Abstract

We analyzed the literature on the absorption in the young and aging human eye media. Five templates were derived to provide an adequate description of the spectra from 300 to 700nm for the lens, cornea, aqueous, and vitreous. Two templates were found in all media. They stand for Rayleigh scatter and the absorbance of tryptophan. Three additional templates for the lens represent absorbance in kynurenine derivatives, such as 3-hydroxykynurenine glucoside (3HKG), and absorbance in two substances found at older age. Except for Rayleigh scatter, all templates have a Gaussian shape. Aging-trend functions were derived that show a linear slope on an age-squared scale. The result can be used to correct for media losses in visual perception tasks, in fundus reflectometry, and in studies on light damage.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

J. van de Kraats and D. van Norren, "Sharp cutoff filters in intraocular lenses optimize the balance between light reception and light protection," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 879-887 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. A. Mainster, "Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception," Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 784-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, "Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight," Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688-692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. R. Hammond and B. R. Wooten, "Resonance Raman spectroscopic measurement of carotenoids in the skin and retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mainster, "Intraocular lenses should block UV radiation and violet but not blue light," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 123, 550-555 (2005).

R. E. Braunstein and J. R. Sparrow, "A blue-blocking intraocular lens should be used in cataract surgery," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 123, 547-549 (2005).

2004

2003

J. J. Vos, "On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation," Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 363-370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Thaung and J. Sjostrand, "Integrated light scattering as a function of wavelength in donor lenses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 152-157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D. Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, "In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172-1186 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, S. W. Wintch, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and W. Gellermann, "Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in normal subjects and in age-related macular degeneration patients," Ophthalmology 109, 1780-1787 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, "UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400-nm range," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165-2168 (2002).

B. J. Ortwerth, V. Chemoganskiy, and P. R. Olesen, "Studies on singlet oxygen formation and UVA light-mediated photobleaching of the yellow chromophores in human lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 74, 217-229 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

G. L. Savage, C. A. Johnson, and D. L. Howard, "A comparison of noninvasive objective and subjective measurements of the optical density of human ocular media," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 386-395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, "Identification and quantization of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye," Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215-223 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

L. A. Ervin, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Photochemically modified alpha-crystallin: a model system for aging in the primate lens," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 685-691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Heckathorn, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Synthesis and purification of 3-hydroxykynurenine-O-beta-glucoside, a primate lens ultraviolet filter, and its application in a two-step assay for beta-glucosidase activity," Anal. Biochem. 299, 78-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Bova, M. H. J. Sweeney, J. F. Jamie, and R. J. W. Truscott, "Major changes in human ocular UV protection with age," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 200-205 (2001).

K. Sagawa and Y. Takahashi, "Spectral luminous efficiency as a function of age," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2659-2667 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merriam, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

B. R. Hammond, Jr., J. E. Nanez, C. Fair, and D. M. Snodderly, "Iris color and age-related changes in lens optical density," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 381-386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Dillon, L. Zheng, J. C. Merriam, and E. R. Gaillard, "The optical properties of the anterior segment of the eye: implications for cortical cataract," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 785-795 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. Fach, "The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches," Vision Res. 39, 2901-2927 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

P. S. Bernstein, M. D. Yoshida, N. B. Katz, R. W. McClane, and W. Gellermann, "Raman detection of macular carotenoid pigments in intact human retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2003-2011 (1998).

1997

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and H. Spekreijse, "Near infrared light absorption in the human eye media," Vision Res. 37, 249-253 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, "Optical density of the human lens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 953-960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, "Depth-dependent forward light scattering by donor lenses," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 1157-1166 (1996).

1995

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and J. Felius, "Relationship between spectral transmittance and slit lamp color of human lenses," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 322-329 (1995).

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and J. K. IJspeert, "Light scattering in donor lenses," Vision Res. 35, 169-177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Fuh, "Spectral absorbance data of tryptophan." Available at http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/PhotochemCAD/abslowbarhtml/trvptophan.html (1995).

