Abstract

We seek to determine the relationship between threshold and suprathreshold perception for position offset and stereoscopic depth perception under conditions that elevate their respective thresholds. Two threshold-elevating conditions were used: (1) increasing the interline gap and (2) dioptric blur. Although increasing the interline gap increases position (Vernier) offset and stereoscopic disparity thresholds substantially, the perception of suprathreshold position offset and stereoscopic depth remains unchanged. Perception of suprathreshold position offset also remains unchanged when the Vernier threshold is elevated by dioptric blur. We show that such normalization of suprathreshold position offset can be attributed to the topographical-map-based encoding of position. On the other hand, dioptric blur increases the stereoscopic disparity thresholds and reduces the perceived suprathreshold stereoscopic depth, which can be accounted for by a disparity-computation model in which the activities of absolute disparity encoders are multiplied by a Gaussian weighting function that is centered on the horopter. Overall, the statement “equal suprathreshold perception occurs in threshold-elevated and unelevated conditions when the stimuli are equally above their corresponding thresholds” describes the results better than the statement “suprathreshold stimuli are perceived as equal when they are equal multiples of their respective threshold values.”

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. C. M. Schor and I. Wood, “Disparity range for local stereopsis as a function of luminance spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 23, 1649-1654 (1983).
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  15. R. S. Harwerth, P. M. Fredenburg, and E. L. Smith 3rd, “Temporal integration for stereoscopic vision,” Vision Res. 43, 505-517 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. A. H. Holoway and E. G. Boring, “Determinants of apparent visual size with distance variant,” Am. J. Psychol. 54, 21-37 (1941).
  20. W. van Damme and E. Brenner, “The distance used for scaling disparities is the same as the one used for scaling retinal size,” Vision Res. 37, 757-764 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, “Weber's law for position: the role of spatial frequency and contrast,” Vision Res. 32, 2235-2250 (1992).
  28. S. J. Waugh and D. M. Levi, “Spatial alignment across gaps: contributions of orientation and spatial scale,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2305-2317 (1995).
  29. J. M. Findlay, “Feature detectors and vernier acuity,” Nature (London) 241, 135-137 (1973).
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  30. S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, and T. Carney, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” Vision Res. 33, 1619-1638 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. J. Mussap and D. M. Levi, “Spatial properties of filters underlying vernier acuity revealed by masking: evidence for collator mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 2459-2473 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and M. T. Ukwade, “Vernier judgments in the absence of regular shape information,” Vision Res. 39, 2349-2360 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, “Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392-1405 (1977).
  34. J. I. Nelson, H. Kato, and P. O. Bishop, “Discrimination of orientation and position disparities by binocularly activated neurons in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 260-283 (1977).
  35. G. F. Poggio, B. C. Motter, S. Squatrito, and Y. Trotter, “Responses of neurons in visual cortex (V1 and V2) of the alert macaque to dynamic random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 25, 397-406 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. P. Roy, H. Komatsu, and R. H. Wurtz, “Disparity sensitivity of neurons in monkey extrastriate area MST,” J. Neurosci. 12, 2478-2492 (1992).
  37. S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and P. Sampat, “Pooling signals from vertically and non-vertically orientation-tuned disparity mechanisms in human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 46, 1-13 (2006).
  38. S. S. Patel, B. C. Jiang, and H. Ogmen, “Vergence dynamics predict fixation disparity,” Neural Comput. 13, 1495-1525 (2001).
  39. N. Qian and Y. Zhu, “Physiological computation of binocular disparity,” Vision Res. 37, 1811-1827 (1997).
  40. D. J. Fleet, H. Wagner, and D. J. Heeger, “Neural encoding of binocular disparity: energy models, position shifts and phase shifts,” Vision Res. 36, 1839-1857 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  41. S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).
  42. L. Gantz, S. S. Patel, S. T. Chung, and R. S. Harwerth, “Mechanisms of perceptual learning of depth discrimination in random dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 47, 2170-2178 (2007).
  43. S. P. McKee and G. J. Mitchison, “The role of retinal correspondence in stereoscopic matching,” Vision Res. 28, 1001-1012 (1988).
  44. H. A. Mallot and H. Bideau, “Binocular vergence influences the assignment of stereo correspondences,” Vision Res. 30, 1521-1523 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  45. S. B. Stevenson, L. K. Cormack, C. M. Schor, and C. W. Tyler, “Disparity tuning in mechanisms of human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 32, 1685-1694 (1992).
  46. S. J. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Weighted directional energy model of human stereo correspondence,” Vision Res. 40, 1143-1155 (2000).
  47. H. S. Smallman and D. I. MacLeod, “Spatial scale interactions in stereo sensitivity and the neural representation of binocular disparity,” Perception 26, 977-994 (1997).
  48. C. M. Schor and P. A. Howarth, “Suprathreshold stereo-depth matches as a function of contrast and spatial frequency,” Perception 15, 249-258 (1986).
  49. C. M. Schor and D. R. Badcock, “A comparison of stereo and vernier acuity within spatial channels as a function of distance from fixation,” Vision Res. 25, 1113-1119 (1985).

