

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

Christensen, R. I.

de Rooij, N. F.

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

deMello, A. J.

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

deMello, J.

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

Dunlea, E.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erwin, D. N.

C. R. Batishko, K. A. Stahl, D. N. Erwin, and J. Kiel, “A quantitative luminescence imaging system for biochemical diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2289–2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fiaccabrino, G. C.

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

Fletcher, A. N.

A. N. Fletcher and C. A. Heller, “Oxidation and chemiluminescence of tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene. III. Kinetics, quantum yield, and mechanism of luminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. 71, 1507–1518 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Fontijn, A.

Gaffney, J. S.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Groover, C. H.

E. S. Rich Jr., C. H. Groover, and J. E. Wampler, “The spatial distribution of light emission from liquid phase bio- and chemiluminescence: variations with container types, turbidity and container frosting,” Photochem. Photobiol. 33, 727–736(1981).
[CrossRef]

Grum, F.

F. Grum and R. J. Becherer, Radiometry (Academic, 1979), Chap. 3.

Guardigli, M.

A. Roda, M. Guardigli, E. Michelini, M. Mirasoli, and P. Pasini, “Analytical bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 75, 462A–70A (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hamman, J. P.

J. P. Hamman, W. H. Biggley, and H. H. Seliger, “Emission spectrum of the microsomal chemiluminescence of a proximate carcinogen, 7,8-diol-benzo[a]pyrene, determined with a wedge interference filter spectrometer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 519–524 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hastings, J. W.

Hata, S. I.

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C. A.

A. N. Fletcher and C. A. Heller, “Oxidation and chemiluminescence of tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene. III. Kinetics, quantum yield, and mechanism of luminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. 71, 1507–1518 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S. E.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, O.

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

Inaba, H.

H. Inaba, “Super-high sensitivity systems for detection and spectral analysis of ultraweak photon emission from biological cells and tissues,” Experientia 44, 550–559(1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Inaba, Y. Shimizu, Y. Tsuji, and A. Yamagishi, “Photon counting spectral analyzing system of extra-weak chemi- and bioluminescence for biochemical applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 169–175 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. S.

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

Kiel, J.

C. R. Batishko, K. A. Stahl, D. N. Erwin, and J. Kiel, “A quantitative luminescence imaging system for biochemical diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2289–2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kingston, R. H.

R. H. Kingston, Optical Sources, Detector, and Systems: Fundaments and Applications (Academic, 1995).

Knight, A. W.

A. W. Knight, “A review of recent trends in analytical applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Trends Anal. Chem. 18, 47–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koudelka-Hep, M.

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

Kulmala, S.

S. Kulmala and J. Suomi, “Current states of modern luminescence methods,” Anal. Chim. Acta 500, 21–69(2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumaki, K.

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L’Hostis, E.

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

Lambert, J. H.

J. H. Lambert, Photometria Sive de Mensura et Gradibus Luminis Colorum et Umbrae (Eberhard Klett, 1760) [E. Anding, Lambert’s Photometrie (Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1892) (in Russian)].

Lee, J.

A. Fontijn and J. Lee, “Comparison of the quantum yields of the gas-phase O/NO reaction and the liquid-phase luminol oxidation chemiluminescence intensity standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1095–1098 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee and H. H. Seliger, “Absolute spectral sensitivity of phototubes and the application of the measurement of the absolute quantum yields of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence,” Photochem. Photobiol. 4, 1015–1048 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Marley, N. A.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michel, Ph. E.

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

Michelini, E.

A. Roda, M. Guardigli, E. Michelini, M. Mirasoli, and P. Pasini, “Analytical bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 75, 462A–70A (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P.

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

Mirasoli, M.

A. Roda, M. Guardigli, E. Michelini, M. Mirasoli, and P. Pasini, “Analytical bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 75, 462A–70A (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, K.

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Molina, L. T.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moran, H. S.

Mueller-Klieser, W.

W. Mueller-Klieser and S. Walenta, “Geographical mapping of metabolites in biological tissue with quantitative bioluminescence single photon imaging,” Histochem. J. 25, 407–420(1993).
[CrossRef]

Paez, G.

M. Strojnik and G. Paez, “Radiometry,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D.Malacara and B.J.Thompson, eds., (Marcel Dekker, 2001), pp. 649–699.