1994

J. M. Kraft and J. S. Werner, "Spectral efficiency across the lifespan—flicker photometry and brightness matching," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213-1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and K. E. Tan, "Light transmittance of the human cornea from 320 to 700nm for different ages," Vision Res. 34, 1453-1456 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ambach, M. Blumthaler, T. Schopf, E. Ambach, F. Katzgraber, F. Daxecker, and A. Daxer, "Spectral transmission of the optical media of the human eye with respect to keratitis and cataract formation," Doc. Ophthalmol. 88, 165-173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. W. Truscott, A. M. Wood, J. A. Carver, M. M. Sheil, G. M. Stutchbury, J. L. Zhu, and G. W. Kilby, "A new UV-filter compound in human lenses," FEBS Lett. 348, 173-176 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terade, M. Sawa, J. Akiba, N. Ueno, and B. Chakrabarti, "Spectral transmittance of normal human crystalline lens," Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 98, 1101-1108 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993

G. M. Stutchbury and R. J. W. Truscott, "The modification of proteins by 3-hydroxykynurenine," Exp. Eye Res. 57, 149-155 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, D. L. Howard, D. Marshall, and H. Shu, "A noninvasive video-based method for measuring lens transmission properties of the human eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 70, 944-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J.T. P. van den Berg, "Quantal and visual efficiency of fluorescence in the lens of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 3566-3573 (1993).

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, "Spectral sensitivities of the human cones," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491-2521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stavenga, R. P. Smits, and B. J. Hoenders, "Simple exponential functions describing the absorbance bands of visual pigment spectra," Vision Res. 33, 1011-1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, and S. E. Hewlett, "Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97-108 (1993).

1992

M. Scott Griswold and W. S. Stark, "Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet," Vision Res. 32, 1739-1743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. T. Liem, J. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, and J. van de Kraats, "Rod densitometry in the aging human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2676-2682 (1991).

F. M. Barker and G. C. Brainard, "The direct spectral transmittance of the excised human lens as a function of age," FDA Rep. FDA 785345 0090 RA (U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration, 1991).

J. D. Moreland, E. Torczynski, and R. Tripathi, "Rayleigh and Moreland matches in the ageing eye," in Colour Vision Deficiencies X, B.Drum, J.D.Moreland, and A.Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 347-352.
[CrossRef]

M. Lutze and G. H. Bresnick, "Lenses of diabetic patients yellow at an accelerated rate similar to older normals," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 194-199 (1991).

1990

J. Dillon, R. H. Wang, and S. J. Atherton, "Photochemical and photophysical studies on human lens constituents," Photochem. Photobiol. 52, 849-854 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Beems and J. A. van Best, "Light transmission of the cornea in whole human eyes," Exp. Eye Res. 50, 393-395 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, "The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1306-1311 (1988).

R. A. Weale, "Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens," J. Physiol. (London) 395, 577-587 (1988).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, and J. M. Quigg, "Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131-2139 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. Lutze, "Aging of the human lens," Appl. Opt. 26, 1437-1440 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Zeimer, H. K. Lim, and Y. Ogura, "Evaluation of an objective method for the in vivo measurement of changes in light transmittance of the human crystalline lens," Exp. Eye Res. 45, 969-976 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mellerio, "Yellowing of the human lens: nuclear and cortical contributions," Vision Res. 27, 1581-1587 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

F. A. Bettelheim and S. Ali, "Light scattering of normal human lens. III. Relationship between forward and back scatter of whole excised lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 41, 1-9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Weale, "The post-mortem preservation of the transmissivity of the human crystalline lens," Exp. Eye Res. 41, 655-659 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

W. T. Ham, Jr., H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, Jr., D. Guerry III, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

J. S. Werner, "Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247-258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

M. Bando, A. Nakajima, and K. Satoh, "Spectrophotometric estimation of 3-OHL-kynurenine O-beta-glucoside in the human lens," J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 89, 103-109 (1981).

1978

E. F. Maher, "Transmission and absorption coefficients for ocular media of the rhesus monkey," Rep. SAM-TR-78-32 (Brooks Air Force Base, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 1978).

J. D. Moreland, "Temporal variations in anomaloscope equations," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 19, 167-172 (1978).

