Abstract

Previous work has shown that the achromatic color of a target patch embedded in simple two-dimensional display depends not only on the luminance contrast between the target and its immediate surround but also on the contrasts of other nearby edges. Quantitative models have been proposed in which the target color is modeled as a spatially weighted sum of edge contrasts in which the target edge receives the largest weight. Rudd and Arrington [Vision Res. 41, 3649 (2001)] elaborated on this idea to include an additional mechanism whereby effects of individual color-inducing edges are “partially blocked” by edges lying along the path between the inducing edge and the target. We tested the blockage model in appearance matching experiments performed with disk-and-single-ring stimuli having all four possible combinations of inner and outer ring edge contrast polarities. Evidence was obtained for both “blockage” (attenuation) and “antiblockage” (amplification) of achromatic color induction signals, depending on the contrast polarities of the inner and outer ring edges. A neural model is proposed to account for our data on the basis of the contrast gain control occurring between cortical edge detector neurons.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

T. Vladusich, M. P. Lucassen, and F. W. Cornelissen, "Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness," J. Vision 6, (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Cornelissen, A. R. Wade, T. Vladusich, R. F. Dougherty, and B. A. Wandell, "No function magnetic resonance imaging evidence for brightness and color filling-in in early human visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 3634-3641 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, "The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation," Vision Res. 45, 1413-1424 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. McCourt, B. Blakeslee, and W. Pasieka, "Temporal properties of brightness induction" [Abstract], J. Vision 5, 242a, (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Shimozaki, M. P. Eckstein, and C. K. Abbey, "Spatial profiles of local and nonlocal effects upon contrast detection/discrimination from classification images," J. Vision 5, 45-57, (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "The highest luminance anchoring rule in achromatic color perception: some counterexamples and an alternative theory," J. Vision 5, 983-1003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (10)

M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "Quantitative studies of achromatic color induction: an edge integration analysis," Vision Res. 44, 971-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Brightness assimilation in bullseye displays," Vision Res. 44, 309-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Mechanisms of contrast induction in heterogeneous displays," Vision Res. 44, 1601-1613 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, "Brightness induction: unequal spatial integration with increments and decrements," Visual Neurosci. 21, 353-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, "Brightness contrast and assimilation from patterned inducing backgrounds," Vision Res. 44, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd and D. Popa, "A theory of the neural processes underlying edge integration in human lightness perception" [Abstract], J. Vision 4, 345a, (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd and D. Popa, "Edge integration and edge interaction in achromatic color computation" [Abstract], J. Vision 4, 79a, (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, A. D. D'Antona, J. P. Charles, L. A. Belano, J. B. Smith, and M. Shear-Heyman, "Induced contrast asynchronies," J. Vision 4, 459-468, (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Haynes, R. B. Lotto, and G. Rees, "Responses of human visual cortex to uniform surfaces," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 4286-4291 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasaki and T. Watanabe, "The primary visual cortex fills in color," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 18251-18256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

B. Pinna, "The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization," Vision Res. 43, 43-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd, "Progress on a computational model of human achromatic color processing," Proc. SPIE 5007, 170-181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Zemach and M. E. Rudd, "Spatial decay of achromatic color induction differs for lightness and darkness induction processes" [Abstract], J. Vision 3, 421a, (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Series, J. Lorenceau, and Y. Fregnac, "The "silent" surround of V1 receptive fields: theory and experiment," J. Physiol. (Paris) 97, 453-474 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. L. Ringach, "Spatial structure and symmetry of simple-cell receptive fields in macaque primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 455-63 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. K. Zemach and M. E. Rudd, "Blocking of achromatic color induction signals by borders of different contrast polarities" [Abstract], J. Vision 2, 106a, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (8)

C. P. Hung, B. M. Ramsden, L. M. Chen, and A. W. Roe, "Building surfaces from borders in Areas 17 and 18 of the cat," Vision Res. 41, 1389-1407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, "Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559-2570 (2001).
[PubMed]

H. Neumann, L. Pessoa, and T. Hansen, "Visual filling-in for computing visual surface properties," Biol. Cybern. 85, 355-369 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bressan and R. Actis-Grosso, "Simultaneous lightness contrast with double-increments," Perception 30, 889-897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Rudd, "Lightness computation by a neural filling-in mechanism," Proc. SPIE 4299, 400-413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd and K. F. Arrington, "Darkness filling-in: a neural model of darkness induction," Vision Res. 41, 3649-3662 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Freeman, I. Ohzawa, and G. Walker, "Beyond the classical receptive field in the visual cortex," Prog. Brain Res. 134, 157-170 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Jones, K. L. Grieve, W. Wang, and A. M. Sillito, "Surround suppression in primate V1," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2011-2028 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (3)