2007 (1)

L. Gantz, S. S. Patel, S. T. Chung, and R. S. Harwerth, “Mechanisms of perceptual learning of depth discrimination in random dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 47, 2170-2178 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and P. Sampat, “Pooling signals from vertically and non-vertically orientation-tuned disparity mechanisms in human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 46, 1-13 (2006).

2003 (2)

R. S. Harwerth, P. M. Fredenburg, and E. L. Smith 3rd, “Temporal integration for stereoscopic vision,” Vision Res. 43, 505-517 (2003).

S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

2002 (1)

W. H. Bosking, J. C. Crowley, and D. Fitzpatrick, “Spatial coding of position and orientation in primary visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 874-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. S. Patel, B. C. Jiang, and H. Ogmen, “Vergence dynamics predict fixation disparity,” Neural Comput. 13, 1495-1525 (2001).

2000 (2)

L. M. Wilcox, J. H. Elder, and R. F. Hess, “The effects of blur and size on monocular and stereoscopic localization,” Vision Res. 40, 3575-3584 (2000).

S. J. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Weighted directional energy model of human stereo correspondence,” Vision Res. 40, 1143-1155 (2000).

1999 (2)

E. Brenner and W. J. van Damme, “Perceived distance, shape and size,” Vision Res. 39, 975-986 (1999).

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and M. T. Ukwade, “Vernier judgments in the absence of regular shape information,” Vision Res. 39, 2349-2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. T. Chung and H. E. Bedell, “Vernier and letter acuities for low-pass filtered moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1967-1982 (1998).

C. M. Schor, M. Edwards, and D. R. Pope, “Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system,” Vision Res. 38, 3057-3068 (1998).

1997 (3)

W. van Damme and E. Brenner, “The distance used for scaling disparities is the same as the one used for scaling retinal size,” Vision Res. 37, 757-764 (1997).

N. Qian and Y. Zhu, “Physiological computation of binocular disparity,” Vision Res. 37, 1811-1827 (1997).

H. S. Smallman and D. I. MacLeod, “Spatial scale interactions in stereo sensitivity and the neural representation of binocular disparity,” Perception 26, 977-994 (1997).

1996 (3)

D. J. Fleet, H. Wagner, and D. J. Heeger, “Neural encoding of binocular disparity: energy models, position shifts and phase shifts,” Vision Res. 36, 1839-1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mussap and D. M. Levi, “Spatial properties of filters underlying vernier acuity revealed by masking: evidence for collator mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 2459-2473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Bradshaw, A. Glennerster, and B. J. Rogers, “The effect of display size on disparity scaling from differential perspective and vergence cues,” Vision Res. 36, 1255-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, and T. Carney, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” Vision Res. 33, 1619-1638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, “Weber's law for position: the role of spatial frequency and contrast,” Vision Res. 32, 2235-2250 (1992).

