Abstract

This research presents a novel 2D feature space where real faces and masked fake faces can be effectively discriminated. We exploit the reflectance disparity based on albedo between real faces and fake materials. The feature vector used consists of radiance measurements of the forehead region under 850 and 685nm illuminations. Facial skin and mask material show linearly separable distributions in the feature space proposed. By simply applying Fisher’s linear discriminant, we have achieved 97.78% accuracy in fake face detection. Our method can be easily implemented in commercial face verification systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Bettinger and T. F. Cootes, “A model of facial behaviour,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 123-128.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Park, C. Kim, J. Na, and J. Yi, “Effectively exploiting distortion of structured light pattern for capturing depth discontinuities,” in Proceedings of the 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (2007), pp. 29-34.
  3. N. G. Jablonski and G. Chaplin, “The evolution of human skin coloration,” J. Human Evolution 39, 57-106 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).
  5. K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Störring, “Computer vision and human skin colour,” in Ph.D. dissertation (Computer Vision and Media Technology Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark, 2004).
  7. E. Angelopoulou, “The reflectance spectrum of human skin,” Tech. Rep. MS-CIS-99-29 (Pennsylvania University, 1999).
  8. C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “A spectral BSSRDF for human skin,” in Proceedings of Eurographics Symposium on Rendering Techniques (2006), pp. 409-417.
  9. C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “Light diffusion in multilayered translucent material,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers (ACM SIGGRAPH, 2005) pp. 1032-1039 (siggraph. org).
  10. R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Photometric stereo with general, unknown lighting,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 374-381.
  11. H. Hayakawa, “Photometric stereo under a light source with arbitrary motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3079-3089 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. L. Yuille, D. Snow, R. Epstein, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Determining generative models of objects under varying illumination: shape and albedo from multiple images using SVD and integrability,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 203-222 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Kemelmacher and R. Basri, “Indexing with unknown illumination and pose,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 909-916.
  14. P. N. Belhumeur, D. J. Kriegman, and A. L. Yuille, “The bas-relief ambiguity,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1060-1066.
  15. R. Epstein, A. L. Yuille, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Learning object representations from lighting variations,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 179-199.
  16. A. Yuille and D. Snow, “Shape and albedo from multiple images using integrability,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 158.
  17. W. Huang and R. Mariani, “Face detection and precise eyes location,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 722-727.
  18. S. G. Narasimhan, V. Ramesh, and S. K. Nayar, “A class of photometric invariants: separating material from shape and illumination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1387-1394.
    [CrossRef]
  19. Roithner LaserTechnik Co., http://www.roithner-laser.com.

2000 (2)

N. G. Jablonski and G. Chaplin, “The evolution of human skin coloration,” J. Human Evolution 39, 57-106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. L. Yuille, D. Snow, R. Epstein, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Determining generative models of objects under varying illumination: shape and albedo from multiple images using SVD and integrability,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 203-222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Acet, M.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Angelopoulou, E.

E. Angelopoulou, “The reflectance spectrum of human skin,” Tech. Rep. MS-CIS-99-29 (Pennsylvania University, 1999).

Basri, R.

I. Kemelmacher and R. Basri, “Indexing with unknown illumination and pose,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 909-916.

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Photometric stereo with general, unknown lighting,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 374-381.

Belhumeur, P. N.

A. L. Yuille, D. Snow, R. Epstein, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Determining generative models of objects under varying illumination: shape and albedo from multiple images using SVD and integrability,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 203-222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Belhumeur, D. J. Kriegman, and A. L. Yuille, “The bas-relief ambiguity,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1060-1066.

R. Epstein, A. L. Yuille, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Learning object representations from lighting variations,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 179-199.

Bettinger, F.

F. Bettinger and T. F. Cootes, “A model of facial behaviour,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 123-128.
[CrossRef]

Carl, A.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaplin, G.

N. G. Jablonski and G. Chaplin, “The evolution of human skin coloration,” J. Human Evolution 39, 57-106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cootes, T. F.

F. Bettinger and T. F. Cootes, “A model of facial behaviour,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 123-128.
[CrossRef]

Donner, C.

C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “Light diffusion in multilayered translucent material,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers (ACM SIGGRAPH, 2005) pp. 1032-1039 (siggraph. org).

C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “A spectral BSSRDF for human skin,” in Proceedings of Eurographics Symposium on Rendering Techniques (2006), pp. 409-417.

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

Epstein, R.

A. L. Yuille, D. Snow, R. Epstein, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Determining generative models of objects under varying illumination: shape and albedo from multiple images using SVD and integrability,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 203-222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Epstein, A. L. Yuille, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Learning object representations from lighting variations,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 179-199.

Hadobás, K.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

Hayakawa, H.

Huang, W.

W. Huang and R. Mariani, “Face detection and precise eyes location,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 722-727.

Jablonski, N. G.

N. G. Jablonski and G. Chaplin, “The evolution of human skin coloration,” J. Human Evolution 39, 57-106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, D.

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Photometric stereo with general, unknown lighting,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 374-381.

Jensen, H. W.

C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “Light diffusion in multilayered translucent material,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers (ACM SIGGRAPH, 2005) pp. 1032-1039 (siggraph. org).

C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “A spectral BSSRDF for human skin,” in Proceedings of Eurographics Symposium on Rendering Techniques (2006), pp. 409-417.

Kemelmacher, I.

I. Kemelmacher and R. Basri, “Indexing with unknown illumination and pose,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 909-916.

Kim, C.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Na, and J. Yi, “Effectively exploiting distortion of structured light pattern for capturing depth discontinuities,” in Proceedings of the 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (2007), pp. 29-34.

