Abstract

Even when two rapidly alternating color stimuli are equated in luminance, the flicker between them is not always zero. By one hypothesis this residual chromatic flicker is tritanopic, like edge distinctness: dependent purely on L- and M-cone stimulation, with no contribution from S-cones. Judgments of flicker intensity between pairs of colors were analyzed with multidimensional scaling (MDS)—in effect treating them as an index of color dissimilarity. They reveal a systematic reduction of flicker when stimulus pairs differ along a chartreuse–magenta direction in the color plane, corresponding to an effective compression of color space along this axis or an equivalent elongation along a blue–orange axis. In contrast, judgments of edge distinctness between the same pairs reveal the expected tritanopic axis of compression. It follows that chromatic flicker does receive a contribution from S-cone stimulation, but this interacts with the contribution from L- and M-cones, perhaps due to phase delays.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. K. Kaiser, “Flicker as a function of wavelength and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction 5: Limits of Vision, J.J.Kulikowski, V.Walsh, and I.J.Murray, eds. (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 171-190.
  2. F. D. Varner, T. P. Piantianida, and H. D. Baker, “Spatio-temporal Rayleigh matches,” Vision Res. 17, 187-191 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. Wisowaty, “Estimates for the temporal response characteristics of chromatic pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 970-977 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. K. Kaiser, M. Ayama, and R. L. P. Vimal, “Flicker photometry: residual minimum flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1989-1993 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. V. Truss, “Chromatic flicker fusion frequency as a function of chromaticity difference,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1130-1134 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. C. van der Horst, “Chromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1213-1217 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Varner, D. Jameson, and L. M. Hurvich, “Temporal sensitivities related to color theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 474-481 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. De Lange, “Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea: cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. Attenuation characteristics with white and colored light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777-784 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of sinusoidally alternating colored stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 78-82 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 28, 111-113 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921-927 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Effect of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266-2273 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Nonlinear summation of M- and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433-1442 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  14. P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, “Enhancement of luminance flicker by color-opponent mechanisms,” Science 205, 587-589 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. W. Tansley and R. M. Boynton, “Chromatic border perception: the role of red- and green-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 683-697 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. T. Troland, “Notes on flicker photometry: flicker-photometer frequency as a function of the color of the standard and of the measured light,” J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853-855 (1916).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. E. Ives, “Hue differences and flicker photometer speed,” Philos. Mag. 34, 99-112 (1917).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497-500 (1966).
  19. D. G. Green, “Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of the color-sensitive mechanisms of the eye,” Vision Res. 9, 591-601 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Nakano and P. K. Kaiser, “Color fusion and flicker fusion frequencies using tritanopic pairs,” Vision Res. 32, 1417-1423 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal tuning of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896-900 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Drew, R. Sayres, K. Watanabe, and S. Shimojo, “Pupillary response to chromatic flicker,” Exp. Brain Res. 136, 256-262 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Watanabe, T. Imada, K. Nihei, and S. Shimojo, “Neuromagnetic responses to chromatic flicker: implications for photosensitivity,” NeuroReport 13, 2161-2165 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. H. Coombs, A Theory of Data (Wiley, 1964).
  25. L. D. Griffin, “Similarity of psychological and physical colour space shown by symmetry analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 151-157 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. O. Ramsay, “Economical method of analyzing perceived color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 19-22 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Ch. A. Izmailov and E. N. Sokolov, “Subjective and objective scaling of large color differences,” In Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition, C.Kaernbach, E.Schröger, and H.Müller, eds. (Erlbaum, 2004), pp. 27-44.
  28. L. A. Riggs, P. M. Blough, and K. L. Schafer, “Electrical responses of the pigeon eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” Vision Res. 12, 981-991 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. Schneider, “Multidimensional scaling of color difference in the pigeon,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 373-378 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and S. Pichler, “Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a Gestalt-formation task,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 36, 69-76 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. M. Paulson, “Comparison of color vision tests used by the Armed Forces,” in Color Vision, D.B.Judd, ed. (National Academy of Science, 1973), pp. 34-64.
  34. W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graphics 17, 315-321 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. H. Kelly, “Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects,” Science 188, 371-372 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. T. Indow and N. Aoki, “Multidimensional mapping of 178 Munsell colors,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 145-152 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. P. Cavanagh, D. I. A. MacLeod, and S. M. Anstis, “Equiluminance: spatial and temporal factors and the contribution of blue-sensitive cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1428-1438 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. P. F. M. Stalmeier and C. M. M. de Weert, “Large colour differences measured by spontaneous Gestalt formation,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 209-218 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs, “Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  41. Y. Takane, “A maximum likelihood method for nonmetric multidimensional scaling: I. The case in which all empirical pairwise orderings are independent—Theory,” Jpn. Psychol. Res. 20, 7-17 (1978).
  42. J. D. Carroll and M. Wish, “Models and methods for three-way multidimensional scaling,” in Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology, Vol. II, A.H.Krantz, R.C.Atkinson, R.D.Luce, and P.Suppes, eds. (WH Freeman, 1974), pp. 289-313.
  43. F. W. Young, “The general Euclidean model,” in Research Methods for Multivariate Data Analysis, H.G.Law, C.W.Snyder, J.A.Hattie, and R.P.McDonald, eds. (Praeger, 1984), pp. 440-469.
  44. D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue and dichotomous tests for color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568-578 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  45. J. Golz and D. I. A. McLeod, “Colorimetry for CRT displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 769-781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  46. H. J. Teufel and C. Wehrhahn, “Evidence for the contribution of S cones to the detection of flicker brightness and red-green,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 994-1006 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  47. H. de Lange, “Eye's response at flicker fusion to square-wave modulation of a test field surrounded by a large steady field of equal mean luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 415-421 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  48. L. L. Sloan, “Congenital achromatopsia: a report on 19 cases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 117-128 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139-155 (1982).
  50. R. F. Hess, S. J. Waugh, and K. Nordby, “Rod temporal channels,” Vision Res. 36, 613-619 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and S. Pichler, “Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a Gestalt-formation task,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 36, 69-76 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