J. P. Roy, H. Komatsu, and R. H. Wurtz, “Disparity sensitivity of neurons in monkey extrastriate area MST,” J. Neurosci. 12, 2478-2492 (1992).

S. B. Stevenson, L. K. Cormack, C. M. Schor, and C. W. Tyler, “Disparity tuning in mechanisms of human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 32, 1685-1694 (1992).

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

H. A. Mallot and H. Bideau, “Binocular vergence influences the assignment of stereo correspondences,” Vision Res. 30, 1521-1523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. P. McKee and G. J. Mitchison, “The role of retinal correspondence in stereoscopic matching,” Vision Res. 28, 1001-1012 (1988).

1987 (1)

M. A. Georgeson, “Temporal properties of spatial contrast vision,” Vision Res. 27, 765-780 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. M. Schor and P. A. Howarth, “Suprathreshold stereo-depth matches as a function of contrast and spatial frequency,” Perception 15, 249-258 (1986).

1985 (2)

C. M. Schor and D. R. Badcock, “A comparison of stereo and vernier acuity within spatial channels as a function of distance from fixation,” Vision Res. 25, 1113-1119 (1985).

G. F. Poggio, B. C. Motter, S. Squatrito, and Y. Trotter, “Responses of neurons in visual cortex (V1 and V2) of the alert macaque to dynamic random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 25, 397-406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

W. H. Swanson, H. R. Wilson, and S. C. Giese, “Contrast matching data predicted from contrast increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 24, 63-75 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. M. Schor and I. Wood, “Disparity range for local stereopsis as a function of luminance spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 23, 1649-1654 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1977 (4)

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Spatial configurations for visual hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 17, 941-947 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Ferrier lecture. Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London 198, 1-59 (1977).

G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, “Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392-1405 (1977).

J. I. Nelson, H. Kato, and P. O. Bishop, “Discrimination of orientation and position disparities by binocularly activated neurons in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 260-283 (1977).

1976 (1)

J. J. Kulikowski, “Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation,” Vision Res. 16, 1419-1431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627-656 (1975).

1974 (1)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: a parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor,” J. Comp. Neurol. 158, 295-305 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. M. Findlay, “Feature detectors and vernier acuity,” Nature (London) 241, 135-137 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007-1016 (1964).

1948 (1)

R. N. Berry, “Quantitative relations among vernier, real depth, and stereoscopic depth acuities,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 708-721 (1948).

1941 (1)

A. H. Holoway and E. G. Boring, “Determinants of apparent visual size with distance variant,” Am. J. Psychol. 54, 21-37 (1941).

1923 (1)

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, “Visual perception and the retinal mosaic,” Am. J. Physiol. 64, 559-594 (1923).

Andersen, E. E.

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, “Visual perception and the retinal mosaic,” Am. J. Physiol. 64, 559-594 (1923).

Badcock, D. R.

C. M. Schor and D. R. Badcock, “A comparison of stereo and vernier acuity within spatial channels as a function of distance from fixation,” Vision Res. 25, 1113-1119 (1985).

Bedell, H. E.

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and P. Sampat, “Pooling signals from vertically and non-vertically orientation-tuned disparity mechanisms in human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 46, 1-13 (2006).

S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and M. T. Ukwade, “Vernier judgments in the absence of regular shape information,” Vision Res. 39, 2349-2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chung and H. E. Bedell, “Vernier and letter acuities for low-pass filtered moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1967-1982 (1998).

Berry, R. N.

R. N. Berry, “Quantitative relations among vernier, real depth, and stereoscopic depth acuities,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 708-721 (1948).

Bideau, H.

H. A. Mallot and H. Bideau, “Binocular vergence influences the assignment of stereo correspondences,” Vision Res. 30, 1521-1523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, P. O.

J. I. Nelson, H. Kato, and P. O. Bishop, “Discrimination of orientation and position disparities by binocularly activated neurons in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 260-283 (1977).

Boring, E. G.

