Abstract

The spectral transmittance of various models of intraocular lenses (IOLs) has been studied. Significant differences among them were found, primarily regarding the cutoff wavelength. Based on these findings, modifications of the action spectrum for the blue-light hazard photobiological effect are proposed for each type of IOL. Moreover, the potential hazard of a representative range of radiation sources to subjects implanted with those IOLs has been calculated based on the corrected action spectra.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Meyers, M. A. Ostrovsky, and R. F. Bonner, "A model of spectral filtering to reduce photochemical damage in age-related macular degeneration," Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 10283-93 (2004).
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  18. J. Schwiegerling, "Blue-light-absorbing lenses and their effect on scotopic vision," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 141-144 (2006).
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  19. M. A. Mainster, "Intraocular lenses should block UV radiation and violet but not blue light," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 123, 550-555 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. R. A. Weale, "Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens," J. Physiol. (London) 395, 77-87 (1988).
  25. D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, "The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 3698-3704 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merraim, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).
  27. I. Kuriki, W. Ishii, and K. Uchikawa, "Effect of change in spectral transmittance of crystalline lens with aging on color vision," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 85, 107-117 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. A. Mainster, "Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception," Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 784-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwiegerling, "Blue-light-absorbing lenses and their effect on scotopic vision," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 141-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, "Blue-blocking intraocular lenses and pseudophakic scotopic sensitivity," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1403-1404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwiegerling, "Reply: blue-blocking intraocular lenses and pseudophakic scotopic sensitivity," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1404-1405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. A. Mainster, "Intraocular lenses should block UV radiation and violet but not blue light," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 123, 550-555 (2005).

2004

S. M. Meyers, M. A. Ostrovsky, and R. F. Bonner, "A model of spectral filtering to reduce photochemical damage in age-related macular degeneration," Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 10283-93 (2004).

P. H. Ernest, "Light-transmission-spectrum comparison of foldable intraocular lenses," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 1755-1758 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Laube, H. Apel, and H. R. Koch, "Ultraviolet radiation absorption of intraocular lenses," Ophthalmology 111, 880-885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. A. Mainster and J. R. Sparrow, "How much blue light should an IOL transmit?" Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 1523-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, "The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 3698-3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Link and J. Lee, "Spectral transmission characteristics of spectacle, contact and intraocular lenses," Ann. Ophthalmol. 34, 206-215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merraim, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

I. Kuriki, W. Ishii, and K. Uchikawa, "Effect of change in spectral transmittance of crystalline lens with aging on color vision," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 85, 107-117 (2000).

1997

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), "Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3μm)," Health Phys. 73, 539-554 (1997).
[PubMed]

1992

M. S. Griswold and W. S. Stark, "Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet," Vision Res. 32, 1739-1743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1988

R. A. Weale, "Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens," J. Physiol. (London) 395, 77-87 (1988).

1986

R. L. Lindstrom and N. Doddi, "Ultraviolet light absorption in intraocular lenses," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 12, 285-289 (1986).

1982

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

1979

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, and A. M. Clarke, "Sensitivity of the retina to radiation damage as a function of wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 735-743 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light," Nature 260, 153-155 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

D. Van Namen and J. J. Voss, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237-1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1963

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, W. J. Geeraets, R. S. Ruffin, and H. A. Mueller, "Optical masers (lasers)," Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 60-78 (1963).

1962

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, Jr., "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776-783 (1962).

Apel, H.

T. Laube, H. Apel, and H. R. Koch, "Ultraviolet radiation absorption of intraocular lenses," Ophthalmology 111, 880-885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitran, M.

D. H. Sliney and M. Bitran, "The ACGIH action spectra for hazard assessment: the TLV's. Measurements of optical radiation hazards," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.H.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, 1998), pp. 241-249.

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, Jr., "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776-783 (1962).

Bonner, R. F.

S. M. Meyers, M. A. Ostrovsky, and R. F. Bonner, "A model of spectral filtering to reduce photochemical damage in age-related macular degeneration," Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 10283-93 (2004).

Campos, J.

Clarke, A. M.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, and A. M. Clarke, "Sensitivity of the retina to radiation damage as a function of wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 735-743 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corredera, P.

Corróns, A.

Dillon, J.

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merraim, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

Doddi, N.

R. L. Lindstrom and N. Doddi, "Ultraviolet light absorption in intraocular lenses," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 12, 285-289 (1986).

Ernest, P. H.

P. H. Ernest, "Light-transmission-spectrum comparison of foldable intraocular lenses," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 1755-1758 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faubert, J.

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, "The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 3698-3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaillard, E. R.

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merraim, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

Geeraets, W. J.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, W. J. Geeraets, R. S. Ruffin, and H. A. Mueller, "Optical masers (lasers)," Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 60-78 (1963).