H. E. Jones, I. M. Andolina, N. M. Oakely, P. C. Murphy, and A. M. Sillito, "Spatial summation in lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex," Exp. Brain Res. 135, 279-284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Walker, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, "Suppression outside the classical receptive field," Visual Neurosci. 17, 369-379 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Ross and L. Pessoa, "Lightness from contrast: a selective integration model," Percept. Psychophys. 62, 1160-1181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (6)

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, "Surround articulation. I. Brightness judgments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 793-803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schirillo, "Surround articulation. II. Lightness judgments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 804-811 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, "Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 19, 6145-6156 (1999).
[PubMed]

H. Nothdurft, J. L. Gallant, and D. Van Essen, "Response modulation by texture surround in primate area V1: correlates of "pop-out" under anesthesia," Visual Neurosci. 16, 15-34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Walker, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, "Asymmetric suppression outside the classical receptive field of the visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 19, 10536-10553 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. P. MacEvoy, W. Kim, and M. A. Paradiso, "Integration of surface information in primary visual cortex," Nat. Neurosci. 1, 616-620 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (8)

D. H. Brainard, "The psychophysics toolbox," Spatial Vis. 10, 433-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Pelli, "The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies," Spatial Vis. 10, 437-442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Blakeslee and M. E. McCourt, "Similar mechanisms underlie simultaneous brightness contrast and grating induction," Vision Res. 37, 2849-2869 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, "Neon color spreading: a review," Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 26, 1353-1366 (1997).

R. O. Brown and D. I. MacLeod, "Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors," Curr. Biol. 7, 844-849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, and J. Schirillo, "Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring," Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643-654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Levitt and J. S. Lund, "Context dependence of contextual effects in visual cortex," Nature 387, 73-76 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sengpiel, A. Sen, and C. Blakemore, "Characteristics of surround inhibition in cat area 17," Exp. Brain Res. 116, 216-238 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (5)

T. Agostini and N. Bruno, "Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays," Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Paradiso and S. Hahn, "Filling-in percepts produced by luminance modulation," Vision Res. 36, 2657-2663 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, "Temporal limits of brightness induction and mechanisms of brightness perception," Vision Res. 36, 1391-1398 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schirillo and S. Shevell, "Brightness contrast from inhomogeneous surrounds," Vision Res. 36, 1783-1796 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, "The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex," Science 273, 1104-1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. M. Sillito, K. L. Grieve, H. E. Jones, J. Cudeiro, and J. Davis, "Visual cortical mechanisms detecting focal orientation discontinuities," Nature 378, 492-496 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

G. C. De Angelis, R. D. Freeman, and I. Ohzawa, "Length and width tuning of neurons in the cat's primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 71, 347-374 (1994).

C. Li and W. Li, "Extensive integration field beyond the classical receptive field of cat's striate cortical neurons--classification and tuning properties," Vision Res. 387, 73-86 (1994).

K. F. Arrington, "The temporal dynamics of brightness filling-in," Vision Res. 34, 3371-3387 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bruno, "Failures of lightness constancy, edge integration, and local edge enhancement," Vision Res. 34, 2205-2214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness and brightness contrast: I. Illumination variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446-456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness and brightness contrast: II. Reflectance variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457-468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

S. K. Shevell, I. Holliday, and P. Whittle, "Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction," Vision Res. 32, 2331-2340 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Knierim and D. D. Van Essen, "Neuronal responses to static texture patterns in area V1 of alert macaque monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 67, 961-970 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. A. Paradiso and K. Nakayama, "Brightness perception and filling-in," Vision Res. 31, 1221-1236 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (4)

R. C. Reid and R. Shapley, "Brightness induction by local contrast and the spatial dependence of assimilation," Vision Res. 28, 115-132 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jacobsen and A. Gilchrist, "Hess and Pretori revisited: resolution of some old contradictions," Percept. Psychophys. 43, 7-14 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gilchrist, "Lightness contrast and failures of contrast: a common explanation," Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415-424 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grossberg and D. Todorovic, "A neural network architecture for preattentive vision," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 65-84 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Grossberg and E. Mingolla, "Neural dynamics of surface perception: boundary webs, illuminants, and shape-from-shading," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 37, 116-165 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

S. Grossberg and E. Mingolla, "Neural dynamics of form perception: boundary completion, illusory figures, and neon color spreading," Psychol. Rev. 92, 173-211 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Daugman, "Uncertainty relation for resolution in space, spatial frequency, and orientation optimized by two-dimensional visual cortical filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1160-1169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Shapley and R. C. Reid, "Contrast and assimilation in the perception of brightness," Proc. SPIE 82, 5983-5986 (1985).