Pasini, P.

A. Roda, M. Guardigli, E. Michelini, M. Mirasoli, and P. Pasini, “Analytical bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 75, 462A–70A (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rich, E. S.

E. S. Rich Jr., C. H. Groover, and J. E. Wampler, “The spatial distribution of light emission from liquid phase bio- and chemiluminescence: variations with container types, turbidity and container frosting,” Photochem. Photobiol. 33, 727–736(1981).
[CrossRef]

Roda, A.

A. Roda, M. Guardigli, E. Michelini, M. Mirasoli, and P. Pasini, “Analytical bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 75, 462A–70A (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Cuadra, L.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seliger, H. H.

J. P. Hamman, W. H. Biggley, and H. H. Seliger, “Emission spectrum of the microsomal chemiluminescence of a proximate carcinogen, 7,8-diol-benzo[a]pyrene, determined with a wedge interference filter spectrometer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 519–524 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee and H. H. Seliger, “Absolute spectral sensitivity of phototubes and the application of the measurement of the absolute quantum yields of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence,” Photochem. Photobiol. 4, 1015–1048 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

H. Inaba, Y. Shimizu, Y. Tsuji, and A. Yamagishi, “Photon counting spectral analyzing system of extra-weak chemi- and bioluminescence for biochemical applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 169–175 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Slawinska, D.

D. Slawinska and J. Slawinski, “Applications of bioluminescence and low-level luminescence from biological objects,” in Chemi- and Bioluminescence, J.G.Burr, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1985), pp. 533–601.

Slawinski, J.

D. Slawinska and J. Slawinski, “Applications of bioluminescence and low-level luminescence from biological objects,” in Chemi- and Bioluminescence, J.G.Burr, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1985), pp. 533–601.

Stahl, K. A.

C. R. Batishko, K. A. Stahl, D. N. Erwin, and J. Kiel, “A quantitative luminescence imaging system for biochemical diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2289–2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Strike, D. J.

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

Strojnik, M.

M. Strojnik and G. Paez, “Radiometry,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D.Malacara and B.J.Thompson, eds., (Marcel Dekker, 2001), pp. 649–699.

Sullivan, P.

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

Suomi, J.

S. Kulmala and J. Suomi, “Current states of modern luminescence methods,” Anal. Chim. Acta 500, 21–69(2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomioka, S.

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tryka, S.

S. Tryka, “A planar-circular detector based on multiple point chemi- or bio-luminescent source within coaxial cylindrical reactor,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1864–1878(2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Tryka, “Radiative flux from a planar multiple point source within a cylindrical enclosure reaching a coaxial circular plane,” Opt. Express 15, 3777–3790 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tryka, “Optical radiation flux illuminating a circular disk from an off-axis point source through two different homogeneous refractive media,” Opt. Commun. 211, 15–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, Y.

H. Inaba, Y. Shimizu, Y. Tsuji, and A. Yamagishi, “Photon counting spectral analyzing system of extra-weak chemi- and bioluminescence for biochemical applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 169–175 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Volkamer, R. M.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walenta, S.

W. Mueller-Klieser and S. Walenta, “Geographical mapping of metabolites in biological tissue with quantitative bioluminescence single photon imaging,” Histochem. J. 25, 407–420(1993).
[CrossRef]

Wampler, J. E.

E. S. Rich Jr., C. H. Groover, and J. E. Wampler, “The spatial distribution of light emission from liquid phase bio- and chemiluminescence: variations with container types, turbidity and container frosting,” Photochem. Photobiol. 33, 727–736(1981).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Wampler, “Instrumentation: seeing the light and measuring it,” in Chemi- and Bioluminescence, J.G.Burr, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1985), pp. 1–44.

Weber, G.

White, R. V.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1959), Chap. 1.

Yamagishi, A.