Griswold, M. S.

M. S. Griswold and W. S. Stark, "Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet," Vision Res. 32, 1739-1743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerry, D.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Guerry, R. K.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Gueymard, C. A.

C. A. Gueymard, "A simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine: algoritms and performance assessment SMARTS code (version 2.9.2)," (Solar Consulting Services, 2003).

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, and A. M. Clarke, "Sensitivity of the retina to radiation damage as a function of wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 735-743 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light," Nature 260, 153-155 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, W. J. Geeraets, R. S. Ruffin, and H. A. Mueller, "Optical masers (lasers)," Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 60-78 (1963).

W. T. Ham, Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology (Plenum, 1989).

Ishii, W.

I. Kuriki, W. Ishii, and K. Uchikawa, "Effect of change in spectral transmittance of crystalline lens with aging on color vision," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 85, 107-117 (2000).

Koch, H. R.

T. Laube, H. Apel, and H. R. Koch, "Ultraviolet radiation absorption of intraocular lenses," Ophthalmology 111, 880-885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriki, I.

I. Kuriki, W. Ishii, and K. Uchikawa, "Effect of change in spectral transmittance of crystalline lens with aging on color vision," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 85, 107-117 (2000).

Laube, T.

T. Laube, H. Apel, and H. R. Koch, "Ultraviolet radiation absorption of intraocular lenses," Ophthalmology 111, 880-885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

L. Link and J. Lee, "Spectral transmission characteristics of spectacle, contact and intraocular lenses," Ann. Ophthalmol. 34, 206-215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lindstrom, R. L.

R. L. Lindstrom and N. Doddi, "Ultraviolet light absorption in intraocular lenses," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 12, 285-289 (1986).

Link, L.

L. Link and J. Lee, "Spectral transmission characteristics of spectacle, contact and intraocular lenses," Ann. Ophthalmol. 34, 206-215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mainster, M. A.

M. A. Mainster, "Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception," Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 784-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, "Blue-blocking intraocular lenses and pseudophakic scotopic sensitivity," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1403-1404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, "Intraocular lenses should block UV radiation and violet but not blue light," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 123, 550-555 (2005).

M. A. Mainster and J. R. Sparrow, "How much blue light should an IOL transmit?" Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 1523-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merraim, J. C.

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merraim, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

Meyers, S. M.

S. M. Meyers, M. A. Ostrovsky, and R. F. Bonner, "A model of spectral filtering to reduce photochemical damage in age-related macular degeneration," Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 10283-93 (2004).

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, and A. M. Clarke, "Sensitivity of the retina to radiation damage as a function of wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 735-743 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light," Nature 260, 153-155 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, W. J. Geeraets, R. S. Ruffin, and H. A. Mueller, "Optical masers (lasers)," Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 60-78 (1963).

Nguyen-Tri, D.

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, "The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 3698-3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovsky, M. A.

S. M. Meyers, M. A. Ostrovsky, and R. F. Bonner, "A model of spectral filtering to reduce photochemical damage in age-related macular degeneration," Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 10283-93 (2004).

Overbury, O.

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, "The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 3698-3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pons, A.

Ruffin, R. S.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, W. J. Geeraets, R. S. Ruffin, and H. A. Mueller, "Optical masers (lasers)," Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 60-78 (1963).

Ruffolo, J. J.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, and A. M. Clarke, "Sensitivity of the retina to radiation damage as a function of wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 735-743 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J.

J. Schwiegerling, "Blue-light-absorbing lenses and their effect on scotopic vision," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 141-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwiegerling, "Reply: blue-blocking intraocular lenses and pseudophakic scotopic sensitivity," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1404-1405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light," Nature 260, 153-155 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Sliney and M. Bitran, "The ACGIH action spectra for hazard assessment: the TLV's. Measurements of optical radiation hazards," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.H.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, 1998), pp. 241-249.

Sparrow, J. R.

M. A. Mainster and J. R. Sparrow, "How much blue light should an IOL transmit?" Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 1523-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stark, W. S.

M. S. Griswold and W. S. Stark, "Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet," Vision Res. 32, 1739-1743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterling, H. G.

H. G. Sterling, The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes (Plenum, 1980).

Uchikawa, K.

I. Kuriki, W. Ishii, and K. Uchikawa, "Effect of change in spectral transmittance of crystalline lens with aging on color vision," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 85, 107-117 (2000).

Van Namen, D.

D. Van Namen and J. J. Voss, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237-1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Voss, J. J.

D. Van Namen and J. J. Voss, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237-1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, "Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens," J. Physiol. (London) 395, 77-87 (1988).

Williams, R. C.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, W. J. Geeraets, R. S. Ruffin, and H. A. Mueller, "Optical masers (lasers)," Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 60-78 (1963).

