Abstract

Terahertz electromagnetic radiation has already been shown to have a wide number of uses. We consider specific applications of terahertz time-domain imaging that are inherently three-dimensional. This paper highlights the ability of terahertz radiation to reveal subsurface information as we exploit the fact that the radiation can penetrate optically opaque materials such as clothing, cardboard, plastics, and to some extent biological tissue. Using interactive science publishing tools, we concentrate on full three-dimensional terahertz data from three specific areas of application, namely, security, pharmaceutical, and biomedical.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

Q. L. Zhou, C. L. Zhang, K. J. Mu, B. Jin, L. L. Zhang, W. W. Li, and R. S. Feng, “Optical property and spectroscopy studies on the explosive 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-trihydroxy-benzene in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen and P. F. Taday, “Development and application of terahertz pulsed imaging for nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 407-415 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

R. Palermo, R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, J. K. Drennen III, and P. F. Taday, “Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46, 36-44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthaus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tunermann, “Advanced analysis concepts for terahertz time domain imaging,” Opt. Commun. 279, 248-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “2-D wavelet segmentation in 3-D T-ray tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 342-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Solid-state transition mechanism in carbamazepine polymorphs by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8, 1924-1927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Relaxation and crystallization of amorphous carbamazepine studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 2703-2709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. J. Heilweil, and M. Esenturk, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy in biosystems,” ChemPhysChem 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023101-023105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Kim, S. G. Jeon, J. I. Kim, and Y. S. Jin, “Terahertz pulse detection using rotary optical delay line,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 7332-7335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Abbott and X. C. Zhang, “Special issue on T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15, 1175-1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Fitzgerald, T. Lo, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy of breast tumors,” Proc. SPIE 6386, U183-U190 (2006).

R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, R. Forcht, Z. Shi, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, C. A. Anderson, and J. K. Drennen, “An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Innovation 1, 63-75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. Tahir and C. Dainty, “Experimental measurements of light scattering from samples with specified optical properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. C. Kemp, and M. Pepper, “3-D chemical mapping using terahertz pulsed imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5727, 24-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, and M. Pepper, “Chemical mapping using reflection terahertz pulsed imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S254-S257 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and N. C. Kemp, “Terahertz spectroscopy of explosive materials,” Proc. SPIE 5619, 82-89 (2004).
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V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, “Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards 'THz biochips,'” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 323-333 (2004).
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P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).
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E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
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W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5354, 168-176 (2004).
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E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “Distinguishing between materials in terahertz imaging using wide-band cross ambiguity functions,” Digit. Signal Process. 14, 99-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “The short time Fourier transform applied to terahertz pulsed imaging,” Med. Phys. 30, 1541-1541 (2003).

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3625-3636 (2003).
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M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, and P. U. Jepsen, “Noncovalent intermolecular forces in polycrystalline and amorphous saccharides in the far infrared,” Chem. Phys. 288, 261-268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
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D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
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R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Time-domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960-1962 (1995).
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1992

H. Harde and D. Grischkowsky, “Time-domain spectroscopy of molecular vapors with subpicosecond pulses of THz radiation,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. (126), 217-222 (1992).

1991

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1987

E. F. Nichols, “A method for energy measurements in the infra-red spectrum and the properties of the ordinary ray in quartz for waves of great wave length,” Phys. Rev. 4, 297-313 (1987).

1975

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1897

H. Reubens and E. F. Nichols, “Heat rays of great wave length,” Phys. Rev. 4, 314-323 (1897).

Abbott, D.

X. X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “2-D wavelet segmentation in 3-D T-ray tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 342-343 (2007).
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D. Abbott and X. C. Zhang, “Special issue on T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
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Ali, S.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
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Allen, S. J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15, 1175-1181 (2006).
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R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, R. Forcht, Z. Shi, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, C. A. Anderson, and J. K. Drennen, “An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Innovation 1, 63-75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronics switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101-103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
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C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

Berg, R. W.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, E.

J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “Distinguishing between materials in terahertz imaging using wide-band cross ambiguity functions,” Digit. Signal Process. 14, 99-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “The short time Fourier transform applied to terahertz pulsed imaging,” Med. Phys. 30, 1541-1541 (2003).