K. Watanabe, T. Imada, K. Nihei, and S. Shimojo, “Neuromagnetic responses to chromatic flicker: implications for photosensitivity,” NeuroReport 13, 2161-2165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. D. Griffin, “Similarity of psychological and physical colour space shown by symmetry analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 151-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Drew, R. Sayres, K. Watanabe, and S. Shimojo, “Pupillary response to chromatic flicker,” Exp. Brain Res. 136, 256-262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs, “Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Teufel and C. Wehrhahn, “Evidence for the contribution of S cones to the detection of flicker brightness and red-green,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 994-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal tuning of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896-900 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. F. Hess, S. J. Waugh, and K. Nordby, “Rod temporal channels,” Vision Res. 36, 613-619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Y. Nakano and P. K. Kaiser, “Color fusion and flicker fusion frequencies using tritanopic pairs,” Vision Res. 32, 1417-1423 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Nonlinear summation of M- and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433-1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988

P. F. M. Stalmeier and C. M. M. de Weert, “Large colour differences measured by spontaneous Gestalt formation,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 209-218 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

1984

1983

T. Indow and N. Aoki, “Multidimensional mapping of 178 Munsell colors,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graphics 17, 315-321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139-155 (1982).

1981

1979

P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, “Enhancement of luminance flicker by color-opponent mechanisms,” Science 205, 587-589 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

B. W. Tansley and R. M. Boynton, “Chromatic border perception: the role of red- and green-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 683-697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 28, 111-113 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takane, “A maximum likelihood method for nonmetric multidimensional scaling: I. The case in which all empirical pairwise orderings are independent—Theory,” Jpn. Psychol. Res. 20, 7-17 (1978).

1977

F. D. Varner, T. P. Piantianida, and H. D. Baker, “Spatio-temporal Rayleigh matches,” Vision Res. 17, 187-191 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

D. H. Kelly, “Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects,” Science 188, 371-372 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

L. A. Riggs, P. M. Blough, and K. L. Schafer, “Electrical responses of the pigeon eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” Vision Res. 12, 981-991 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schneider, “Multidimensional scaling of color difference in the pigeon,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 373-378 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. G. Green, “Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of the color-sensitive mechanisms of the eye,” Vision Res. 9, 591-601 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. C. van der Horst, “Chromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1213-1217 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

1966

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497-500 (1966).

1964

1961

1958

1957

1954

1943

1917

H. E. Ives, “Hue differences and flicker photometer speed,” Philos. Mag. 34, 99-112 (1917).
[CrossRef]

1916

L. T. Troland, “Notes on flicker photometry: flicker-photometer frequency as a function of the color of the standard and of the measured light,” J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853-855 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Anstis, S. M.

Aoki, N.

T. Indow and N. Aoki, “Multidimensional mapping of 178 Munsell colors,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ayama, M.

Baker, H. D.

F. D. Varner, T. P. Piantianida, and H. D. Baker, “Spatio-temporal Rayleigh matches,” Vision Res. 17, 187-191 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bimler, D.