1984 (3)

1983 (2)

E. H. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computations: color vision and the natural image," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 5163-5169 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, and A. Jacobsen, "The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination," Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425-436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, and L. G. Thorell, "Spatial frequency selectivity of cells in macaque visual cortex," Vision Res. 22, 545-559 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

E. H. Land, "The retinex theory of color vision," Sci. Am. 237, 2-17 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, "The unresponsive regions of visual cortical receptive fields," Vision Res. 16, 1131-1139 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

L. E. Arend, J. N. Buehler, and G. R. Lockhead, "Difference information in brightness perception," Percept. Psychophys. 9, 367-370 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land and J. J. McCann, "Lightness and retinex theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1-11 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. J. M. Gerrits and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Simultaneous contrast, filling-in process and information processing in man's visual system," Exp. Brain Res. 11, 411-430 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

H. J. M. Gerrits and G. J. M. E. N. Timmermann, "The filling-in process in patients with retinal scotoma," Vision Res. 9, 439-442 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Whittle and P. D. C. Challands, "The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes," Vision Res. 9, 1095-1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

J. Krauskopf, "Heterochromatic stabilized images: a classroom demonstration," Am. J. Psychol. 80, 634-637 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

H. J. M. Gerrits, B. De Haan, and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Experiments with retinal stabilized images. Relations between observations and neural data," Vision Res. 6, 427-440 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

A. Kozaki, "The effect of co-existent stimuli other than test stimulus on brightness constancy," Jpn. Psychol. Res. 7, 138-147 (1965).

1963 (4)

H. Wallach, "The perception of neutral colors," Sci. Am. 208, 107-116 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, "Effect of retinal image stabilization on the appearance of heterochromatic targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 741-744 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Helson, "Studies of anomalous contrast and assimilation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 179-184 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kozaki, "A further study in the relationship between brightness constancy and contrast," Jpn. Psychol. Res. 5, 129-136 (1963).

1961 (1)

1958 (1)

1955 (2)

A. L. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing field area," J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 144-152 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances," J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 89-96 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

G. Walls, "The filling-in process," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 31, 329-340 (1954).

1953 (2)

A. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances," J. Exp. Psychol. 45, 304-314 (1953).
[CrossRef]

H. Leibowitz, F. A. Mote, and W. R. Thurlow, "Simultaneous contrast as a function of separation between test and inducing fields," J. Exp. Psychol. 46, 453-456 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1948 (1)

H. Wallach, "Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors," J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310-324 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, C. K.

S. S. Shimozaki, M. P. Eckstein, and C. K. Abbey, "Spatial profiles of local and nonlocal effects upon contrast detection/discrimination from classification images," J. Vision 5, 45-57, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Actis-Grosso, R.

P. Bressan and R. Actis-Grosso, "Simultaneous lightness contrast with double-increments," Perception 30, 889-897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, T.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Agostini and N. Bruno, "Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays," Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, D. G.

R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, and L. G. Thorell, "Spatial frequency selectivity of cells in macaque visual cortex," Vision Res. 22, 545-559 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andolina, I. M.

H. E. Jones, I. M. Andolina, N. M. Oakely, P. C. Murphy, and A. M. Sillito, "Spatial summation in lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex," Exp. Brain Res. 135, 279-284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annan, V.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, L.

L. Arend, "Surface colors, illumination, and surface geometry: intrinsic-image models of human color perception," in Lightness, Brightness, and Transparency, A.L.Gilchrist, ed. (Erlbaum, 1994), pp. 111-157.

Arend, L. E.

L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness and brightness contrast: II. Reflectance variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457-468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness and brightness contrast: I. Illumination variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446-456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, J. N. Buehler, and G. R. Lockhead, "Difference information in brightness perception," Percept. Psychophys. 9, 367-370 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arrington, K. F.

M. E. Rudd and K. F. Arrington, "Darkness filling-in: a neural model of darkness induction," Vision Res. 41, 3649-3662 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Arrington, "The temporal dynamics of brightness filling-in," Vision Res. 34, 3371-3387 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belano, L. A.