A. H. Holoway and E. G. Boring, “Determinants of apparent visual size with distance variant,” Am. J. Psychol. 54, 21-37 (1941).

Bosking, W. H.

W. H. Bosking, J. C. Crowley, and D. Fitzpatrick, “Spatial coding of position and orientation in primary visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 874-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, M. F.

M. F. Bradshaw, A. Glennerster, and B. J. Rogers, “The effect of display size on disparity scaling from differential perspective and vergence cues,” Vision Res. 36, 1255-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, E.

E. Brenner and W. J. van Damme, “Perceived distance, shape and size,” Vision Res. 39, 975-986 (1999).

W. van Damme and E. Brenner, “The distance used for scaling disparities is the same as the one used for scaling retinal size,” Vision Res. 37, 757-764 (1997).

Carney, T.

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, and T. Carney, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” Vision Res. 33, 1619-1638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. T.

L. Gantz, S. S. Patel, S. T. Chung, and R. S. Harwerth, “Mechanisms of perceptual learning of depth discrimination in random dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 47, 2170-2178 (2007).

S. T. Chung and H. E. Bedell, “Vernier and letter acuities for low-pass filtered moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1967-1982 (1998).

Comerford, J.

H. Ono and J. Comerford, “Stereoscopic depth constancy,” in Stability and Constancy in Visual Perception, W.Epstein, ed. (Wiley, 1977), pp. 91-128.

Cormack, L. K.

S. B. Stevenson, L. K. Cormack, C. M. Schor, and C. W. Tyler, “Disparity tuning in mechanisms of human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 32, 1685-1694 (1992).

Crowley, J. C.

W. H. Bosking, J. C. Crowley, and D. Fitzpatrick, “Spatial coding of position and orientation in primary visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 874-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eagle, R. A.

S. J. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Weighted directional energy model of human stereo correspondence,” Vision Res. 40, 1143-1155 (2000).

Edwards, M.

C. M. Schor, M. Edwards, and D. R. Pope, “Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system,” Vision Res. 38, 3057-3068 (1998).

Elder, J. H.

L. M. Wilcox, J. H. Elder, and R. F. Hess, “The effects of blur and size on monocular and stereoscopic localization,” Vision Res. 40, 3575-3584 (2000).

Fechner, G. T.

G. T. Fechner, in Elemente der Psychophysik (Breitkopf and Hartel, 1860).

Findlay, J. M.

J. M. Findlay, “Feature detectors and vernier acuity,” Nature (London) 241, 135-137 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, “Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392-1405 (1977).

Fitzpatrick, D.

W. H. Bosking, J. C. Crowley, and D. Fitzpatrick, “Spatial coding of position and orientation in primary visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 874-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fleet, D. J.

D. J. Fleet, H. Wagner, and D. J. Heeger, “Neural encoding of binocular disparity: energy models, position shifts and phase shifts,” Vision Res. 36, 1839-1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fredenburg, P. M.

R. S. Harwerth, P. M. Fredenburg, and E. L. Smith 3rd, “Temporal integration for stereoscopic vision,” Vision Res. 43, 505-517 (2003).

Gantz, L.

L. Gantz, S. S. Patel, S. T. Chung, and R. S. Harwerth, “Mechanisms of perceptual learning of depth discrimination in random dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 47, 2170-2178 (2007).

Georgeson, M. A.

M. A. Georgeson, “Contrast overconstancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 579-586 (1991).

M. A. Georgeson, “Temporal properties of spatial contrast vision,” Vision Res. 27, 765-780 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627-656 (1975).

Giese, S. C.

W. H. Swanson, H. R. Wilson, and S. C. Giese, “Contrast matching data predicted from contrast increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 24, 63-75 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Glennerster, A.

M. F. Bradshaw, A. Glennerster, and B. J. Rogers, “The effect of display size on disparity scaling from differential perspective and vergence cues,” Vision Res. 36, 1255-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Green, D. M.

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, 1974).

Harwerth, R. S.