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, and J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (Springer, 2005), pp. 271-311.
[CrossRef]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boivin, L.

Bolivar, P. H.

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, “Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards 'THz biochips,'” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 323-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bosserhoff, A.

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, “Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards 'THz biochips,'” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 323-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, R. D.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “Distinguishing between materials in terahertz imaging using wide-band cross ambiguity functions,” Digit. Signal Process. 14, 99-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “The short time Fourier transform applied to terahertz pulsed imaging,” Med. Phys. 30, 1541-1541 (2003).

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, and J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (Springer, 2005), pp. 271-311.
[CrossRef]

Brucherseifer, M.

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, “Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards 'THz biochips,'” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 323-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buhse, L. F.

J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buttner, R.

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, “Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards 'THz biochips,'” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 323-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. M.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Time-domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960-1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ciesla, C. M.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cluff, J. A.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cogdill, R. P.

R. Palermo, R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, J. K. Drennen III, and P. F. Taday, “Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46, 36-44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, R. Forcht, Z. Shi, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, C. A. Anderson, and J. K. Drennen, “An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Innovation 1, 63-75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, J. H.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawley, D. A.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J. A.

M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
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Czasch, S.

Dainty, C.

K. Tahir and C. Dainty, “Experimental measurements of light scattering from samples with specified optical properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drennen, J. K.

R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, R. Forcht, Z. Shi, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, C. A. Anderson, and J. K. Drennen, “An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Innovation 1, 63-75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drennen III, J. K.

R. Palermo, R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, J. K. Drennen III, and P. F. Taday, “Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46, 36-44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbinghaus, S.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esenturk, M.

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. J. Heilweil, and M. Esenturk, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy in biosystems,” ChemPhysChem 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattinger, C.

Feng, R. S.

Q. L. Zhou, C. L. Zhang, K. J. Mu, B. Jin, L. L. Zhang, W. W. Li, and R. S. Feng, “Optical property and spectroscopy studies on the explosive 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-trihydroxy-benzene in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

X. X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “2-D wavelet segmentation in 3-D T-ray tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 342-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, and P. U. Jepsen, “Noncovalent intermolecular forces in polycrystalline and amorphous saccharides in the far infrared,” Chem. Phys. 288, 261-268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A.

T. Loffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Opt. Express 9, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell-MacPherson, T. Lo, A. Fitzgerald, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, A. Purushotham, and V. P. Wallace, “Application of finite difference time domain methods to terahertz spectroscopy measurements of breast cancer,” in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1379-1381.
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Fitzgerald, T. Lo, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy of breast tumors,” Proc. SPIE 6386, U183-U190 (2006).

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “Distinguishing between materials in terahertz imaging using wide-band cross ambiguity functions,” Digit. Signal Process. 14, 99-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “The short time Fourier transform applied to terahertz pulsed imaging,” Med. Phys. 30, 1541-1541 (2003).

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, and J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (Springer, 2005), pp. 271-311.
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V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
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V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
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C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “An oil and water emulsion phantom for biomedical terahertz spectroscopy,” in 4th IEEE/EMBS International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors (IEEE, 2007), pp. 4-7.

C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “The use of tissue mimicking phantoms in analysing contrast in THz pulsed imaging of biological tissue,” in Conference Digest of the Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves, and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 567-568.

Gladden, L. F.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler and L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. (to be published).

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L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Solid-state transition mechanism in carbamazepine polymorphs by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8, 1924-1927 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
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H. Harde and D. Grischkowsky, “Time-domain spectroscopy of molecular vapors with subpicosecond pulses of THz radiation,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. (126), 217-222 (1992).

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser-pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222-224 (1991).
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D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
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S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
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D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
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E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
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J. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “The short time Fourier transform applied to terahertz pulsed imaging,” Med. Phys. 30, 1541-1541 (2003).

Handley, J. W.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
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J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, and R. D. Boyle, “Distinguishing between materials in terahertz imaging using wide-band cross ambiguity functions,” Digit. Signal Process. 14, 99-111 (2004).
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E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, and J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (Springer, 2005), pp. 271-311.
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H. Harde and D. Grischkowsky, “Time-domain spectroscopy of molecular vapors with subpicosecond pulses of THz radiation,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. (126), 217-222 (1992).