A. G. Shapiro, A. D. D'Antona, J. P. Charles, L. A. Belano, J. B. Smith, and M. Shear-Heyman, "Induced contrast asynchronies," J. Vision 4, 459-468, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, P.

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, and J. Schirillo, "Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring," Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643-654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bindman, D.

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Brightness assimilation in bullseye displays," Vision Res. 44, 309-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Mechanisms of contrast induction in heterogeneous displays," Vision Res. 44, 1601-1613 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blakemore, C.

F. Sengpiel, A. Sen, and C. Blakemore, "Characteristics of surround inhibition in cat area 17," Exp. Brain Res. 116, 216-238 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blakeslee, B.

M. E. McCourt, B. Blakeslee, and W. Pasieka, "Temporal properties of brightness induction" [Abstract], J. Vision 5, 242a, (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Blakeslee and M. E. McCourt, "Similar mechanisms underlie simultaneous brightness contrast and grating induction," Vision Res. 37, 2849-2869 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonato, F.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, "The psychophysics toolbox," Spatial Vis. 10, 433-436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bressan, P.

P. Bressan and R. Actis-Grosso, "Simultaneous lightness contrast with double-increments," Perception 30, 889-897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, "Neon color spreading: a review," Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 26, 1353-1366 (1997).

Brown, R. O.

R. O. Brown and D. I. MacLeod, "Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors," Curr. Biol. 7, 844-849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, N.

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, and J. Schirillo, "Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring," Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643-654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Agostini and N. Bruno, "Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays," Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bruno, "Failures of lightness constancy, edge integration, and local edge enhancement," Vision Res. 34, 2205-2214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buehler, J. N.

L. E. Arend, J. N. Buehler, and G. R. Lockhead, "Difference information in brightness perception," Percept. Psychophys. 9, 367-370 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cataliotti, J.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Challands, P. D. C.

P. Whittle and P. D. C. Challands, "The effect of background luminance on the brightness of flashes," Vision Res. 9, 1095-1110 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charles, J. P.

A. G. Shapiro, A. D. D'Antona, J. P. Charles, L. A. Belano, J. B. Smith, and M. Shear-Heyman, "Induced contrast asynchronies," J. Vision 4, 459-468, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. M.

C. P. Hung, B. M. Ramsden, L. M. Chen, and A. W. Roe, "Building surfaces from borders in Areas 17 and 18 of the cat," Vision Res. 41, 1389-1407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chevreul, M. E.

M. E. Chevreul, The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors and Their Applications to the Arts (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1839/1967).

Chubb, C.

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Brightness assimilation in bullseye displays," Vision Res. 44, 309-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Mechanisms of contrast induction in heterogeneous displays," Vision Res. 44, 1601-1613 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, M. A.

M. A. Cohen and S. Grossberg, "Neural dynamics of brightness perception: features, boundaries, diffusion, and resonance," Percept. Psychophys. 36, 328-456 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cornelissen, F. W.

F. W. Cornelissen, A. R. Wade, T. Vladusich, R. F. Dougherty, and B. A. Wandell, "No function magnetic resonance imaging evidence for brightness and color filling-in in early human visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 3634-3641 (2006).
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T. Vladusich, M. P. Lucassen, and F. W. Cornelissen, "Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness," J. Vision 6, (2006).
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Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, 1970).

T. N. Cornsweet, "Stabilized image techniques," in Recent Developments in Vision Research, M.A.Whitcomb, ed. (National Research Council Publication No. 1272, 1966), pp. 171-179.

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik, The Nature of Psychology: A Selection of Papers, Essays, and Writings, S.L.Sherwood, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1966).

Cudeiro, J.

A. M. Sillito, K. L. Grieve, H. E. Jones, J. Cudeiro, and J. Davis, "Visual cortical mechanisms detecting focal orientation discontinuities," Nature 378, 492-496 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Antona, A. D.

A. G. Shapiro, A. D. D'Antona, J. P. Charles, L. A. Belano, J. B. Smith, and M. Shear-Heyman, "Induced contrast asynchronies," J. Vision 4, 459-468, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daugman, J. G.

J. G. Daugman, "Uncertainty relation for resolution in space, spatial frequency, and orientation optimized by two-dimensional visual cortical filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1160-1169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Davey, M. P.

M. P. Davey, T. Maddess, and M. V. Srinivasan, "The spatiotemporal properties of the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet effect are consistent with 'filling-in'," Vision Res. 22, 545-559.
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Davis, J.