H. Inaba, Y. Shimizu, Y. Tsuji, and A. Yamagishi, “Photon counting spectral analyzing system of extra-weak chemi- and bioluminescence for biochemical applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 169–175 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. Roda, M. Guardigli, E. Michelini, M. Mirasoli, and P. Pasini, “Analytical bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Anal. Chem. 75, 462A–70A (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

S. Kulmala and J. Suomi, “Current states of modern luminescence methods,” Anal. Chim. Acta 500, 21–69(2003).
[CrossRef]

Experientia (1)

H. Inaba, “Super-high sensitivity systems for detection and spectral analysis of ultraweak photon emission from biological cells and tissues,” Experientia 44, 550–559(1988).
[CrossRef]

Histochem. J. (1)

W. Mueller-Klieser and S. Walenta, “Geographical mapping of metabolites in biological tissue with quantitative bioluminescence single photon imaging,” Histochem. J. 25, 407–420(1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

Y. Shimizu, H. Inaba, K. Kumaki, K. Mizuno, S. I. Hata, and S. Tomioka, “Measuring methods for ultra-low light intensity and their application to extra-weak spontaneous bioluminescence from living tissues,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 22, 153–57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. N. Fletcher and C. A. Heller, “Oxidation and chemiluminescence of tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene. III. Kinetics, quantum yield, and mechanism of luminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. 71, 1507–1518 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

S. Tryka, “A planar-circular detector based on multiple point chemi- or bio-luminescent source within coaxial cylindrical reactor,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1864–1878(2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Tryka, “Optical radiation flux illuminating a circular disk from an off-axis point source through two different homogeneous refractive media,” Opt. Commun. 211, 15–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (4)

H. Inaba, Y. Shimizu, Y. Tsuji, and A. Yamagishi, “Photon counting spectral analyzing system of extra-weak chemi- and bioluminescence for biochemical applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 169–175 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee and H. H. Seliger, “Absolute spectral sensitivity of phototubes and the application of the measurement of the absolute quantum yields of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence,” Photochem. Photobiol. 4, 1015–1048 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hamman, W. H. Biggley, and H. H. Seliger, “Emission spectrum of the microsomal chemiluminescence of a proximate carcinogen, 7,8-diol-benzo[a]pyrene, determined with a wedge interference filter spectrometer,” Photochem. Photobiol. 30, 519–524 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Rich Jr., C. H. Groover, and J. E. Wampler, “The spatial distribution of light emission from liquid phase bio- and chemiluminescence: variations with container types, turbidity and container frosting,” Photochem. Photobiol. 33, 727–736(1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Batishko, K. A. Stahl, D. N. Erwin, and J. Kiel, “A quantitative luminescence imaging system for biochemical diagnostics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2289–2295 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

O. Hofmann, P. Miller, P. Sullivan, T. S. Jones, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, and A. J. deMello, “Thin-film organic photodiodes as integrated detectors for microscale chemiluminescence assays,” Sens. Actuators B 106, 878–884(2005).

E. L’Hostis, Ph. E. Michel, G. C. Fiaccabrino, D. J. Strike, N. F. de Rooij, and M. Koudelka-Hep, “Microreactor and electrochemical detectors fabricated using Si and EPON SU-8,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 156–162 (2000).

Trends Anal. Chem. (1)

A. W. Knight, “A review of recent trends in analytical applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Trends Anal. Chem. 18, 47–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

F. Berthold, “Instrumentation for chemiluminescence immunoassays,” in Luminescence Immunoassay and Molecular Applications, K.Van Dyke and R.Van Dyke, eds. (CRC Press, 1990), pp. 11–25.

R. H. Kingston, Optical Sources, Detector, and Systems: Fundaments and Applications (Academic, 1995).

D. Slawinska and J. Slawinski, “Applications of bioluminescence and low-level luminescence from biological objects,” in Chemi- and Bioluminescence, J.G.Burr, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1985), pp. 533–601.

J. E. Wampler, “Instrumentation: seeing the light and measuring it,” in Chemi- and Bioluminescence, J.G.Burr, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1985), pp. 1–44.

F. Grum and R. J. Becherer, Radiometry (Academic, 1979), Chap. 3.

M. Strojnik and G. Paez, “Radiometry,” in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D.Malacara and B.J.Thompson, eds., (Marcel Dekker, 2001), pp. 649–699.

P. Bouguer, Essai d’Optique sur la Gradation de la Lumière (Chez Claude Jombert, 1729).

J. H. Lambert, Photometria Sive de Mensura et Gradibus Luminis Colorum et Umbrae (Eberhard Klett, 1760) [E. Anding, Lambert’s Photometrie (Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1892) (in Russian)].

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1959), Chap. 1.

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