Haring-Bolivar, P.

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3625-3636 (2003).
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S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “The use of tissue mimicking phantoms in analysing contrast in THz pulsed imaging of biological tissue,” in Conference Digest of the Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves, and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 567-568.

C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “An oil and water emulsion phantom for biomedical terahertz spectroscopy,” in 4th IEEE/EMBS International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors (IEEE, 2007), pp. 4-7.

Heilweil, E. J.

D. F. Plusquellic, K. Siegrist, E. J. Heilweil, and M. Esenturk, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy in biosystems,” ChemPhysChem 8, 2412-2431 (2007).
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Heugen, U.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
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S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
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J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, L.

L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

Hogbin, M. K.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
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M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
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Hunsche, S.

Husain, A.

J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
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D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
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Jeon, S. G.

G. J. Kim, S. G. Jeon, J. I. Kim, and Y. S. Jin, “Terahertz pulse detection using rotary optical delay line,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 7332-7335 (2007).
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Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023101-023105 (2007).
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Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
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Jin, B.

Q. L. Zhou, C. L. Zhang, K. J. Mu, B. Jin, L. L. Zhang, W. W. Li, and R. S. Feng, “Optical property and spectroscopy studies on the explosive 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-trihydroxy-benzene in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. S.

G. J. Kim, S. G. Jeon, J. I. Kim, and Y. S. Jin, “Terahertz pulse detection using rotary optical delay line,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 7332-7335 (2007).
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Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023101-023105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johns, M. L.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katzenellenbogen, N.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser-pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222-224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kemp, M. C.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1-3 (2005).
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Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. C. Kemp, and M. Pepper, “3-D chemical mapping using terahertz pulsed imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5727, 24-31 (2005).
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W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5354, 168-176 (2004).
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M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
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M. C. Kemp, “Detecting hidden objects: security imaging using millimetre-waves and terahertz,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-9.
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Kemp, N. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and N. C. Kemp, “Terahertz spectroscopy of explosive materials,” Proc. SPIE 5619, 82-89 (2004).
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Kim, G. J.

Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023101-023105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Kim, S. G. Jeon, J. I. Kim, and Y. S. Jin, “Terahertz pulse detection using rotary optical delay line,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 7332-7335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. I.

G. J. Kim, S. G. Jeon, J. I. Kim, and Y. S. Jin, “Terahertz pulse detection using rotary optical delay line,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 46, 7332-7335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023101-023105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinebudde, P.

L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
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Kockenberger, W.

M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
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Kurz, H.

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, “Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards 'THz biochips,'” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 323-333 (2004).
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M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3625-3636 (2003).
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Lancaster, R. W.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, D. M.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W. W.

Q. L. Zhou, C. L. Zhang, K. J. Mu, B. Jin, L. L. Zhang, W. W. Li, and R. S. Feng, “Optical property and spectroscopy studies on the explosive 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-trihydroxy-benzene in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, T.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Fitzgerald, T. Lo, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy of breast tumors,” Proc. SPIE 6386, U183-U190 (2006).

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1-3 (2005).
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E. Pickwell-MacPherson, T. Lo, A. Fitzgerald, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, A. Purushotham, and V. P. Wallace, “Application of finite difference time domain methods to terahertz spectroscopy measurements of breast cancer,” in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1379-1381.
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Loffler, T.

Longbottom, C.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
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D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
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Lynch, R. J. M.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
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MacPherson, E.

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Fitzgerald, T. Lo, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy of breast tumors,” Proc. SPIE 6386, U183-U190 (2006).

Mantle, M. D.

J. Obradovic, J. H. P. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mather, M. L.

M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matthaus, G.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthaus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tunermann, “Advanced analysis concepts for terahertz time domain imaging,” Opt. Commun. 279, 248-254 (2007).
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Merchant, W. J.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mickan, S. P.

X. X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “2-D wavelet segmentation in 3-D T-ray tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 342-343 (2007).
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Miles, R. E.

E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
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W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moore, T.

J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P.

M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mu, K. J.