A. M. Sillito, K. L. Grieve, H. E. Jones, J. Cudeiro, and J. Davis, "Visual cortical mechanisms detecting focal orientation discontinuities," Nature 378, 492-496 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Angelis, G. C.

G. C. De Angelis, R. D. Freeman, and I. Ohzawa, "Length and width tuning of neurons in the cat's primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 71, 347-374 (1994).

De Haan, B.

H. J. M. Gerrits, B. De Haan, and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Experiments with retinal stabilized images. Relations between observations and neural data," Vision Res. 6, 427-440 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, Spatial Vision (Oxford U. Press, 1988).

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, and L. G. Thorell, "Spatial frequency selectivity of cells in macaque visual cortex," Vision Res. 22, 545-559 (1982).
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R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, Spatial Vision (Oxford U. Press, 1988).

Delahunt, P. B.

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, "The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation," Vision Res. 45, 1413-1424 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delman, S.

A. L. Gilchrist, S. Delman, and A. Jacobsen, "The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination," Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425-436 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devinck, F.

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, "The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation," Vision Res. 45, 1413-1424 (2005).
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Diamond, A.

A. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances," J. Exp. Psychol. 45, 304-314 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Diamond, A. L.

A. L. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing field area," J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 144-152 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, R. F.

F. W. Cornelissen, A. R. Wade, T. Vladusich, R. F. Dougherty, and B. A. Wandell, "No function magnetic resonance imaging evidence for brightness and color filling-in in early human visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 3634-3641 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckstein, M. P.

S. S. Shimozaki, M. P. Eckstein, and C. K. Abbey, "Spatial profiles of local and nonlocal effects upon contrast detection/discrimination from classification images," J. Vision 5, 45-57, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentini, A.

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, "The unresponsive regions of visual cortical receptive fields," Vision Res. 16, 1131-1139 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. D.

R. D. Freeman, I. Ohzawa, and G. Walker, "Beyond the classical receptive field in the visual cortex," Prog. Brain Res. 134, 157-170 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Walker, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, "Suppression outside the classical receptive field," Visual Neurosci. 17, 369-379 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Walker, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, "Asymmetric suppression outside the classical receptive field of the visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 19, 10536-10553 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. C. De Angelis, R. D. Freeman, and I. Ohzawa, "Length and width tuning of neurons in the cat's primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 71, 347-374 (1994).

Fregnac, Y.

P. Series, J. Lorenceau, and Y. Fregnac, "The "silent" surround of V1 receptive fields: theory and experiment," J. Physiol. (Paris) 97, 453-474 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Demonstration of edge integration in achromatic color perception. The luminances of the disks and the rings are identical on the two sides of the display. Nevertheless, the disks differ in appearance because the luminance ratios at the border between the surround ring and the background field differ on the two sides of the display. This demo makes it clear that it is not just the luminance of the disk or its immediate surround or the disk–ring luminance ratio that determines the appearance of the disk. Figure reprinted from [75] by permission of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the visual stimulus used in the appearance matching task. The observer adjusted the luminance D M of the matching disk to achieve an achromatic color match between the matching and the test disks. The luminance R T of the ring surrounding the test disk was varied as the independent variable.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of experiment 1 (decremental disks, light background). Matching disk settings as a function of test ring luminance plotted on a log–log scale. JL’s data has been shifted downward by 0.2 log units, and LT’s data has been shifted downward by 0.4 log unit for clarity of presentation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of experiment 2 (incremental disks, light background). Matching disk settings as a function of test ring luminance plotted on a log–log scale. JL’s data has been shifted downward by 0.2 log unit, and LT’s data has been shifted downward by 0.4 log unit for clarity of presentation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of experiment 3 (decremental disks, dark background). Matching disk settings as a function of test ring luminance plotted on a log–log scale. JL’s data has been shifted downward by 0.2 log unit, LT’s data has been shifted downward by 0.4 log unit, and IKZ’s data has been shifted downward by 0.6 log unit, for clarity of presentation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of experiment 4 (incremental disks, dark background). Matching disk settings as a function of test ring luminance plotted on a log–log scale. JL’s data has been shifted downward by 0.2 log unit, and LT’s data has been shifted downward by 0.4 log unit for clarity of presentation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of Two-Step Regression Analyses of the Log D M versus Log R T Plots for the Four Contrast Polarity Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameter Estimates for Model 1

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Table 3 Parameter Estimates for Model 2

Equations (40)