L. Gantz, S. S. Patel, S. T. Chung, and R. S. Harwerth, “Mechanisms of perceptual learning of depth discrimination in random dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 47, 2170-2178 (2007).

R. S. Harwerth, P. M. Fredenburg, and E. L. Smith 3rd, “Temporal integration for stereoscopic vision,” Vision Res. 43, 505-517 (2003).

Heeger, D. J.

D. J. Fleet, H. Wagner, and D. J. Heeger, “Neural encoding of binocular disparity: energy models, position shifts and phase shifts,” Vision Res. 36, 1839-1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hess, R. F.

L. M. Wilcox, J. H. Elder, and R. F. Hess, “The effects of blur and size on monocular and stereoscopic localization,” Vision Res. 40, 3575-3584 (2000).

Holoway, A. H.

A. H. Holoway and E. G. Boring, “Determinants of apparent visual size with distance variant,” Am. J. Psychol. 54, 21-37 (1941).

Howarth, P. A.

C. M. Schor and P. A. Howarth, “Suprathreshold stereo-depth matches as a function of contrast and spatial frequency,” Perception 15, 249-258 (1986).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Ferrier lecture. Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London 198, 1-59 (1977).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: a parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor,” J. Comp. Neurol. 158, 295-305 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B. C.

S. S. Patel, B. C. Jiang, and H. Ogmen, “Vergence dynamics predict fixation disparity,” Neural Comput. 13, 1495-1525 (2001).

Kato, H.

J. I. Nelson, H. Kato, and P. O. Bishop, “Discrimination of orientation and position disparities by binocularly activated neurons in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 260-283 (1977).

Klein, S. A.

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, “Weber's law for position: the role of spatial frequency and contrast,” Vision Res. 32, 2235-2250 (1992).

Komatsu, H.

J. P. Roy, H. Komatsu, and R. H. Wurtz, “Disparity sensitivity of neurons in monkey extrastriate area MST,” J. Neurosci. 12, 2478-2492 (1992).

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, “Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation,” Vision Res. 16, 1419-1431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Levi, D. M.

A. J. Mussap and D. M. Levi, “Spatial properties of filters underlying vernier acuity revealed by masking: evidence for collator mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 2459-2473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Waugh and D. M. Levi, “Spatial alignment across gaps: contributions of orientation and spatial scale,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2305-2317 (1995).

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, and T. Carney, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” Vision Res. 33, 1619-1638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, “Weber's law for position: the role of spatial frequency and contrast,” Vision Res. 32, 2235-2250 (1992).

MacLeod, D. I.

H. S. Smallman and D. I. MacLeod, “Spatial scale interactions in stereo sensitivity and the neural representation of binocular disparity,” Perception 26, 977-994 (1997).

Mallot, H. A.

H. A. Mallot and H. Bideau, “Binocular vergence influences the assignment of stereo correspondences,” Vision Res. 30, 1521-1523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McKee, S.

McKee, S. P.

S. P. McKee and G. J. Mitchison, “The role of retinal correspondence in stereoscopic matching,” Vision Res. 28, 1001-1012 (1988).

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Spatial configurations for visual hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 17, 941-947 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mitchison, G. J.

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S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

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L. Gantz, S. S. Patel, S. T. Chung, and R. S. Harwerth, “Mechanisms of perceptual learning of depth discrimination in random dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 47, 2170-2178 (2007).

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and P. Sampat, “Pooling signals from vertically and non-vertically orientation-tuned disparity mechanisms in human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 46, 1-13 (2006).

S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

S. S. Patel, B. C. Jiang, and H. Ogmen, “Vergence dynamics predict fixation disparity,” Neural Comput. 13, 1495-1525 (2001).

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and M. T. Ukwade, “Vernier judgments in the absence of regular shape information,” Vision Res. 39, 2349-2360 (1999).
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M. H. Pirenne, “Spectral luminous efficiency of radiation,” in The Eye, H.Davson, ed. (Academic, 1962), pp. 65-91.