1976

S. Lerman and R. Borkman, "Spectroscopic evaluation and classification of the normal, aging and cataracous lens," Ophthalmol. Res. 8, 335-353 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, and G. Griess, "Light extinction and protein in lens," Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555-567 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, Jr., H. A. Mueller, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light," Nature 260, 153-155 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, and A. van Meeteren, "Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source," Vision Res. 16, 215-219 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

D. van Norren and J. J. Vos, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237-1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Vos, "The action spectrum of retinal burn," Rep. IZF 1974-23 (Instituut voor Zintuigfysiologie TNO, 1974).

1972

S. Coren and J. S. Girgus, "Density of human lens pigmentation: in vivo measures over an extended age range," Vision Res. 12, 343-346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Grover and S. Zigman, "Coloration of human lenses by near ultraviolet photo oxidized tryptophan," Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70-76 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Moreland, "The effect of inert ocular pigments on anomaloscope matches and its reduction," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12-18 (1972).
[PubMed]

1971

J. Mellerio, "Light absorption and scatter in the human lens," Vision Res. 11, 129-141 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. W. P. Tan, Vision in the ultraviolet, Ph.D. thesis (Utrecht University, 1971).

R. van Heyningen, "Fluorescent glucoside in the human lens," Nature 230, 393-394 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

G. F. Cooper and J. G. Robson, "The yellow colour of the lens of man and other primates," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 411-417 (1969).

1967

E. A. Boettner, "Spectral transmission of the eye," Report of the University of Michigan Ann Arbor Contract AF41-609-2966 (USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 1967).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 1st ed. (Wiley, 1967).

1965

K. H. Ruddock, "The effect of age upon colour vision. II. Changes with age in light transmission of the ocular media," Vision Res. 5, 47-58 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report 1958," Opt. Acta 6, 1-26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Said and R. A. Weale, "The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens," Gerontologia (Basel) 3, 231-231 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1957).

1954

R. A. Weale, "Light absorption by the lens of the human eye," Opt. Acta 1, 107-110 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1952

F. D. Collins, R. Love, and R. Morton, "Studies in rhodopsin. 4. Preparation of rhodopsin," Biochem. J. 51, 292-298 (1952).

1951

W. D. Wright, "The visual sensitivity of normal and aphakic observers in the ultraviolet," Annee Psychol. 50, 169-177 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1949

G. Wald, "The photochemistry of vision," Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 94-137 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Crawford, "The scotopic visibility function," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B 62B, 321-334 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1945

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 653-658 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1938

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of the visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 20, 37-51 (1938).

Adams, A. J.

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, and S. E. Hewlett, "Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97-108 (1993).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, and J. M. Quigg, "Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131-2139 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, J.

H. Terade, M. Sawa, J. Akiba, N. Ueno, and B. Chakrabarti, "Spectral transmittance of normal human crystalline lens," Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 98, 1101-1108 (1994).
[PubMed]

Ali, S.

F. A. Bettelheim and S. Ali, "Light scattering of normal human lens. III. Relationship between forward and back scatter of whole excised lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 41, 1-9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, E.

W. Ambach, M. Blumthaler, T. Schopf, E. Ambach, F. Katzgraber, F. Daxecker, and A. Daxer, "Spectral transmission of the optical media of the human eye with respect to keratitis and cataract formation," Doc. Ophthalmol. 88, 165-173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambach, W.

W. Ambach, M. Blumthaler, T. Schopf, E. Ambach, F. Katzgraber, F. Daxecker, and A. Daxer, "Spectral transmission of the optical media of the human eye with respect to keratitis and cataract formation," Doc. Ophthalmol. 88, 165-173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atherton, S. J.

J. Dillon, R. H. Wang, and S. J. Atherton, "Photochemical and photophysical studies on human lens constituents," Photochem. Photobiol. 52, 849-854 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bando, M.

M. Bando, A. Nakajima, and K. Satoh, "Spectrophotometric estimation of 3-OHL-kynurenine O-beta-glucoside in the human lens," J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 89, 103-109 (1981).

Barker, F. M.

F. M. Barker and G. C. Brainard, "The direct spectral transmittance of the excised human lens as a function of age," FDA Rep. FDA 785345 0090 RA (U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration, 1991).

Beems, E. M.

