Abstract

The evolution of color categorization is investigated using computer simulations of agent population categorization games. Various realistic observer types are implemented based on Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test human performance data from normal and anomalous trichromats, dichromats, and humans with four retinal photopigments. Results show that (i) a small percentage of realistically modeled deficient agents greatly affects the shared categorization solutions of the entire population in terms of color category boundary locations; (ii) for realistically modeled populations, dichromats have the strongest influence on the color categorization; their characteristic forms of color confusion affect (i.e., attract or repel) color boundary locations and accord with our findings for homogeneous dichromat populations [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 1414-1423 (2009)]; (iii) adding anomalous trichromats or trichromat “experts” does not destabilize the solutions or substantially alter solution structure. The results provide insights regarding the mechanisms that may constrain universal tendencies in human color categorization systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  51. T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  52. K. A. Jameson, “Sharing perceptually grounded categories in uniform and nonuniform populations,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 501-502 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  53. Fewer confusion pairs make minimization more likely.
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    [CrossRef]
  55. G. V. Paramei, “Color space of normally sighted and color-deficient observers reconstructed from color naming,” Psychol. Sci. 7, 311-317 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  56. With axes corresponding to the second and third vectors of the Eigen solution, namely, a Y−B axis and a R−G+B axis, respectively.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

A. K. Romney, “Relating reflectance spectra space to Munsell color appearance space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 658-666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Komarova and K. A. Jameson, “Population heterogeneity and color stimulus heterogeneity in agent-based color categorization,” J. Theor. Biol. 253, 680-700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Puglisi, A. Baronchelli, and V. Loreto, “Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7936-7940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. L. Komarova, K. A. Jameson, and L. Narens, “Evolutionary models of color categorization based on discrimination,” J. Math. Psychol. 51, 359-382 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dowman, “Explaining color term typology with an evolutionary model,” Cogn. Sci. 31, 99-132 (2007).

D. Roberson and J. R. Hanley, “Color vision: Color categories vary with language after all,” Curr. Biol. 17, R605-R607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. M. Hood, J. D. Mollon, L. Purves, and G. Jordan, “Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency,” Vision Res. 46, 2894-2900 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Griffin, “The basic colour categories are optimal for classification,” J. R. Soc., Interface 3, 71-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delwin T. Lindsey and Angela M. Brown, “Universality of color names,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 16608-16613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Belpaeme and J. Bleys, “Explaining universal color categories through a constrained acquisition process,” Adapt. Behav. 13, 293-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Steels and T. Belpaeme, “Coordinating perceptually grounded categories: A case study for colour,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 469-529 (2005).

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 8386-8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Sayim, K. A. Jameson, N. Alvarado, and M. K. Szeszel, “Semantic and perceptual representations of color: evidence of a shared color-naming function,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 427-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson, “Culture and cognition: What is universal about the representation of color experience?” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 293-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson, “Sharing perceptually grounded categories in uniform and nonuniform populations,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 501-502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “The development of color categories in two languages: a longitudinal study,” J. Exp. Psychol. 133, 554-571 (2004).

S. J. Dain, “Clinical colour vision tests,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 276-293 (2004).

G. V. Paramei, D. Bimler, and N. O. Mislavskaia, “Colour perception in twins: Individual variation beyond common genetic inheritance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 305-312 (2004).

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. A. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: Are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 9085-9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson and N. Alvarado, “Differences in color naming and color salience in Vietnamese and English,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 113-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244-261 (2001).

2000

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs,“Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, and J. Davidoff, “Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 369-398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and D. Roberson, “Colour categories in a stone-age tribe,” Nature 398, 203-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. V. Paramei, D. L. Bimler, and C. R. Cavonius, “Effect of luminance on color perception of protanopes,” Vision Res. 38, 3397-3401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokoyama and F. B. Radlwimmer, “The 'Five-Sites' Rule and the evolution of red and green color vision in mammals,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 15, 560-567 (1998).

1997

C. C. Moore, A. K. Romney, and T. Hsia, “Shared cognitive representations of perceptual and semantic structures of basic colors in Chinese and English,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 5007-5010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. V. Paramei, “Color space of normally sighted and color-deficient observers reconstructed from color naming,” Psychol. Sci. 7, 311-317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

A. B. Asenjo, J. Rim, and D. D. Oprian, “Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination,” Neuron 12, 1131-1138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women hererozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vision Res. 33, 1495-1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. Birch, “Use of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test in the examination of congenital colour vision defects,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 156-162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Nathans, D. Thomas, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green and red pigments,” Science 232, 193-202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nathans, T. P. Piantanida, R. L. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” Science 232, 203-210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977

1943

1938

J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Physiol. Soc. 50, 661-702 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Alvarado, N.