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G. F. Poggio, B. C. Motter, S. Squatrito, and Y. Trotter, “Responses of neurons in visual cortex (V1 and V2) of the alert macaque to dynamic random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 25, 397-406 (1985).
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C. M. Schor, M. Edwards, and D. R. Pope, “Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system,” Vision Res. 38, 3057-3068 (1998).

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S. J. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Weighted directional energy model of human stereo correspondence,” Vision Res. 40, 1143-1155 (2000).

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N. Qian and Y. Zhu, “Physiological computation of binocular disparity,” Vision Res. 37, 1811-1827 (1997).

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M. F. Bradshaw, A. Glennerster, and B. J. Rogers, “The effect of display size on disparity scaling from differential perspective and vergence cues,” Vision Res. 36, 1255-1264 (1996).
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J. P. Roy, H. Komatsu, and R. H. Wurtz, “Disparity sensitivity of neurons in monkey extrastriate area MST,” J. Neurosci. 12, 2478-2492 (1992).

Sampat, P.

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and P. Sampat, “Pooling signals from vertically and non-vertically orientation-tuned disparity mechanisms in human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 46, 1-13 (2006).

Sampath, V.

S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

Schor, C. M.

C. M. Schor, M. Edwards, and D. R. Pope, “Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system,” Vision Res. 38, 3057-3068 (1998).

S. B. Stevenson, L. K. Cormack, C. M. Schor, and C. W. Tyler, “Disparity tuning in mechanisms of human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 32, 1685-1694 (1992).

C. M. Schor and P. A. Howarth, “Suprathreshold stereo-depth matches as a function of contrast and spatial frequency,” Perception 15, 249-258 (1986).

C. M. Schor and D. R. Badcock, “A comparison of stereo and vernier acuity within spatial channels as a function of distance from fixation,” Vision Res. 25, 1113-1119 (1985).

C. M. Schor and I. Wood, “Disparity range for local stereopsis as a function of luminance spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 23, 1649-1654 (1983).
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H. S. Smallman and D. I. MacLeod, “Spatial scale interactions in stereo sensitivity and the neural representation of binocular disparity,” Perception 26, 977-994 (1997).

Smith, E. L.

R. S. Harwerth, P. M. Fredenburg, and E. L. Smith 3rd, “Temporal integration for stereoscopic vision,” Vision Res. 43, 505-517 (2003).

Squatrito, S.

G. F. Poggio, B. C. Motter, S. Squatrito, and Y. Trotter, “Responses of neurons in visual cortex (V1 and V2) of the alert macaque to dynamic random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 25, 397-406 (1985).
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Stevenson, S. B.

S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

S. B. Stevenson, L. K. Cormack, C. M. Schor, and C. W. Tyler, “Disparity tuning in mechanisms of human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 32, 1685-1694 (1992).

Sullivan, G. D.

M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627-656 (1975).

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W. H. Swanson, H. R. Wilson, and S. C. Giese, “Contrast matching data predicted from contrast increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 24, 63-75 (1984).
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D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, 1974).

Trotter, Y.

G. F. Poggio, B. C. Motter, S. Squatrito, and Y. Trotter, “Responses of neurons in visual cortex (V1 and V2) of the alert macaque to dynamic random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 25, 397-406 (1985).
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Tyler, C. W.

S. B. Stevenson, L. K. Cormack, C. M. Schor, and C. W. Tyler, “Disparity tuning in mechanisms of human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 32, 1685-1694 (1992).

Ukwade, M. T.

S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and M. T. Ukwade, “Vernier judgments in the absence of regular shape information,” Vision Res. 39, 2349-2360 (1999).
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van Damme, W.

W. van Damme and E. Brenner, “The distance used for scaling disparities is the same as the one used for scaling retinal size,” Vision Res. 37, 757-764 (1997).

van Damme, W. J.

E. Brenner and W. J. van Damme, “Perceived distance, shape and size,” Vision Res. 39, 975-986 (1999).

Wagner, H.

