Abstract

The analog mean-delay (AMD) method is a new powerful alternative method in determining the lifetime of a fluorescence molecule for high-speed confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Even though the photon economy and the lifetime precision of the AMD method are proven to be as good as those of the state-of-the-art time-correlated single photon counting method, there have been some speculations and concerns about the accuracy of this method with respect to the absolute lifetime value of a fluorescence probe. In the AMD method, the temporal waveform of an emitted fluorescence signal is directly recorded with a slow digitizer whose bandwidth is much lower than the temporal resolution of the lifetime to be measured. We have found that the drifts and the fluctuations of the absolute zero position in a measured temporal waveform are the major problems in the AMD method. We have proposed electrical and optical referencing techniques that may suppress these errors. It is shown that there may exist more than 2 ns drift in a measured temporal waveform during the period of the first 12 min after electronic components are turned on. The standard deviation of a measured lifetime after this warm-up period can be as large as 51 ps without any referencing technique. We have shown that this error can be reduced to 9 ps with our electronic referencing technique. It is demonstrated that this can be further reduced to 4 ps by the optical referencing technique we have introduced.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

D. K. Nair, M. Jose, T. Kuner, W. Zuschratter, and R. Hartig, “FRET-FLIM at nanometer spectral resolution from living cells,” Opt. Express 14, 12217–12229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular imaging,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Gerristen, A. Draaijer, D. J. van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed., J.B.Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006).

2004 (3)

H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “High-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5323, 77–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Requejo-Isidro, J. McGinty, I. Munro, D. S. Elson, N. P. Galletly, M. J. Lever, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. H. Stamp, P. M. W. French, P. A. Kellett, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, “High-speed wide-field time-gated endoscopic fluorescence-lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2249–2251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

J. Philip and K. Carlsson, “Theoretical investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio in fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 368–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Herman, “Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714–2721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Agronskaia, L. Tertoolen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1655–1662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “FRET imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Carlsson and J. Philip, “Theoretical investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio for different fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques,” Proc. SPIE 4622, 1605–7422 (2002).

1999 (1)

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

1994 (1)

R. Sanders, H. Gerritsen, A. Draaijer, P. Houpt, and Y. K. Levine, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free calcium in single cells,” Bioimaging 2, 131–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agronskaia, A. V.

H. C. Gerristen, A. Draaijer, D. J. van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed., J.B.Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006).

H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “High-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5323, 77–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Agronskaia, L. Tertoolen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1655–1662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allison, C.

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Becker, W.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benndorf, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birmingham, J. J.

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Biskup, C.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, D. J.

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Carlsson, K.

J. Philip and K. Carlsson, “Theoretical investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio in fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 368–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Carlsson and J. Philip, “Theoretical investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio for different fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques,” Proc. SPIE 4622, 1605–7422 (2002).

Centonze, V. E.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Herman, “Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714–2721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

Chia, T. H.

de Grauw, K. J.

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Draaijer, A.

H. C. Gerristen, A. Draaijer, D. J. van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed., J.B.Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006).

R. Sanders, H. Gerritsen, A. Draaijer, P. Houpt, and Y. K. Levine, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free calcium in single cells,” Bioimaging 2, 131–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

Elson, D. S.

French, P. M. W.

Galletly, N. P.

Gerristen, H. C.

H. C. Gerristen, A. Draaijer, D. J. van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed., J.B.Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006).

Gerritsen, H.

R. Sanders, H. Gerritsen, A. Draaijer, P. Houpt, and Y. K. Levine, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free calcium in single cells,” Bioimaging 2, 131–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. C.

H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “High-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5323, 77–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Agronskaia, L. Tertoolen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1655–1662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Hares, J. D.

Hartig, R.

Herman, B.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Herman, “Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714–2721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hink, M. A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houpt, P.

R. Sanders, H. Gerritsen, A. Draaijer, P. Houpt, and Y. K. Levine, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free calcium in single cells,” Bioimaging 2, 131–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jares-Erijman, E. A.

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “FRET imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jose, M.

Jovin, T. M.

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “FRET imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kellett, P. A.

Kim, D. Y.

König, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, R. V.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Herman, “Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714–2721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuner, T.

Levene, M. J.

Lever, M. J.

Levine, Y. K.

R. Sanders, H. Gerritsen, A. Draaijer, P. Houpt, and Y. K. Levine, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free calcium in single cells,” Bioimaging 2, 131–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, P. D.

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

McGinty, J.

Merajver, S. D.

Merrick, K. A.

Moon, S.

Munro, I.

Mycek, M.

Nair, D. K.

Neil, M. A. A.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular imaging,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Philip, J.

J. Philip and K. Carlsson, “Theoretical investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio in fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 368–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Carlsson and J. Philip, “Theoretical investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio for different fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques,” Proc. SPIE 4622, 1605–7422 (2002).

Requejo-Isidro, J.

Saitoh, H.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Herman, “Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714–2721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, R.

R. Sanders, H. Gerritsen, A. Draaijer, P. Houpt, and Y. K. Levine, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free calcium in single cells,” Bioimaging 2, 131–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, D. D.

Stamp, G. W. H.

Terada, H.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Herman, “Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714–2721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tertoolen, L.

A. V. Agronskaia, L. Tertoolen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1655–1662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van den Heuvel, D. J.

H. C. Gerristen, A. Draaijer, D. J. van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed., J.B.Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006).

H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “High-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5323, 77–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vroom, J. M.

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Watson, G. K.

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Williamson, A.

Won, Y.

Wu, M.

Zhong, W.

Zuschratter, W.

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular imaging,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

J. M. Vroom, K. J. de Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, J. J. Birmingham, and C. Allison, “Depth penetration and detection of pH gradients in biofilms by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3502–3511 (1999).

Bioimaging (1)

R. Sanders, H. Gerritsen, A. Draaijer, P. Houpt, and Y. K. Levine, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging of free calcium in single cells,” Bioimaging 2, 131–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

A. V. Agronskaia, L. Tertoolen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1655–1662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

E. A. Jares-Erijman and T. M. Jovin, “FRET imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Carlsson and J. Philip, “Theoretical investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio for different fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques,” Proc. SPIE 4622, 1605–7422 (2002).

H. C. Gerritsen, D. J. Van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “High-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5323, 77–87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Herman, “Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714–2721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

ISS, Inc., “Lifetime data of selected fluorophores,” http://www.iss.com/resources/fluorophores.html.

H. C. Gerristen, A. Draaijer, D. J. van den Heuvel, and A. V. Agronskaia, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed., J.B.Pawley, ed. (Springer, 2006).

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