B. Sayim, K. A. Jameson, N. Alvarado, and M. K. Szeszel, “Semantic and perceptual representations of color: evidence of a shared color-naming function,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 427-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson and N. Alvarado, “Differences in color naming and color salience in Vietnamese and English,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 113-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asenjo, A. B.

A. B. Asenjo, J. Rim, and D. D. Oprian, “Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination,” Neuron 12, 1131-1138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baronchelli, A.

A. Puglisi, A. Baronchelli, and V. Loreto, “Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7936-7940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belpaeme, T.

T. Belpaeme and J. Bleys, “Explaining universal color categories through a constrained acquisition process,” Adapt. Behav. 13, 293-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Steels and T. Belpaeme, “Coordinating perceptually grounded categories: A case study for colour,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 469-529 (2005).

Bharadwadj, S.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bimler, D.

D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Paramei, D. Bimler, and N. O. Mislavskaia, “Colour perception in twins: Individual variation beyond common genetic inheritance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 305-312 (2004).

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. A. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: Are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs,“Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson, D. Bimler, and L. M. Wasserman, “Re-assessing perceptual diagnostics for observers with diverse retinal photopigment genotypes,” in Progress in Colour Studies 2: Cognition, N.J.Pitchford and C.P.Biggam, eds. (Benjamins, 2006), pp. 13-33.

Bimler, D. L.

G. V. Paramei, D. L. Bimler, and C. R. Cavonius, “Effect of luminance on color perception of protanopes,” Vision Res. 38, 3397-3401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J.

J. Birch, “Use of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test in the examination of congenital colour vision defects,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 156-162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001).

J. Birch, “Extreme anomalous trichromatism,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2003), pp. 364-369.

Bleys, J.

T. Belpaeme and J. Bleys, “Explaining universal color categories through a constrained acquisition process,” Adapt. Behav. 13, 293-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brown, Angela M.

Delwin T. Lindsey and Angela M. Brown, “Universality of color names,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 16608-16613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavonius, C. R.

G. V. Paramei, D. L. Bimler, and C. R. Cavonius, “Effect of luminance on color perception of protanopes,” Vision Res. 38, 3397-3401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R. S.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 8386-8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dain, S. J.

S. J. Dain, “Clinical colour vision tests,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 276-293 (2004).

D'Andrade, R. G.

K. Jameson and R. G. D'Andrade, “It's not really red, green, yellow, blue: An inquiry into cognitive color space,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C.L.Hardin and L.Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997), pp. 295-319.

Davidoff, J.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “The development of color categories in two languages: a longitudinal study,” J. Exp. Psychol. 133, 554-571 (2004).

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, and J. Davidoff, “Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 369-398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and D. Roberson, “Colour categories in a stone-age tribe,” Nature 398, 203-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davies, I.

J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and D. Roberson, “Colour categories in a stone-age tribe,” Nature 398, 203-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davies, I. R. L.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “The development of color categories in two languages: a longitudinal study,” J. Exp. Psychol. 133, 554-571 (2004).

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, and J. Davidoff, “Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 369-398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dowman, M.

M. Dowman, “Explaining color term typology with an evolutionary model,” Cogn. Sci. 31, 99-132 (2007).

Eddy, R. L.

J. Nathans, T. P. Piantanida, R. L. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” Science 232, 203-210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue and Dichotomous Tests for color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568-578 (1943).
[CrossRef]

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test for the Examination of Color Vision (Munsell Color Company, 1949/1957).

Griffin, L. D.

L. D. Griffin, “The basic colour categories are optimal for classification,” J. R. Soc., Interface 3, 71-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hanley, J. R.

D. Roberson and J. R. Hanley, “Color vision: Color categories vary with language after all,” Curr. Biol. 17, R605-R607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Highnote, S. M.

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244-261 (2001).

Hogness, D. S.

J. Nathans, T. P. Piantanida, R. L. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” Science 232, 203-210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nathans, D. Thomas, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green and red pigments,” Science 232, 193-202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hood, S. M.

S. M. Hood, J. D. Mollon, L. Purves, and G. Jordan, “Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency,” Vision Res. 46, 2894-2900 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsia, T.

C. C. Moore, A. K. Romney, and T. Hsia, “Shared cognitive representations of perceptual and semantic structures of basic colors in Chinese and English,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 5007-5010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jaaskelainen, T.

Jacobs, R.