Q. L. Zhou, C. L. Zhang, K. J. Mu, B. Jin, L. L. Zhang, W. W. Li, and R. S. Feng, “Optical property and spectroscopy studies on the explosive 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-trihydroxy-benzene in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

Nagel, M.

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, “Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: towards 'THz biochips,'” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 323-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3625-3636 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
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J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, and M. Pepper, “Chemical mapping using reflection terahertz pulsed imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S254-S257 (2005).
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Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. C. Kemp, and M. Pepper, “3-D chemical mapping using terahertz pulsed imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5727, 24-31 (2005).
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B. Pradarutti, G. Matthaus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tunermann, “Advanced analysis concepts for terahertz time domain imaging,” Opt. Commun. 279, 248-254 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Relaxation and crystallization of amorphous carbamazepine studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 2703-2709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, and M. Pepper, “Chemical mapping using reflection terahertz pulsed imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S254-S257 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
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E. Pickwell-MacPherson, T. Lo, A. Fitzgerald, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, A. Purushotham, and V. P. Wallace, “Application of finite difference time domain methods to terahertz spectroscopy measurements of breast cancer,” in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1379-1381.
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B. Pradarutti, G. Matthaus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tunermann, “Advanced analysis concepts for terahertz time domain imaging,” Opt. Commun. 279, 248-254 (2007).
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E. Pickwell-MacPherson, T. Lo, A. Fitzgerald, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, A. Purushotham, and V. P. Wallace, “Application of finite difference time domain methods to terahertz spectroscopy measurements of breast cancer,” in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1379-1381.
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V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Fitzgerald, T. Lo, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy of breast tumors,” Proc. SPIE 6386, U183-U190 (2006).

E. Pickwell-MacPherson, T. Lo, A. Fitzgerald, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, A. Purushotham, and V. P. Wallace, “Application of finite difference time domain methods to terahertz spectroscopy measurements of breast cancer,” in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1379-1381.
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E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Relaxation and crystallization of amorphous carbamazepine studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 2703-2709 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
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J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
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V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
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L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

Y. C. Shen and P. F. Taday, “Development and application of terahertz pulsed imaging for nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 407-415 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
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Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, and M. Pepper, “Chemical mapping using reflection terahertz pulsed imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S254-S257 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. C. Kemp, and M. Pepper, “3-D chemical mapping using terahertz pulsed imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5727, 24-31 (2005).
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R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, R. Forcht, Z. Shi, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, C. A. Anderson, and J. K. Drennen, “An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Innovation 1, 63-75 (2006).
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J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
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J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
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R. Palermo, R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, J. K. Drennen III, and P. F. Taday, “Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46, 36-44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen and P. F. Taday, “Development and application of terahertz pulsed imaging for nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 407-415 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Relaxation and crystallization of amorphous carbamazepine studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 2703-2709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Solid-state transition mechanism in carbamazepine polymorphs by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8, 1924-1927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, R. Forcht, Z. Shi, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, C. A. Anderson, and J. K. Drennen, “An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Innovation 1, 63-75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. C. Kemp, and M. Pepper, “3-D chemical mapping using terahertz pulsed imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5727, 24-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, and M. Pepper, “Chemical mapping using reflection terahertz pulsed imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S254-S257 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and N. C. Kemp, “Terahertz spectroscopy of explosive materials,” Proc. SPIE 5619, 82-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5354, 168-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tahir, K.

K. Tahir and C. Dainty, “Experimental measurements of light scattering from samples with specified optical properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tai, H.

M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Threlfall, T. L.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribe, W. R.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5354, 168-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tunermann, A.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthaus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tunermann, “Advanced analysis concepts for terahertz time domain imaging,” Opt. Commun. 279, 248-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanexter, M.

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Fitzgerald, T. Lo, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy of breast tumors,” Proc. SPIE 6386, U183-U190 (2006).

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 1127-1133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190-2192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell-MacPherson, T. Lo, A. Fitzgerald, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, A. Purushotham, and V. P. Wallace, “Application of finite difference time domain methods to terahertz spectroscopy measurements of breast cancer,” in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1379-1381.
[CrossRef]

C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “The use of tissue mimicking phantoms in analysing contrast in THz pulsed imaging of biological tissue,” in Conference Digest of the Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves, and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 567-568.