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w 1 log R M D M = w 1 log R 1 T D T + w 2 ( 1 α log R 1 T B T ) log R 2 T R T .
δ i T = w 1 log R T D T ,
δ o T = w 2 ( 1 α log R 1 T D T ) log R 2 T R 1 T ,
δ i M = w 1 log R M D M ,
δ i M = δ i T + δ o T ,
δ i M + λ b M = δ i T + δ o T + λ b T ,
w 1 log D M R M + w 2 ( 1 α log D M R M ) log R M B = x + w 1 log D T R T + w 2 ( 1 α log D T R T ) log R T B .
w 1 log D M R M + w 2 ( 1 α log D M R M ) log R M B = x + w 1 log D T R T + w 2 ( 1 α log D T R T ) log R T B .
w 1 d M r M + w 2 ( 1 α d M r M ) r M b = x + w 1 d T r T + w 2 ( 1 α d T r T ) r T b .
d M r M + w ( 1 α ( d M r M ) ) ( r M b ) = x + d T r T + w ( 1 α ( d T r T ) ) ( r T b )
w 2 w 1 = w sgn ( r T b d T r T ) ,
α = α sgn ( d M r M ) ,
x = x w 1 .
d M = x + d T + α w d T b + r M { 1 w [ 1 + α ( r M b ) ] } 1 α w ( r M b ) ( 1 w [ 1 α w ( d T + b ) ] 1 α w ( r M b ) ) r T + ( α w 1 α w ( r M b ) ) r T 2 .
c 0 = x + d T + α w d T b + r M { 1 w [ 1 + α ( r M b ) ] } 1 α w ( r M b ) ,
c 1 = 1 w [ 1 α w ( d T + b ) ] 1 α w ( r M b ) ,
c 2 = α w 1 α w ( r M b ) .
w = 1 + c 1 + c 2 ( d T + r M ) 1 + c 2 ( r M b ) ,
α = c 2 1 + c 1 + c 2 ( d T + r M ) ,
x = d T c 0 c 1 r M + c 2 r M 2 1 + c 2 ( r M b ) .
w 2 w 1 = 1 + c 1 + c 2 ( d T + r M ) 1 + c 2 ( r M b ) sgn ( r T b d T r T ) ,
α = c 2 sgn ( d T r T ) 1 + c 1 + c 2 ( d T + r M ) ,
x = w 1 ( d T c 0 c 1 r M + c 2 r M 2 ) 1 + c 2 ( r M b ) .
c 0 = x + d T + ( 1 w ) r M ,
c 1 = w 1 ,
c 2 = 0 ,
d M = x + d T + ( 1 w ) r M ( 1 w ) r T .
d M = c ̂ 0 + c ̂ 1 r T + c ̂ 2 r T 2 ,
q = x 1 α w ( r M b ) = d T + c 0 + c 1 r M + c 2 r M 2 .
q ̂ = d T + c ̂ 0 + c ̂ 1 r M + c ̂ 2 r M 2 ,
V a r ( q ̂ ) = s e ( c ̂ 0 ) + r M 2 s e ( c ̂ 1 ) + r M 4 s e ( c ̂ 2 )
z ( q ̂ ) = q ̂ s e ( c ̂ 0 ) + r M 2 s e ( c ̂ 1 ) + r M 4 s e ( c ̂ 2 ) .
z i ( q ̂ ) = 1 n j = 1 n q ̂ i 1 n 2 j = 1 n V a r ( q ̂ i ) ,
w 1 ( 1 β log R M B ) log D M R M + w 2 log R M B = x + w 1 ( 1 β log R T B ) log D T R T + w 2 log R T B .
( d M r M ) [ 1 β ( r M b ) ] + w ( r M b ) = x + ( d T r T ) [ 1 β ( r T b ) ] + w ( r T b ) .
Φ = w 1 ( 1 α log D i R i ) log R i B + w 2 ( 1 β log R i B ) log D i R i ,
α ̂ = c ̂ 2 sgn ( d T r T ) 1 + c ̂ 1 + c ̂ 2 ( d T + r M )
z ( n u m ) = c ̂ 2 0 s e 2 ( c ̂ 2 ) ,
z ( d e n ) = 1 + c ̂ 1 + c ̂ 2 ( d T + r M ) 0 s e 2 ( c ̂ 1 ) + ( d T + r M ) 2 s e 2 ( c ̂ 2 ) .
z ( c ̂ 2 > c ̂ 1 ) = c ̂ 2 c ̂ 1 0 s e 2 ( c ̂ 1 ) + s e 2 ( c ̂ 2 ) .

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