D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and S. Pichler, “Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a Gestalt-formation task,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 36, 69-76 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs, “Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blough, P. M.

L. A. Riggs, P. M. Blough, and K. L. Schafer, “Electrical responses of the pigeon eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” Vision Res. 12, 981-991 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

B. W. Tansley and R. M. Boynton, “Chromatic border perception: the role of red- and green-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 683-697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 28, 111-113 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497-500 (1966).

Carroll, J. D.

J. D. Carroll and M. Wish, “Models and methods for three-way multidimensional scaling,” in Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology, Vol. II, A.H.Krantz, R.C.Atkinson, R.D.Luce, and P.Suppes, eds. (WH Freeman, 1974), pp. 289-313.

Cavanagh, P.

Conner, J. D.

J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139-155 (1982).

Coombs, C. H.

C. H. Coombs, A Theory of Data (Wiley, 1964).

Cottaris, N. P.

N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal tuning of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896-900 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, W. B.

W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graphics 17, 315-321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

de Lange, H.

De Valois, R. L.

N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal tuning of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896-900 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Weert, C. M. M.

P. F. M. Stalmeier and C. M. M. de Weert, “Large colour differences measured by spontaneous Gestalt formation,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 209-218 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Drew, P.

P. Drew, R. Sayres, K. Watanabe, and S. Shimojo, “Pupillary response to chromatic flicker,” Exp. Brain Res. 136, 256-262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du Croz, J. J.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497-500 (1966).

Farnsworth, D.

Golz, J.

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, “Enhancement of luminance flicker by color-opponent mechanisms,” Science 205, 587-589 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

D. G. Green, “Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of the color-sensitive mechanisms of the eye,” Vision Res. 9, 591-601 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, L. D.

L. D. Griffin, “Similarity of psychological and physical colour space shown by symmetry analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 151-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hess, R. F.

R. F. Hess, S. J. Waugh, and K. Nordby, “Rod temporal channels,” Vision Res. 36, 613-619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

Imada, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Imada, K. Nihei, and S. Shimojo, “Neuromagnetic responses to chromatic flicker: implications for photosensitivity,” NeuroReport 13, 2161-2165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Indow, T.

T. Indow and N. Aoki, “Multidimensional mapping of 178 Munsell colors,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, “Hue differences and flicker photometer speed,” Philos. Mag. 34, 99-112 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Izmailov, Ch. A.

Ch. A. Izmailov and E. N. Sokolov, “Subjective and objective scaling of large color differences,” In Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition, C.Kaernbach, E.Schröger, and H.Müller, eds. (Erlbaum, 2004), pp. 27-44.

Jacobs, R.

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs, “Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, D.

Jameson, K.

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

Y. Nakano and P. K. Kaiser, “Color fusion and flicker fusion frequencies using tritanopic pairs,” Vision Res. 32, 1417-1423 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kaiser, M. Ayama, and R. L. P. Vimal, “Flicker photometry: residual minimum flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1989-1993 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 28, 111-113 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kaiser, “Flicker as a function of wavelength and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction 5: Limits of Vision, J.J.Kulikowski, V.Walsh, and I.J.Murray, eds. (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 171-190.

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, “Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects,” Science 188, 371-372 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkland, J.

D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and S. Pichler, “Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a Gestalt-formation task,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 36, 69-76 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs, “Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Nonlinear summation of M- and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433-1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

Leebeek, H. J.

Lindsey, D. T.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Martin, P. R.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Nonlinear summation of M- and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433-1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

McLeod, D. I. A.

Mollon, J. D.

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, Y.

Y. Nakano and P. K. Kaiser, “Color fusion and flicker fusion frequencies using tritanopic pairs,” Vision Res. 32, 1417-1423 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nihei, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Imada, K. Nihei, and S. Shimojo, “Neuromagnetic responses to chromatic flicker: implications for photosensitivity,” NeuroReport 13, 2161-2165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordby, K.

R. F. Hess, S. J. Waugh, and K. Nordby, “Rod temporal channels,” Vision Res. 36, 613-619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulson, H. M.

H. M. Paulson, “Comparison of color vision tests used by the Armed Forces,” in Color Vision, D.B.Judd, ed. (National Academy of Science, 1973), pp. 34-64.

Piantianida, T. P.

F. D. Varner, T. P. Piantianida, and H. D. Baker, “Spatio-temporal Rayleigh matches,” Vision Res. 17, 187-191 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pichler, S.