D. J. Fleet, H. Wagner, and D. J. Heeger, “Neural encoding of binocular disparity: energy models, position shifts and phase shifts,” Vision Res. 36, 1839-1857 (1996).
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G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007-1016 (1964).

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S. J. Waugh and D. M. Levi, “Spatial alignment across gaps: contributions of orientation and spatial scale,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2305-2317 (1995).

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, and T. Carney, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” Vision Res. 33, 1619-1638 (1993).
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G. Westheimer and S. McKee, “Stereoscopic acuity with defocused and spatially filtered retinal images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 772-787 (1980).

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L. M. Wilcox, J. H. Elder, and R. F. Hess, “The effects of blur and size on monocular and stereoscopic localization,” Vision Res. 40, 3575-3584 (2000).

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W. H. Swanson, H. R. Wilson, and S. C. Giese, “Contrast matching data predicted from contrast increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 24, 63-75 (1984).
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C. M. Schor and I. Wood, “Disparity range for local stereopsis as a function of luminance spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 23, 1649-1654 (1983).
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Wurtz, R. H.

J. P. Roy, H. Komatsu, and R. H. Wurtz, “Disparity sensitivity of neurons in monkey extrastriate area MST,” J. Neurosci. 12, 2478-2492 (1992).

Zhu, Y.

N. Qian and Y. Zhu, “Physiological computation of binocular disparity,” Vision Res. 37, 1811-1827 (1997).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, “Visual perception and the retinal mosaic,” Am. J. Physiol. 64, 559-594 (1923).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

A. H. Holoway and E. G. Boring, “Determinants of apparent visual size with distance variant,” Am. J. Psychol. 54, 21-37 (1941).

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: a parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor,” J. Comp. Neurol. 158, 295-305 (1974).
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J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

R. N. Berry, “Quantitative relations among vernier, real depth, and stereoscopic depth acuities,” J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 708-721 (1948).

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

G. F. Poggio and B. Fischer, “Binocular interaction and depth sensitivity in striate and prestriate cortex of behaving rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 1392-1405 (1977).

J. I. Nelson, H. Kato, and P. O. Bishop, “Discrimination of orientation and position disparities by binocularly activated neurons in cat striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 40, 260-283 (1977).

J. Neurosci. (1)

J. P. Roy, H. Komatsu, and R. H. Wurtz, “Disparity sensitivity of neurons in monkey extrastriate area MST,” J. Neurosci. 12, 2478-2492 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

M. A. Georgeson and G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 252, 627-656 (1975).

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

W. H. Bosking, J. C. Crowley, and D. Fitzpatrick, “Spatial coding of position and orientation in primary visual cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 874-882 (2002).
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Nature (London) (1)

J. M. Findlay, “Feature detectors and vernier acuity,” Nature (London) 241, 135-137 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Neural Comput. (1)

S. S. Patel, B. C. Jiang, and H. Ogmen, “Vergence dynamics predict fixation disparity,” Neural Comput. 13, 1495-1525 (2001).

Perception (2)

H. S. Smallman and D. I. MacLeod, “Spatial scale interactions in stereo sensitivity and the neural representation of binocular disparity,” Perception 26, 977-994 (1997).

C. M. Schor and P. A. Howarth, “Suprathreshold stereo-depth matches as a function of contrast and spatial frequency,” Perception 15, 249-258 (1986).

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Ferrier lecture. Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London 198, 1-59 (1977).

Science (1)

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007-1016 (1964).

Vision Res. (27)

C. M. Schor and D. R. Badcock, “A comparison of stereo and vernier acuity within spatial channels as a function of distance from fixation,” Vision Res. 25, 1113-1119 (1985).

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and P. Sampat, “Pooling signals from vertically and non-vertically orientation-tuned disparity mechanisms in human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 46, 1-13 (2006).

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, “Weber's law for position: the role of spatial frequency and contrast,” Vision Res. 32, 2235-2250 (1992).