E. M. Beems and J. A. van Best, "Light transmission of the cornea in whole human eyes," Exp. Eye Res. 50, 393-395 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, P. S.

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D. Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, "In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172-1186 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, S. W. Wintch, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and W. Gellermann, "Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in normal subjects and in age-related macular degeneration patients," Ophthalmology 109, 1780-1787 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, "Identification and quantization of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye," Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215-223 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Bernstein, M. D. Yoshida, N. B. Katz, R. W. McClane, and W. Gellermann, "Raman detection of macular carotenoid pigments in intact human retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2003-2011 (1998).

Bettelheim, F. A.

F. A. Bettelheim and S. Ali, "Light scattering of normal human lens. III. Relationship between forward and back scatter of whole excised lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 41, 1-9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

W. Ambach, M. Blumthaler, T. Schopf, E. Ambach, F. Katzgraber, F. Daxecker, and A. Daxer, "Spectral transmission of the optical media of the human eye with respect to keratitis and cataract formation," Doc. Ophthalmol. 88, 165-173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner, "Spectral transmission of the eye," Report of the University of Michigan Ann Arbor Contract AF41-609-2966 (USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 1967).

Bor, Z.

L. Kolozsvari, A. Nogradi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, "UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400-nm range," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165-2168 (2002).

Borkman, R.

S. Lerman and R. Borkman, "Spectroscopic evaluation and classification of the normal, aging and cataracous lens," Ophthalmol. Res. 8, 335-353 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bova, L. M.

L. M. Bova, M. H. J. Sweeney, J. F. Jamie, and R. J. W. Truscott, "Major changes in human ocular UV protection with age," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 200-205 (2001).

Boynton, R. M.

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, "The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1306-1311 (1988).

Brainard, G. C.

F. M. Barker and G. C. Brainard, "The direct spectral transmittance of the excised human lens as a function of age," FDA Rep. FDA 785345 0090 RA (U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration, 1991).

Braunstein, R. E.

R. E. Braunstein and J. R. Sparrow, "A blue-blocking intraocular lens should be used in cataract surgery," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 123, 547-549 (2005).

Bresnick, G. H.

M. Lutze and G. H. Bresnick, "Lenses of diabetic patients yellow at an accelerated rate similar to older normals," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 194-199 (1991).

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report 1958," Opt. Acta 6, 1-26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, L. S.

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, "Identification and quantization of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye," Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215-223 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carver, J. A.

R. J. W. Truscott, A. M. Wood, J. A. Carver, M. M. Sheil, G. M. Stutchbury, J. L. Zhu, and G. W. Kilby, "A new UV-filter compound in human lenses," FEBS Lett. 348, 173-176 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakrabarti, B.

H. Terade, M. Sawa, J. Akiba, N. Ueno, and B. Chakrabarti, "Spectral transmittance of normal human crystalline lens," Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 98, 1101-1108 (1994).
[PubMed]

Chemoganskiy, V.

B. J. Ortwerth, V. Chemoganskiy, and P. R. Olesen, "Studies on singlet oxygen formation and UVA light-mediated photobleaching of the yellow chromophores in human lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 74, 217-229 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, F. D.

F. D. Collins, R. Love, and R. Morton, "Studies in rhodopsin. 4. Preparation of rhodopsin," Biochem. J. 51, 292-298 (1952).

Cooper, G. F.

G. F. Cooper and J. G. Robson, "The yellow colour of the lens of man and other primates," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 411-417 (1969).

Coppens, J. E.

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, "Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight," Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688-692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coren, S.

S. Coren and J. S. Girgus, "Density of human lens pigmentation: in vivo measures over an extended age range," Vision Res. 12, 343-346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, "The scotopic visibility function," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B 62B, 321-334 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Daxecker, F.

W. Ambach, M. Blumthaler, T. Schopf, E. Ambach, F. Katzgraber, F. Daxecker, and A. Daxer, "Spectral transmission of the optical media of the human eye with respect to keratitis and cataract formation," Doc. Ophthalmol. 88, 165-173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daxer, A.

W. Ambach, M. Blumthaler, T. Schopf, E. Ambach, F. Katzgraber, F. Daxecker, and A. Daxer, "Spectral transmission of the optical media of the human eye with respect to keratitis and cataract formation," Doc. Ophthalmol. 88, 165-173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

Dillon, J.