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and S. Pichler, “Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a Gestalt-formation task,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 36, 69-76 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

Ramsay, J. O.

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs, P. M. Blough, and K. L. Schafer, “Electrical responses of the pigeon eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” Vision Res. 12, 981-991 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497-500 (1966).

Sayres, R.

P. Drew, R. Sayres, K. Watanabe, and S. Shimojo, “Pupillary response to chromatic flicker,” Exp. Brain Res. 136, 256-262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. L.

L. A. Riggs, P. M. Blough, and K. L. Schafer, “Electrical responses of the pigeon eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” Vision Res. 12, 981-991 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, B.

B. Schneider, “Multidimensional scaling of color difference in the pigeon,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 373-378 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shimojo, S.

K. Watanabe, T. Imada, K. Nihei, and S. Shimojo, “Neuromagnetic responses to chromatic flicker: implications for photosensitivity,” NeuroReport 13, 2161-2165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Drew, R. Sayres, K. Watanabe, and S. Shimojo, “Pupillary response to chromatic flicker,” Exp. Brain Res. 136, 256-262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, L. L.

Smith, V. C.

Sokolov, E. N.

Ch. A. Izmailov and E. N. Sokolov, “Subjective and objective scaling of large color differences,” In Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition, C.Kaernbach, E.Schröger, and H.Müller, eds. (Erlbaum, 2004), pp. 27-44.

Stalmeier, P. F. M.

P. F. M. Stalmeier and C. M. M. de Weert, “Large colour differences measured by spontaneous Gestalt formation,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 209-218 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, W. H.

Takane, Y.

Y. Takane, “A maximum likelihood method for nonmetric multidimensional scaling: I. The case in which all empirical pairwise orderings are independent—Theory,” Jpn. Psychol. Res. 20, 7-17 (1978).

Tansley, B. W.

B. W. Tansley and R. M. Boynton, “Chromatic border perception: the role of red- and green-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 683-697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Teufel, H. J.

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, “Notes on flicker photometry: flicker-photometer frequency as a function of the color of the standard and of the measured light,” J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853-855 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Truss, C. V.

Valberg, A.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Nonlinear summation of M- and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433-1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

van der Horst, G. J. C.

Varner, D.

Varner, F. D.

F. D. Varner, T. P. Piantianida, and H. D. Baker, “Spatio-temporal Rayleigh matches,” Vision Res. 17, 187-191 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vimal, R. L. P.

Walraven, P. L.

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Imada, K. Nihei, and S. Shimojo, “Neuromagnetic responses to chromatic flicker: implications for photosensitivity,” NeuroReport 13, 2161-2165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Drew, R. Sayres, K. Watanabe, and S. Shimojo, “Pupillary response to chromatic flicker,” Exp. Brain Res. 136, 256-262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waugh, S. J.

R. F. Hess, S. J. Waugh, and K. Nordby, “Rod temporal channels,” Vision Res. 36, 613-619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehrhahn, C.

Wish, M.

J. D. Carroll and M. Wish, “Models and methods for three-way multidimensional scaling,” in Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology, Vol. II, A.H.Krantz, R.C.Atkinson, R.D.Luce, and P.Suppes, eds. (WH Freeman, 1974), pp. 289-313.

Wisowaty, J. J.

Young, F. W.

F. W. Young, “The general Euclidean model,” in Research Methods for Multivariate Data Analysis, H.G.Law, C.W.Snyder, J.A.Hattie, and R.P.McDonald, eds. (Praeger, 1984), pp. 440-469.

Zrenner, E.

P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, “Enhancement of luminance flicker by color-opponent mechanisms,” Science 205, 587-589 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput.

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and S. Pichler, “Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a Gestalt-formation task,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 36, 69-76 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl.

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow and N. Aoki, “Multidimensional mapping of 178 Munsell colors,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. F. M. Stalmeier and C. M. M. de Weert, “Large colour differences measured by spontaneous Gestalt formation,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 209-218 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs, “Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Griffin, “Similarity of psychological and physical colour space shown by symmetry analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 151-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Graphics

W. B. Cowan, “An inexpensive scheme for calibration of a colour monitor in terms of CIE standard coordinates,” Comput. Graphics 17, 315-321 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Brain Res.

P. Drew, R. Sayres, K. Watanabe, and S. Shimojo, “Pupillary response to chromatic flicker,” Exp. Brain Res. 136, 256-262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Franklin Inst.