Kirsch, S.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kriegman, D. J.

P. N. Belhumeur, D. J. Kriegman, and A. L. Yuille, “The bas-relief ambiguity,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1060-1066.

Mariani, R.

W. Huang and R. Mariani, “Face detection and precise eyes location,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 722-727.

Na, J.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Na, and J. Yi, “Effectively exploiting distortion of structured light pattern for capturing depth discontinuities,” in Proceedings of the 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (2007), pp. 29-34.

Narasimhan, S. G.

S. G. Narasimhan, V. Ramesh, and S. K. Nayar, “A class of photometric invariants: separating material from shape and illumination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1387-1394.
[CrossRef]

Nayar, S. K.

S. G. Narasimhan, V. Ramesh, and S. K. Nayar, “A class of photometric invariants: separating material from shape and illumination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1387-1394.
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Na, and J. Yi, “Effectively exploiting distortion of structured light pattern for capturing depth discontinuities,” in Proceedings of the 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (2007), pp. 29-34.

Ramesh, V.

S. G. Narasimhan, V. Ramesh, and S. K. Nayar, “A class of photometric invariants: separating material from shape and illumination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1387-1394.
[CrossRef]

Snow, D.

A. L. Yuille, D. Snow, R. Epstein, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Determining generative models of objects under varying illumination: shape and albedo from multiple images using SVD and integrability,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 203-222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Yuille and D. Snow, “Shape and albedo from multiple images using integrability,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 158.

Stork, D. G.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

Störring, M.

M. Störring, “Computer vision and human skin colour,” in Ph.D. dissertation (Computer Vision and Media Technology Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark, 2004).

Wassermann, E. F.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Na, and J. Yi, “Effectively exploiting distortion of structured light pattern for capturing depth discontinuities,” in Proceedings of the 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (2007), pp. 29-34.

Yuille, A.

A. Yuille and D. Snow, “Shape and albedo from multiple images using integrability,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 158.

Yuille, A. L.

A. L. Yuille, D. Snow, R. Epstein, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Determining generative models of objects under varying illumination: shape and albedo from multiple images using SVD and integrability,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 203-222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Belhumeur, D. J. Kriegman, and A. L. Yuille, “The bas-relief ambiguity,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1060-1066.

R. Epstein, A. L. Yuille, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Learning object representations from lighting variations,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 179-199.

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

A. L. Yuille, D. Snow, R. Epstein, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Determining generative models of objects under varying illumination: shape and albedo from multiple images using SVD and integrability,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 203-222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Human Evolution (1)

N. G. Jablonski and G. Chaplin, “The evolution of human skin coloration,” J. Human Evolution 39, 57-106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nanotechnology (1)

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11, 161-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

M. Störring, “Computer vision and human skin colour,” in Ph.D. dissertation (Computer Vision and Media Technology Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark, 2004).

E. Angelopoulou, “The reflectance spectrum of human skin,” Tech. Rep. MS-CIS-99-29 (Pennsylvania University, 1999).

C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “A spectral BSSRDF for human skin,” in Proceedings of Eurographics Symposium on Rendering Techniques (2006), pp. 409-417.

C. Donner and H. W. Jensen, “Light diffusion in multilayered translucent material,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers (ACM SIGGRAPH, 2005) pp. 1032-1039 (siggraph. org).

R. Basri and D. Jacobs, “Photometric stereo with general, unknown lighting,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 374-381.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

F. Bettinger and T. F. Cootes, “A model of facial behaviour,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (IEEE, 2004), pp. 123-128.
[CrossRef]

J. Park, C. Kim, J. Na, and J. Yi, “Effectively exploiting distortion of structured light pattern for capturing depth discontinuities,” in Proceedings of the 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (2007), pp. 29-34.

I. Kemelmacher and R. Basri, “Indexing with unknown illumination and pose,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 909-916.

P. N. Belhumeur, D. J. Kriegman, and A. L. Yuille, “The bas-relief ambiguity,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1060-1066.

R. Epstein, A. L. Yuille, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Learning object representations from lighting variations,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 179-199.

A. Yuille and D. Snow, “Shape and albedo from multiple images using integrability,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1997), pp. 158.

W. Huang and R. Mariani, “Face detection and precise eyes location,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 722-727.

S. G. Narasimhan, V. Ramesh, and S. K. Nayar, “A class of photometric invariants: separating material from shape and illumination,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1387-1394.
[CrossRef]

Roithner LaserTechnik Co., http://www.roithner-laser.com.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance of silicon as the wavelength of light varies [5].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of light pathways for human skin [6].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of human skin depending on skin color: reflectance from black skin is lower than that of Caucasian skin [6].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance of silicon and human skin: the disparity of the reflectance between human skin and mask materials is distinct at 850 nm . Also note that at 685 nm , the reflectance disparity between different skin colors is large.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical size and location of measured forehead area to detect the albedo of facial skin.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance with the photometric stereo method and the radiance method: (a) Average albedo value using four images for the photometric stereo method, (b) average gray value from a single image for the radiance method. The reflectance disparity between human skin and silicon material is greater when the radiance method is used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance of facial skin and mask materials for four different colors of visible light.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance of human skin and mask materials for infrared light with wavelengths of 750, 850, and 970 nm : At 850 nm , reflectance between human skin and mask materials is stably separable.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Feature space proposed.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of albedo for oily and regular makeup.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sketch of the experimental setup.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of Masked Fake Face Detection Using Radiance Measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M = U D V T = U D D V T L × S .
I i μ k σ ,
I = R × G .
I face I mask = R face × G face R mask × G mask R face R mask .

Metrics