R. C. Heckathorn, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Synthesis and purification of 3-hydroxykynurenine-O-beta-glucoside, a primate lens ultraviolet filter, and its application in a two-step assay for beta-glucosidase activity," Anal. Biochem. 299, 78-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Ervin, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Photochemically modified alpha-crystallin: a model system for aging in the primate lens," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 685-691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merriam, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

J. Dillon, L. Zheng, J. C. Merriam, and E. R. Gaillard, "The optical properties of the anterior segment of the eye: implications for cortical cataract," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 785-795 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dillon, R. H. Wang, and S. J. Atherton, "Photochemical and photophysical studies on human lens constituents," Photochem. Photobiol. 52, 849-854 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorey, C. K.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

Ermakov, I. V.

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, S. W. Wintch, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and W. Gellermann, "Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in normal subjects and in age-related macular degeneration patients," Ophthalmology 109, 1780-1787 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D. Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, "In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172-1186 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ermakova, M. R.

Ervin, L. A.

L. A. Ervin, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Photochemically modified alpha-crystallin: a model system for aging in the primate lens," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 685-691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esterson, F. D.

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, "The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 1306-1311 (1988).

Fach, C.

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. Fach, "The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches," Vision Res. 39, 2901-2927 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fair, C.

B. R. Hammond, Jr., J. E. Nanez, C. Fair, and D. M. Snodderly, "Iris color and age-related changes in lens optical density," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 381-386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Felius, J.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and J. Felius, "Relationship between spectral transmittance and slit lamp color of human lenses," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 322-329 (1995).

Franssen, L.

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, "Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight," Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688-692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, R. A.

R. A. Fuh, "Spectral absorbance data of tryptophan." Available at http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/PhotochemCAD/abslowbarhtml/trvptophan.html (1995).

Gaillard, E. R.

L. A. Ervin, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Photochemically modified alpha-crystallin: a model system for aging in the primate lens," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 685-691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Heckathorn, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Synthesis and purification of 3-hydroxykynurenine-O-beta-glucoside, a primate lens ultraviolet filter, and its application in a two-step assay for beta-glucosidase activity," Anal. Biochem. 299, 78-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merriam, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

J. Dillon, L. Zheng, J. C. Merriam, and E. R. Gaillard, "The optical properties of the anterior segment of the eye: implications for cortical cataract," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 785-795 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gellermann, W.

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D. Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, "In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172-1186 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, S. W. Wintch, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and W. Gellermann, "Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in normal subjects and in age-related macular degeneration patients," Ophthalmology 109, 1780-1787 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Bernstein, M. D. Yoshida, N. B. Katz, R. W. McClane, and W. Gellermann, "Raman detection of macular carotenoid pigments in intact human retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2003-2011 (1998).

Girgus, J. S.

S. Coren and J. S. Girgus, "Density of human lens pigmentation: in vivo measures over an extended age range," Vision Res. 12, 343-346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Goger, D. G.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

Griess, G.

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, and G. Griess, "Light extinction and protein in lens," Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555-567 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griswold, M. Scott

M. Scott Griswold and W. S. Stark, "Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet," Vision Res. 32, 1739-1743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groff, J.

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, and G. Griess, "Light extinction and protein in lens," Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555-567 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grover, D.

D. Grover and S. Zigman, "Coloration of human lenses by near ultraviolet photo oxidized tryptophan," Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70-76 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerry, D.

W. T. Ham, Jr., H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, Jr., D. Guerry III, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Guerry, R. K.

W. T. Ham, Jr., H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, Jr., D. Guerry III, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, and S. E. Hewlett, "Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97-108 (1993).

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, Jr., H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, Jr., D. Guerry III, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

W. T. Ham, Jr., H. A. Mueller, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light," Nature 260, 153-155 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, B. R.

B. R. Hammond and B. R. Wooten, "Resonance Raman spectroscopic measurement of carotenoids in the skin and retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, Jr., J. E. Nanez, C. Fair, and D. M. Snodderly, "Iris color and age-related changes in lens optical density," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 381-386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heckathorn, R. C.