L. T. Troland, “Notes on flicker photometry: flicker-photometer frequency as a function of the color of the standard and of the measured light,” J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853-855 (1916).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Nonlinear summation of M- and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque,” J. Neurosci. 9, 1433-1442 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol. (London)

G. S. Brindley, J. J. Du Croz, and W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 183, 497-500 (1966).

J. D. Conner, “The temporal properties of rod vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 332, 139-155 (1982).

Jpn. Psychol. Res.

Y. Takane, “A maximum likelihood method for nonmetric multidimensional scaling: I. The case in which all empirical pairwise orderings are independent—Theory,” Jpn. Psychol. Res. 20, 7-17 (1978).

Nature

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal tuning of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896-900 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroReport

K. Watanabe, T. Imada, K. Nihei, and S. Shimojo, “Neuromagnetic responses to chromatic flicker: implications for photosensitivity,” NeuroReport 13, 2161-2165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys.

B. Schneider, “Multidimensional scaling of color difference in the pigeon,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 373-378 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag.

H. E. Ives, “Hue differences and flicker photometer speed,” Philos. Mag. 34, 99-112 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, “Enhancement of luminance flicker by color-opponent mechanisms,” Science 205, 587-589 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Luminous and chromatic flickering patterns have opposite effects,” Science 188, 371-372 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Tansley and R. M. Boynton, “Chromatic border perception: the role of red- and green-sensitive cones,” Vision Res. 28, 683-697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Varner, T. P. Piantianida, and H. D. Baker, “Spatio-temporal Rayleigh matches,” Vision Res. 17, 187-191 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and P. K. Kaiser, “Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border,” Vision Res. 28, 111-113 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Green, “Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of the color-sensitive mechanisms of the eye,” Vision Res. 9, 591-601 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nakano and P. K. Kaiser, “Color fusion and flicker fusion frequencies using tritanopic pairs,” Vision Res. 32, 1417-1423 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, P. M. Blough, and K. L. Schafer, “Electrical responses of the pigeon eye to changes in wavelength of the stimulating light,” Vision Res. 12, 981-991 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Hess, S. J. Waugh, and K. Nordby, “Rod temporal channels,” Vision Res. 36, 613-619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Ch. A. Izmailov and E. N. Sokolov, “Subjective and objective scaling of large color differences,” In Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition, C.Kaernbach, E.Schröger, and H.Müller, eds. (Erlbaum, 2004), pp. 27-44.

C. H. Coombs, A Theory of Data (Wiley, 1964).

P. K. Kaiser, “Flicker as a function of wavelength and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” in Vision and Visual Dysfunction 5: Limits of Vision, J.J.Kulikowski, V.Walsh, and I.J.Murray, eds. (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 171-190.

H. M. Paulson, “Comparison of color vision tests used by the Armed Forces,” in Color Vision, D.B.Judd, ed. (National Academy of Science, 1973), pp. 34-64.

J. D. Carroll and M. Wish, “Models and methods for three-way multidimensional scaling,” in Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology, Vol. II, A.H.Krantz, R.C.Atkinson, R.D.Luce, and P.Suppes, eds. (WH Freeman, 1974), pp. 289-313.

F. W. Young, “The general Euclidean model,” in Research Methods for Multivariate Data Analysis, H.G.Law, C.W.Snyder, J.A.Hattie, and R.P.McDonald, eds. (Praeger, 1984), pp. 440-469.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tessellation used for collecting triadic dissimilarity comparisons. Hexagons are colored with one of three color stimuli, E i , E j , E k , comprising a triad.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MDS solutions for D15 stimuli, using (a) Gestalt-fusion triads, data set (5); (b), (c) estimates of flicker intensity, data sets (1) and (2); (d) tetradic flicker comparisons, data set (3); (e) BD comparisons, data set (4). Axis units are arbitrary but the same for both axes in each solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Idiosyncratic-weights parameters for multiple sessions of data collection with D15 stimuli, plotted in polar coordinates 2 θ m and r m . Radial coordinate r m ranges from 0 at the center to 1 at the circumference of the circle. Data sets (1) and (2): open and crossed circles, respectively. Sessions of flicker comparison: solid circles, except data from subjects JK and PB: open diamond and crossed diamond, respectively. BD comparisons: open squares. Triadic comparisons: solid squares.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Idiosyncratic-weights parameters for multiple sessions of data collection with H16 stimuli, plotted in polar coordinates 2 θ m and r m . Solid circles: eight sessions of tetradic flicker comparisons. Open circles: triadic data from normal trichromats, collected in New Zealand (large circles) and the USA (small circles). Solid squares: triads from four known deutans. Solid triangles: triads from two known protans.

Metrics