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs,“Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jägle, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.

Jaikumar, J.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, K.

K. Jameson and R. G. D'Andrade, “It's not really red, green, yellow, blue: An inquiry into cognitive color space,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C.L.Hardin and L.Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997), pp. 295-319.

Jameson, K. A.

K. A. Jameson and N. L. Komarova, “Evolutionary models of color categorization. I. Population categorization systems based on normal and dichromat observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1414-1423 (2009).

N. L. Komarova and K. A. Jameson, “Population heterogeneity and color stimulus heterogeneity in agent-based color categorization,” J. Theor. Biol. 253, 680-700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Komarova, K. A. Jameson, and L. Narens, “Evolutionary models of color categorization based on discrimination,” J. Math. Psychol. 51, 359-382 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson, “Culture and cognition: What is universal about the representation of color experience?” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 293-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson, “Sharing perceptually grounded categories in uniform and nonuniform populations,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 501-502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Sayim, K. A. Jameson, N. Alvarado, and M. K. Szeszel, “Semantic and perceptual representations of color: evidence of a shared color-naming function,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 427-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. A. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: Are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson and N. Alvarado, “Differences in color naming and color salience in Vietnamese and English,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 113-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244-261 (2001).

K. A. Jameson, D. Bimler, and L. M. Wasserman, “Re-assessing perceptual diagnostics for observers with diverse retinal photopigment genotypes,” in Progress in Colour Studies 2: Cognition, N.J.Pitchford and C.P.Biggam, eds. (Benjamins, 2006), pp. 13-33.

Jordan, G.

S. M. Hood, J. D. Mollon, L. Purves, and G. Jordan, “Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency,” Vision Res. 46, 2894-2900 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women hererozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vision Res. 33, 1495-1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kay, P.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 8386-8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 9085-9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster and P. Kay, “Individual and population differences in focal colors,” in Anthropology of Color: Interdisciplinary Multilevel Modeling, R.E.MacLaury, G.V.Paramei, and D.Dedrick, eds. (Benjamins, 2007), pp. 29-53.

Khetarpal, N.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirkland, J.

D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. A. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: Are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs,“Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Komarova, N. L.

K. A. Jameson and N. L. Komarova, “Evolutionary models of color categorization. I. Population categorization systems based on normal and dichromat observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1414-1423 (2009).

N. L. Komarova and K. A. Jameson, “Population heterogeneity and color stimulus heterogeneity in agent-based color categorization,” J. Theor. Biol. 253, 680-700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Komarova, K. A. Jameson, and L. Narens, “Evolutionary models of color categorization based on discrimination,” J. Math. Psychol. 51, 359-382 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindsey, Delwin T.

Delwin T. Lindsey and Angela M. Brown, “Universality of color names,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 16608-16613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loreto, V.

A. Puglisi, A. Baronchelli, and V. Loreto, “Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7936-7940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madan, J.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mantere, K.

Mäntyjärvi, M.

Mislavskaia, N. O.

G. V. Paramei, D. Bimler, and N. O. Mislavskaia, “Colour perception in twins: Individual variation beyond common genetic inheritance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 305-312 (2004).

Mollon, J. D.

S. M. Hood, J. D. Mollon, L. Purves, and G. Jordan, “Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency,” Vision Res. 46, 2894-2900 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women hererozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vision Res. 33, 1495-1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. C.

C. C. Moore, A. K. Romney, and T. Hsia, “Shared cognitive representations of perceptual and semantic structures of basic colors in Chinese and English,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 5007-5010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Narens, L.

N. L. Komarova, K. A. Jameson, and L. Narens, “Evolutionary models of color categorization based on discrimination,” J. Math. Psychol. 51, 359-382 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nathans, J.

J. Nathans, D. Thomas, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green and red pigments,” Science 232, 193-202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nathans, T. P. Piantanida, R. L. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” Science 232, 203-210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Physiol. Soc. 50, 661-702 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Oprian, D. D.

A. B. Asenjo, J. Rim, and D. D. Oprian, “Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination,” Neuron 12, 1131-1138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paramei, G. V.

G. V. Paramei, D. Bimler, and N. O. Mislavskaia, “Colour perception in twins: Individual variation beyond common genetic inheritance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 305-312 (2004).

G. V. Paramei, D. L. Bimler, and C. R. Cavonius, “Effect of luminance on color perception of protanopes,” Vision Res. 38, 3397-3401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Paramei, “Color space of normally sighted and color-deficient observers reconstructed from color naming,” Psychol. Sci. 7, 311-317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parkkinen, J.