R. C. Heckathorn, J. Dillon, and E. R. Gaillard, "Synthesis and purification of 3-hydroxykynurenine-O-beta-glucoside, a primate lens ultraviolet filter, and its application in a two-step assay for beta-glucosidase activity," Anal. Biochem. 299, 78-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewlett, S. E.

G. L. Savage, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, A. J. Adams, and S. E. Hewlett, "Age changes in the optical density of human ocular media," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 97-108 (1993).

Hoenders, B. J.

D. G. Stavenga, R. P. Smits, and B. J. Hoenders, "Simple exponential functions describing the absorbance bands of visual pigment spectra," Vision Res. 33, 1011-1017 (1993).
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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Templates for the spectral density of the ocular media normalized to 1 at either 300 or 400 nm . The vertical scale is in optical density units (O.D.): M TP (tryptophan), M LOUV (old lens), M LO (old lens), and M LY (young lens) are Gaussians; M RL describes scatter losses of the Rayleigh type. The peaks of M TP and M LOUV are off scale. The long-wavelength tails of M LY and M LOUV virtually overlap above 400 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fit of RL with d RL = 0.14 (thick model curve) to the difference (solid squares) of the densities measured with small ( 1 deg ) and large ( 170 deg ) detectors from a young lens from Boettner [2]. Below 440 nm , noise explodes because of the high densities in the original data (see Fig. 3). Similar data from the difference using small ( 1 deg ) and large ( 49 deg ) detectors from old lenses with a mean age of 72 years from Thaung et al. [31] is also provided (solid triangles). The d RL for this older lens is 0.39 (thin model curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Density spectra of young lens material from the literature (data points) fitted with a model curve (drawn curves) using the LY, TP, and LOUV components. The curves containing a steep tryptophan edge near 300 nm are from slices of rhesus monkey lenses (Gaillard et al. [32] and Dillon et al. [33]) or from intact human lenses (Ambach et al. [3] and Cooper et al. [34]). All sets were normalized to the mean density of about a 10 year old of 1.35 at 400 nm for comparison. Successive curves were shifted by 2 density units; therefore the vertical axes were labeled relative density. The three data sets at the bottom demonstrate the fitting of isolated chromophores, applying single Gaussians with free parameters (Heckathorn [40], Stuchbury [37], and Truscott [39]).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral lens density of slices of a 48 year old lens (Gaillard et al. [32]) from cortex toward the nucleus in 0.25 mm steps [panels (A)–(D)]. Data were decomposed into three components: TP (thin curve), LY (dashed curve), and the new chromophore LOUV (dotted curve). LOUV is seen to increase from the cortex to the nucleus, whereas LY slightly decreases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Unsatisfactory model fit (thick curve) consisting only of the components LY (thin dotted curve) and RL (thin curve), to the spectral density of a 77 year lens [3] (data points). The model fit deviates from the data around 450 nm and above 500 nm , where it follows the RL component. (B) Model fit (thick curve) consisting of the components LY (thin dotted curve) and LO (thin curve). The data points and model now almost overlap.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Model fits (drawn curves) of literature data on examples of intact old donor material. The model curves are a combination of three components LY, LO, and RL. For clarity, each curve was shifted by multiples of 1 density unit and put in such an order to avoid overlap.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Density coefficients [(A), (B), and (C)] from donor lenses as a function of age squared. All trend lines were highly significant. The LY density in panel (B) also includes LOUV. In panel (D) d lens is shown, the sum of LO, LOUV, LY, RL, and d neutral at 400 nm . Note the difference in density scales.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Psychophysical aging of LO, LY, RL, and their sum at 400 nm . The LY density in Fig. 8B also includes LOUV.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Aging of the LO component derived from retinal reflection spectrometry and from Purkinje reflection spectrometry from the lens.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Model fit to data spanning the UV and visible regions on lens slices (Cooper et al. [34], Dillon et al. [33], and Gaillard et al. [32] and on homogenized lens material (Ortwerth et al. [65]) at older ages. The model curves are a combination of four components: LO, LY, LOUV, and TP. Each curve was scaled to a rather arbitrary density of 2.38 at 400 nm (our final density at age 55) for comparison. For clarity, successive curves were shifted by 5 density units and put in such an order to limit overlap.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Discrimination of LOUV and LY by analyzing the spectral donor lens data extending into the UV.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