Wolter, J. R.

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, Jr., "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776-783 (1962).

Zheng, L.

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merraim, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

Acta Ophthalmol.

W. T. Ham, R. C. Williams, W. J. Geeraets, R. S. Ruffin, and H. A. Mueller, "Optical masers (lasers)," Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 60-78 (1963).

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, D. Guerry, and R. K. Guerry, "Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299-306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Ann. Ophthalmol.

L. Link and J. Lee, "Spectral transmission characteristics of spectacle, contact and intraocular lenses," Ann. Ophthalmol. 34, 206-215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago)

M. A. Mainster, "Intraocular lenses should block UV radiation and violet but not blue light," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 123, 550-555 (2005).

Br. J. Ophthamol.

M. A. Mainster and J. R. Sparrow, "How much blue light should an IOL transmit?" Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 1523-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, "Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception," Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 784-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Health Phys.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), "Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3μm)," Health Phys. 73, 539-554 (1997).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol.

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, Jr., "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776-783 (1962).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, "The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 3698-3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Gaillard, L. Zheng, J. C. Merraim, and J. Dillon, "Age-related changes in the absorption characteristics of the primate lens," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1454-1459 (2000).

J. Cataract Refractive Surg.

M. A. Mainster, "Blue-blocking intraocular lenses and pseudophakic scotopic sensitivity," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1403-1404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwiegerling, "Reply: blue-blocking intraocular lenses and pseudophakic scotopic sensitivity," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 1404-1405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Ernest, "Light-transmission-spectrum comparison of foldable intraocular lenses," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 1755-1758 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lindstrom and N. Doddi, "Ultraviolet light absorption in intraocular lenses," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 12, 285-289 (1986).

J. Schwiegerling, "Blue-light-absorbing lenses and their effect on scotopic vision," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 141-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn.

I. Kuriki, W. Ishii, and K. Uchikawa, "Effect of change in spectral transmittance of crystalline lens with aging on color vision," J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 85, 107-117 (2000).

J. Physiol. (London)

R. A. Weale, "Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens," J. Physiol. (London) 395, 77-87 (1988).

Nature

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light," Nature 260, 153-155 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

T. Laube, H. Apel, and H. R. Koch, "Ultraviolet radiation absorption of intraocular lenses," Ophthalmology 111, 880-885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, and A. M. Clarke, "Sensitivity of the retina to radiation damage as a function of wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 735-743 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc.

S. M. Meyers, M. A. Ostrovsky, and R. F. Bonner, "A model of spectral filtering to reduce photochemical damage in age-related macular degeneration," Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 10283-93 (2004).

Vision Res.

M. S. Griswold and W. S. Stark, "Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet," Vision Res. 32, 1739-1743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Van Namen and J. J. Voss, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237-1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

ISO/CIE, "CIE standard illuminants for colorimetry," Joint Standard ISO 10526:1999/CIE S005/E-1998 (ISO/CIE, 1999).

C. A. Gueymard, "A simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine: algoritms and performance assessment SMARTS code (version 2.9.2)," (Solar Consulting Services, 2003).

ISO/CIE, "Colorimetric observers," Joint ISO/CIE Standard ISO 10527(E)/CIES002 (ISO/CIE, 1991).

CIE, "CIE collection in photobiology and photochemistry," Publication no. 138 (CIE Central Bureau, 2000).

W. T. Ham, Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology (Plenum, 1989).

H. G. Sterling, The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes (Plenum, 1980).

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Limits (ACGIH, 2000), p. 881.

D. H. Sliney and M. Bitran, "The ACGIH action spectra for hazard assessment: the TLV's. Measurements of optical radiation hazards," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.H.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, 1998), pp. 241-249.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral weighting functions for retinal hazards A ( λ ) (aphakic eye) and B ( λ ) (normal eye).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differences obtained in transmittance values for the IOL identified as Istacryl when measured in saline solution and mounted directly in air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmittance for the IOLs under study.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance curves (normalized values) of the IOLs under study in comparison with the ideal transmittance of the crystalline lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard action spectrum for BLH and corrected action spectra computed for each IOL.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Intraocular Lens Characteristics

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Table 2 Hazard Factor ( X blue ) for Various Radiation Sources as Obtained Both from the Standard Action Spectrum for the BLH and the Four Corrected Action Spectra Calculated for the Different IOLs under Analysis

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Table 3 Relative Hazard Factor X blue ( IOL ) X blue ( BLH standard )

Equations (3)

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X b l u e = 305 700 X λ B ( λ ) Δ λ ,
B ( λ ) = τ c r y s t a l l i n e ( λ ) A ( λ ) .
B I O L ( λ ) = τ I O L ( λ ) A ( λ ) .

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