Piantanida, T. P.

J. Nathans, T. P. Piantanida, R. L. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” Science 232, 203-210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pinckers, A. J. L. G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196-1209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Puglisi, A.

A. Puglisi, A. Baronchelli, and V. Loreto, “Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7936-7940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Purves, L.

S. M. Hood, J. D. Mollon, L. Purves, and G. Jordan, “Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency,” Vision Res. 46, 2894-2900 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radlwimmer, F. B.

S. Yokoyama and F. B. Radlwimmer, “The 'Five-Sites' Rule and the evolution of red and green color vision in mammals,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 15, 560-567 (1998).

Regier, T.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 8386-8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 9085-9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rim, J.

A. B. Asenjo, J. Rim, and D. D. Oprian, “Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination,” Neuron 12, 1131-1138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roberson, D.

D. Roberson and J. R. Hanley, “Color vision: Color categories vary with language after all,” Curr. Biol. 17, R605-R607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “The development of color categories in two languages: a longitudinal study,” J. Exp. Psychol. 133, 554-571 (2004).

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, and J. Davidoff, “Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 369-398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and D. Roberson, “Colour categories in a stone-age tribe,” Nature 398, 203-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romney, A. K.

A. K. Romney, “Relating reflectance spectra space to Munsell color appearance space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 658-666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Moore, A. K. Romney, and T. Hsia, “Shared cognitive representations of perceptual and semantic structures of basic colors in Chinese and English,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 5007-5010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sayim, B.

B. Sayim, K. A. Jameson, N. Alvarado, and M. K. Szeszel, “Semantic and perceptual representations of color: evidence of a shared color-naming function,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 427-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, L. R.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “The development of color categories in two languages: a longitudinal study,” J. Exp. Psychol. 133, 554-571 (2004).

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.

Shows, T. B.

J. Nathans, T. P. Piantanida, R. L. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” Science 232, 203-210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny and V. C. Smith, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196-1209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Steels, L.

L. Steels and T. Belpaeme, “Coordinating perceptually grounded categories: A case study for colour,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 469-529 (2005).

Stiles, W.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.

Szeszel, M. K.

B. Sayim, K. A. Jameson, N. Alvarado, and M. K. Szeszel, “Semantic and perceptual representations of color: evidence of a shared color-naming function,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 427-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D.

J. Nathans, D. Thomas, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green and red pigments,” Science 232, 193-202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vaithilingam, E.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verma, R.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verriest, G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Wasserman, L. M.

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244-261 (2001).

K. A. Jameson, D. Bimler, and L. M. Wasserman, “Re-assessing perceptual diagnostics for observers with diverse retinal photopigment genotypes,” in Progress in Colour Studies 2: Cognition, N.J.Pitchford and C.P.Biggam, eds. (Benjamins, 2006), pp. 13-33.

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster and P. Kay, “Individual and population differences in focal colors,” in Anthropology of Color: Interdisciplinary Multilevel Modeling, R.E.MacLaury, G.V.Paramei, and D.Dedrick, eds. (Benjamins, 2007), pp. 29-53.

Webster, S. M.

M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwadj, R. Verma, J. Jaikumar, J. Madan, and E. Vaithilingam, “Variations in normal color vision: III. Unique hues in Indian and U.S. observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1957-1962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Yokoyama, S.

S. Yokoyama and F. B. Radlwimmer, “The 'Five-Sites' Rule and the evolution of red and green color vision in mammals,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 15, 560-567 (1998).

Adapt. Behav.

T. Belpaeme and J. Bleys, “Explaining universal color categories through a constrained acquisition process,” Adapt. Behav. 13, 293-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behav. Brain Sci.

L. Steels and T. Belpaeme, “Coordinating perceptually grounded categories: A case study for colour,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 469-529 (2005).

K. A. Jameson, “Sharing perceptually grounded categories in uniform and nonuniform populations,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 501-502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Exp. Optom.

S. J. Dain, “Clinical colour vision tests,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 276-293 (2004).

G. V. Paramei, D. Bimler, and N. O. Mislavskaia, “Colour perception in twins: Individual variation beyond common genetic inheritance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 305-312 (2004).

Cogn. Sci.

M. Dowman, “Explaining color term typology with an evolutionary model,” Cogn. Sci. 31, 99-132 (2007).

Color Res. Appl.

K. A. Jameson and N. Alvarado, “Differences in color naming and color salience in Vietnamese and English,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 113-138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and R. Jacobs,“Colour-vision tests considered as a special case of multidimensional scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 160-169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and K. A. Jameson, “Quantifying variations in personal color spaces: Are there sex differences in color vision?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 128-134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Biol.