C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “An oil and water emulsion phantom for biomedical terahertz spectroscopy,” in 4th IEEE/EMBS International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors (IEEE, 2007), pp. 4-7.

Walther, M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, and P. U. Jepsen, “Noncovalent intermolecular forces in polycrystalline and amorphous saccharides in the far infrared,” Chem. Phys. 288, 261-268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 255-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15, 1175-1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “2-D wavelet segmentation in 3-D T-ray tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 342-343 (2007).
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L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Relaxation and crystallization of amorphous carbamazepine studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 2703-2709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Solid-state transition mechanism in carbamazepine polymorphs by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8, 1924-1927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. L.

Q. L. Zhou, C. L. Zhang, K. J. Mu, B. Jin, L. L. Zhang, W. W. Li, and R. S. Feng, “Optical property and spectroscopy studies on the explosive 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-trihydroxy-benzene in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101106 (2008).
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Zhang, X. C.

D. Abbott and X. C. Zhang, “Special issue on T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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E. Berry, J. W. Handley, A. J. Fitzgerald, W. J. Merchant, R. D. Boyle, N. N. Zinov'ev, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, “Multispectral classification techniques for terahertz pulsed imaging: an example in histopathology,” Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 423-430 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. B

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Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1-3 (2005).
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Q. L. Zhou, C. L. Zhang, K. J. Mu, B. Jin, L. L. Zhang, W. W. Li, and R. S. Feng, “Optical property and spectroscopy studies on the explosive 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-trihydroxy-benzene in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101106 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biomed. Mater.

M. L. Mather, S. P. Morgan, L. J. White, H. Tai, W. Kockenberger, S. M. Howdle, K. M. Shakesheff, and J. A. Crowe, “Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds,” Biomed. Mater. 3, 1-11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Dermatol.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151, 424-432 (2004).
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C. R. Math.

L. Ho, R. Mueller, K. C. Gordon, P. Kleinebudde, M. Pepper, T. Rades, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and J. A. Zeitler, “Applications of terahertz pulsed imaging to sustained-release tablet film coating quality assessment and dissolution performance,” C. R. Math. 127, 79-87 (2008).

Caries Res.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41, 49-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, and P. U. Jepsen, “Noncovalent intermolecular forces in polycrystalline and amorphous saccharides in the far infrared,” Chem. Phys. 288, 261-268 (2003).
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ChemPhysChem

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Solid-state transition mechanism in carbamazepine polymorphs by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 8, 1924-1927 (2007).
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Faraday Discuss.

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IEEE Sens. J.

X. X. Yin, B. W. H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, “2-D wavelet segmentation in 3-D T-ray tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 342-343 (2007).
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E. Pickwell, A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, R. J. Pye, T. Ha, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulating the response of terahertz radiation to basal cell carcinoma using ex vivo spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064021-064027 (2005).
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J. Invest. Dermatol.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120, 72-78 (2003).
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K. Tahir and C. Dainty, “Experimental measurements of light scattering from samples with specified optical properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 207-214 (2005).
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J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.

R. Palermo, R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, J. K. Drennen III, and P. F. Taday, “Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46, 36-44 (2008).
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J. Pharm. Innovation

R. P. Cogdill, S. M. Short, R. Forcht, Z. Shi, Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, C. A. Anderson, and J. K. Drennen, “An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Innovation 1, 63-75 (2006).
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J. Pharm. Pharmacol.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 209-223 (2007).
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J. Pharm. Sci.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 2486-2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Relaxation and crystallization of amorphous carbamazepine studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 2703-2709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, Y. C. Shen, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Analysis of coating structures and interfaces in solid oral dosage forms by three dimensional terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 330-340 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
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J. A. Spencer, Z. Gao, T. Moore, L. F. Buhse, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, Y. Shen, A. Portieri, and A. Husain, “Delayed release tablet dissolution related to coating thickness by terahertz pulsed image mapping,” J. Pharm. Sci. 97, 1543-1550 (2008).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
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Proc. IEEE

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. K. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Abbott and X. C. Zhang, “Special issue on T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, U. Heugen, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “An extended dynamical hydration shell around proteins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20749-20752 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and N. C. Kemp, “Terahertz spectroscopy of explosive materials,” Proc. SPIE 5619, 82-89 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, A. J. Fitzgerald, T. Lo, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy of breast tumors,” Proc. SPIE 6386, U183-U190 (2006).