G. F. Poggio, B. C. Motter, S. Squatrito, and Y. Trotter, “Responses of neurons in visual cortex (V1 and V2) of the alert macaque to dynamic random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 25, 397-406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. van Damme and E. Brenner, “The distance used for scaling disparities is the same as the one used for scaling retinal size,” Vision Res. 37, 757-764 (1997).

S. J. Waugh, D. M. Levi, and T. Carney, “Orientation, masking, and vernier acuity for line targets,” Vision Res. 33, 1619-1638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mussap and D. M. Levi, “Spatial properties of filters underlying vernier acuity revealed by masking: evidence for collator mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 2459-2473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and M. T. Ukwade, “Vernier judgments in the absence of regular shape information,” Vision Res. 39, 2349-2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Qian and Y. Zhu, “Physiological computation of binocular disparity,” Vision Res. 37, 1811-1827 (1997).

D. J. Fleet, H. Wagner, and D. J. Heeger, “Neural encoding of binocular disparity: energy models, position shifts and phase shifts,” Vision Res. 36, 1839-1857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Patel, M. T. Ukwade, S. B. Stevenson, H. E. Bedell, V. Sampath, and H. Ogmen, “Stereoscopic depth perception from oblique phase disparities,” Vision Res. 43, 2479-2492 (2003).

L. Gantz, S. S. Patel, S. T. Chung, and R. S. Harwerth, “Mechanisms of perceptual learning of depth discrimination in random dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 47, 2170-2178 (2007).

S. P. McKee and G. J. Mitchison, “The role of retinal correspondence in stereoscopic matching,” Vision Res. 28, 1001-1012 (1988).

H. A. Mallot and H. Bideau, “Binocular vergence influences the assignment of stereo correspondences,” Vision Res. 30, 1521-1523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Stevenson, L. K. Cormack, C. M. Schor, and C. W. Tyler, “Disparity tuning in mechanisms of human stereopsis,” Vision Res. 32, 1685-1694 (1992).

S. J. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Weighted directional energy model of human stereo correspondence,” Vision Res. 40, 1143-1155 (2000).

W. H. Swanson, H. R. Wilson, and S. C. Giese, “Contrast matching data predicted from contrast increment thresholds,” Vision Res. 24, 63-75 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Georgeson, “Temporal properties of spatial contrast vision,” Vision Res. 27, 765-780 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Schor and I. Wood, “Disparity range for local stereopsis as a function of luminance spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 23, 1649-1654 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kulikowski, “Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation,” Vision Res. 16, 1419-1431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chung and H. E. Bedell, “Vernier and letter acuities for low-pass filtered moving stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1967-1982 (1998).

C. M. Schor, M. Edwards, and D. R. Pope, “Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system,” Vision Res. 38, 3057-3068 (1998).

R. S. Harwerth, P. M. Fredenburg, and E. L. Smith 3rd, “Temporal integration for stereoscopic vision,” Vision Res. 43, 505-517 (2003).

G. Westheimer and S. P. McKee, “Spatial configurations for visual hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 17, 941-947 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Wilcox, J. H. Elder, and R. F. Hess, “The effects of blur and size on monocular and stereoscopic localization,” Vision Res. 40, 3575-3584 (2000).

M. F. Bradshaw, A. Glennerster, and B. J. Rogers, “The effect of display size on disparity scaling from differential perspective and vergence cues,” Vision Res. 36, 1255-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Brenner and W. J. van Damme, “Perceived distance, shape and size,” Vision Res. 39, 975-986 (1999).

Other (4)

H. Ono and J. Comerford, “Stereoscopic depth constancy,” in Stability and Constancy in Visual Perception, W.Epstein, ed. (Wiley, 1977), pp. 91-128.

G. T. Fechner, in Elemente der Psychophysik (Breitkopf and Hartel, 1860).

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, 1974).

M. H. Pirenne, “Spectral luminous efficiency of radiation,” in The Eye, H.Davson, ed. (Academic, 1962), pp. 65-91.

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