D. Roberson and J. R. Hanley, “Color vision: Color categories vary with language after all,” Curr. Biol. 17, R605-R607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cogn. Culture

B. Sayim, K. A. Jameson, N. Alvarado, and M. K. Szeszel, “Semantic and perceptual representations of color: evidence of a shared color-naming function,” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 427-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Jameson, “Culture and cognition: What is universal about the representation of color experience?” J. Cogn. Culture 5, 293-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “The development of color categories in two languages: a longitudinal study,” J. Exp. Psychol. 133, 554-571 (2004).

J. Exp. Psychol. Gen.

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, and J. Davidoff, “Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 369-398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Psychol.

N. L. Komarova, K. A. Jameson, and L. Narens, “Evolutionary models of color categorization based on discrimination,” J. Math. Psychol. 51, 359-382 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. R. Soc., Interface

L. D. Griffin, “The basic colour categories are optimal for classification,” J. R. Soc., Interface 3, 71-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Theor. Biol.

N. L. Komarova and K. A. Jameson, “Population heterogeneity and color stimulus heterogeneity in agent-based color categorization,” J. Theor. Biol. 253, 680-700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Biol. Evol.

S. Yokoyama and F. B. Radlwimmer, “The 'Five-Sites' Rule and the evolution of red and green color vision in mammals,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 15, 560-567 (1998).

Nature

J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and D. Roberson, “Colour categories in a stone-age tribe,” Nature 398, 203-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neuron

A. B. Asenjo, J. Rim, and D. D. Oprian, “Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination,” Neuron 12, 1131-1138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt.

J. Birch, “Use of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test in the examination of congenital colour vision defects,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 9, 156-162 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Moore, A. K. Romney, and T. Hsia, “Shared cognitive representations of perceptual and semantic structures of basic colors in Chinese and English,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 5007-5010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 9085-9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 8386-8391 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delwin T. Lindsey and Angela M. Brown, “Universality of color names,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 16608-16613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal, “Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1436-1441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Puglisi, A. Baronchelli, and V. Loreto, “Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 7936-7940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Physiol. Soc.

J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Physiol. Soc. 50, 661-702 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Sci.

G. V. Paramei, “Color space of normally sighted and color-deficient observers reconstructed from color naming,” Psychol. Sci. 7, 311-317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Psychon. Bull. Rev.

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244-261 (2001).

Science

J. Nathans, D. Thomas, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green and red pigments,” Science 232, 193-202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nathans, T. P. Piantanida, R. L. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and D. S. Hogness, “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” Science 232, 203-210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

G. V. Paramei, D. L. Bimler, and C. R. Cavonius, “Effect of luminance on color perception of protanopes,” Vision Res. 38, 3397-3401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women hererozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vision Res. 33, 1495-1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimler and J. Kirkland, “Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency,” Vision Res. 49, 536-543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hood, J. D. Mollon, L. Purves, and G. Jordan, “Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency,” Vision Res. 46, 2894-2900 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. A. Webster and P. Kay, “Individual and population differences in focal colors,” in Anthropology of Color: Interdisciplinary Multilevel Modeling, R.E.MacLaury, G.V.Paramei, and D.Dedrick, eds. (Benjamins, 2007), pp. 29-53.

C.L.Hardin and L.Maffi, eds., Color Categories in Thought and Language (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

K. A. Jameson, D. Bimler, and L. M. Wasserman, “Re-assessing perceptual diagnostics for observers with diverse retinal photopigment genotypes,” in Progress in Colour Studies 2: Cognition, N.J.Pitchford and C.P.Biggam, eds. (Benjamins, 2006), pp. 13-33.

Farnsworth-Munsell Scaling Software, Version 2.1 (MacBeth Division of Kolmorgen Corporation, 1997).

J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision, 2nd ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test for the Examination of Color Vision (Munsell Color Company, 1949/1957).

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Subjects 27, 52, 58, 61, and 85 reported in [33]: ages 18-21 years, with above average chromatic banding behaviors [μ(medianbands)=10 versus 7.9 for controls].

K. Jameson and R. G. D'Andrade, “It's not really red, green, yellow, blue: An inquiry into cognitive color space,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C.L.Hardin and L.Maffi, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997), pp. 295-319.

With axes corresponding to the second and third vectors of the Eigen solution, namely, a Y−B axis and a R−G+B axis, respectively.

Fewer confusion pairs make minimization more likely.

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