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. C. Kemp, and M. Pepper, “3-D chemical mapping using terahertz pulsed imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5727, 24-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE 5354, 168-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Protein Sci.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15, 1175-1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
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Rep. Prog. Phys.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Y. S. Jin, S. G. Jeon, G. J. Kim, J. I. Kim, and C. H. Shon, “Fast scanning of a pulsed terahertz signal using an oscillating optical delay line,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 023101-023105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, and M. Pepper, “Chemical mapping using reflection terahertz pulsed imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S254-S257 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Pickwell-MacPherson, T. Lo, A. Fitzgerald, E. Provenzano, S. Pinder, A. Purushotham, and V. P. Wallace, “Application of finite difference time domain methods to terahertz spectroscopy measurements of breast cancer,” in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1379-1381.
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C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “An oil and water emulsion phantom for biomedical terahertz spectroscopy,” in 4th IEEE/EMBS International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors (IEEE, 2007), pp. 4-7.

C. Reid, A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and V. P. Wallace, “The use of tissue mimicking phantoms in analysing contrast in THz pulsed imaging of biological tissue,” in Conference Digest of the Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimetre Waves, and 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 567-568.

J. A. Zeitler and L. F. Gladden, “In-vitro tomography and non-destructive imaging at depth of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. (to be published).

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, and J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (Springer, 2005), pp. 271-311.
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M. C. Kemp, “Detecting hidden objects: security imaging using millimetre-waves and terahertz,” in IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-9.
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the TPI Imaga1000 system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical deconvolved pulse reflected from the center of an SD card (inset). Three reflections can be clearly distinguished: the first peak labeled A is from the plastic surface of the card, the second peak B is a result of the terahertz beam passing through the plastic packaging and entering air, and the third negative peak is a reflection from the memory chip inside the plastic packaging.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Each image is a terahertz image of the SD card at different time points along the pulse. (a) Image at 10 ps along the pulse that is at the surface of the SD card. (b) Image at 11.5 ps that shows six spots where the plastic packaging is bonded together. (c) Image at 15.0 ps showing a control chip that is approximately 3 mm 2 . (d) Image at 16.7 ps that shows the main memory chip inside the SD card.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-frequency analysis of the data from the SD card. (a) Time-frequency terahertz image at t = 21.4 ps and f = 1.51 THz . (b) Time-frequency plot of a pulse taken from position pixel x = 38 and y = 36 (a). (c) Frequency spectrum of the time domain pulse given in (d), which has been optimized by varying the time window to resolve the layers in the SD card. Cross-sectional images through the card at (e) x = 36 and (f) y = 38 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A 3-D view of the SD card (View 1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of the hidden object, the ceramic blade, under several layers of clothing. (b) 3-D view (View 2) of a knife colored in red, seen under the layers of clothes shown in green and blue as they are semitransparent at terahertz frequencies.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Time-domain impulse function and (b) cross-sectional image from a folded letter within an envelope.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Terahertz intensity image from the third layer in the envelope (approximately 19 ps ) and (b) 3-D image of the letter (View 3).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Layered tablet with a polymer film coating (View 4). The coating is clearly seen at the top of the image in red. The tablet has two layers clearly shown, the first, in this image, is virtually transparent (using these display settings), and the second layer has a different structure resulting in a strong signal shown in (red/green/yellow). In reality the tablet surface is curved, but the processing software flattens the image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Bilayer polymer tablet (View 5).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Three-dimensional image of a soft gelatin capsule (View 6).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Photographic image of a graduated tissue phantom and (b) 2-D terahertz image of the same phantom.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Three-dimensional image of a two-layered tissue phantom (View 7). The flat bottom surface is clearly seen and the angled green/red region is the interface between the two different phantoms.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of a scaffold with 50 μ m average pore size and (b) SEM of a scaffold with an average pore size of 320 μ m .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Three-dimensional terahertz images of tissue scaffolds with (a) 50 μ m and (b) 320 μ m average pore size (View 8).

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