RL and TP fitted to data sets on spectral absorption of the cornea. The data set from Van den Berg et al. [70] includes the humors. The thick curve represents the mean model curve.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Combined contributions of RL and TP (thick curves) fitted to data sets on spectral densities of aqueous humor and vitreous. For clarity, successive curves were shifted 0.02 density units. Two curves seem to be contaminated with lens extracts: vitreous data from Maher and aqueous humor data from Boettner.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Model fit to the data of former compilations. The density coefficients are provided in Table 6. For clarity, successive curves were shifted by 1.0 density units and put in such an order to limit overlap. Also shown are the proposed density spectra for the 20 and 70 year old media on an absolute density scale (see Section 6).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Density spectra of the complete media in the visible for each decade from 20 to 80 years (curves). The density coefficients are taken from the donor lens, small field results in Table 6. Calculated density spectra from Pokorny et al. [21] (also for small fields) are shown for comparison (dashed curves). The 20 and 80 year curves of both sets are marked with thick curves. The 20 year data nearly match; the 80 year data are clearly distinct. The Pokorny spectra were shifted vertically by 0.077 for an optimal match with our results at 700 nm . The insert shows the optical density of the media at 400 and 450 nm versus age (curves), again with Pokorny et al. [21] (dashed curves) for comparison.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Aging at single wavelengths from the literature (various types of data points; see legend in figure) compared with our aging from donor lenses (thick curve) and psychophysics (dashed thick curve). Aging functions with more complete spectra are also shown: the often-used Pokorny et al. [21] aging (thin curve), the aging function from Savage et al. [26] (thin, dotted curve), and multiple points defined by Weale [78] (open squares). Open symbols were chosen for psychophysical, filled symbols for donor, and crosses for reflection techniques.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Templates Describing the Spectral Density of the Ocular Media from 300 to 700 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Origin of Spectral Data

Tables Icon

Table 3 Density Coefficients for the Lens

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Table 4 Density Coefficients for TP and RL for the Cornea, Aqueous Humor, and Vitreous (All Ages)

Tables Icon

Table 5 Density Coefficients for Optimum Model Fits to Former Compilations

Tables Icon

Table 6 Mean Density Coefficients for the Five Spectral Templates and Their Age Relationship

Tables Icon

Table 7 Single-Measurement-Condition Aging Studies

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D m e d i a ( λ ) = d R L ( a g e ) × M R L ( λ ) + d T P ( a g e ) × M T P ( λ ) + d L Y ( a g e ) × M L Y ( λ ) + d L O U V ( a g e ) × M L O U V ( λ ) + d L O ( a g e ) × M L O ( λ ) + d n e u t r a l ,
M R L ( λ ) = ( 400 λ ) 4 .
M T P ( λ ) = 10.68 × exp ( { [ 0.057 × ( λ 273 ) ] 2 } ) ,
M L Y ( λ ) = 2.13 × exp ( { [ 0.029 × ( λ 370 ) ] 2 } ) .
M L O U V ( λ ) = 11.95 × exp ( { [ 0.021 × ( λ 325 ) ] 2 } ) .
M L O ( λ ) = 1.43 × exp ( { [ 0.008 × ( λ 325 ) ] 2 } ) .
d i = d i , 0 + α i × a g e 2 ,
D m e d i a ( λ ) = ( 0.446 + 0.000031 × a g e 2 ) × ( 400 λ ) 4 + 14.19 × 10.68 × exp ( { [ 0.057 × ( λ 273 ) ] 2 } ) + ( 0.998 0.000063 × a g e 2 ) × 2.13 exp ( { [ 0.029 × ( λ 370 ) ] 2 } ) + ( 0.059 + 0.000186 × a g e 2 ) × 11.95 exp ( { [ 0.021 × ( λ 325 ) ] 2 } ) + ( 0.016 + 0.000132 × a g e 2 ) × 1.43 exp ( { [ 0.008 × ( λ 325 ) ] 2 } ) + 0.111 .

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