Abstract

Glaucoma causes damage to the retinal ganglion cells and their axons, and this damage can be detected with both structural and functional tests. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between a structural measure of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the most common functional test, behavioral sensitivity with static automated perimetry (SAP). First, a linear model, previously shown to describe the relationship between local visual evoked potentials and SAP sensitivity, was modified to predict the change in RNFL as measured by optical coherence tomography. Second, previous work by others was shown to be consistent with this model.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. C. Hood and V. C. Greenstein, "The multifocal VEP and ganglion cell damage: applications and limitations for the study of glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 201-251 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. A. Quigley, G. R. Dunkelberger, and W. R. Green, "Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 453-464 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  3. L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).
  4. R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, and E. L. Smith III, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).
  5. R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. S. Harwerth and H. A. Quigley, "Visual field defects and retinal ganglion cell losses in patients with glaucoma," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 124, 853-859 (2006).
  7. D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.
  8. D. F. Garway-Heath, "Comparison of structural and functional methods--I," in Glaucoma Diagnosis. Structure and Function, R.N.Weinreb and E.L.Greve, eds. (Kugler, 2004), pp. 135-143.
  9. D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).
  10. W. H. Swanson, J. Felius, and F. Pan, "Perimetric defects and ganglion cell damage: interpreting linear relations using a two-stage neural model," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 466-472 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).
  16. S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.
  17. R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. E. Ogden, "Nerve fiber layer of the primate retina: thickness and glial content," Vision Res. 23, 581-587 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

2006 (3)

R. S. Harwerth and H. A. Quigley, "Visual field defects and retinal ganglion cell losses in patients with glaucoma," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 124, 853-859 (2006).

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W. H. Swanson, J. Felius, and F. Pan, "Perimetric defects and ganglion cell damage: interpreting linear relations using a two-stage neural model," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 466-472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. C. Hood and V. C. Greenstein, "The multifocal VEP and ganglion cell damage: applications and limitations for the study of glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 201-251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

2000 (4)

L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, and E. L. Smith III, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

1989 (1)

H. A. Quigley, G. R. Dunkelberger, and W. R. Green, "Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 453-464 (1989).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

T. E. Ogden, "Nerve fiber layer of the primate retina: thickness and glial content," Vision Res. 23, 581-587 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amini, P.

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. C.

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

Bauer, R.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Bernardes, A. B.

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berry, C. C.

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boden, C.

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowd, C.

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cardillo, J. A.

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carter-Dawson, L.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, and E. L. Smith III, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

Castro, J. C.

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. S.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

Costa, R. A.

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. L.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dada, T.

R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, C.

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

Dunkelberger, G. R.

H. A. Quigley, G. R. Dunkelberger, and W. R. Green, "Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 453-464 (1989).
[PubMed]

El Beltagi, T. A.

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Escano, M. F. T.

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felius, J.

W. H. Swanson, J. Felius, and F. Pan, "Perimetric defects and ganglion cell damage: interpreting linear relations using a two-stage neural model," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 466-472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Firoz, B.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Fitzke, F. W.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.

Frishman, L. J.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garway-Heath, D. F.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.

D. F. Garway-Heath, "Comparison of structural and functional methods--I," in Glaucoma Diagnosis. Structure and Function, R.N.Weinreb and E.L.Greve, eds. (Kugler, 2004), pp. 135-143.

Green, W. R.

H. A. Quigley, G. R. Dunkelberger, and W. R. Green, "Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 453-464 (1989).
[PubMed]

Greenstein, V. C.

D. C. Hood and V. C. Greenstein, "The multifocal VEP and ganglion cell damage: applications and limitations for the study of glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 201-251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Gupta, V.

R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harwerth, R. S.

R. S. Harwerth and H. A. Quigley, "Visual field defects and retinal ganglion cell losses in patients with glaucoma," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 124, 853-859 (2006).

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, and E. L. Smith III, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

Hitchings, R. A.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.

Holopigian, K.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Hong, J. E.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood and V. C. Greenstein, "The multifocal VEP and ganglion cell damage: applications and limitations for the study of glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 201-251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Kamal, D.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.

Kanamori, A.

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kardon, R. H.

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

Kerrigan, D. F.

L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).

Kerrigan-Baumrind, L. A.

L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).

Knauer, S.

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leung, C. K.

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

Liebmann, J. M.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Maeda, H.

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melo, L. A. S.

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, R. S.

L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).

Nakamira, M.

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negi, A.

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, A. C.

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

Odel, J. G.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Ogden, T. E.

T. E. Ogden, "Nerve fiber layer of the primate retina: thickness and glial content," Vision Res. 23, 581-587 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, F.

W. H. Swanson, J. Felius, and F. Pan, "Perimetric defects and ganglion cell damage: interpreting linear relations using a two-stage neural model," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 466-472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pease, M. E.

L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).

Quigley, H. A.

R. S. Harwerth and H. A. Quigley, "Visual field defects and retinal ganglion cell losses in patients with glaucoma," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 124, 853-859 (2006).

L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).

H. A. Quigley, G. R. Dunkelberger, and W. R. Green, "Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 453-464 (1989).
[PubMed]

Ritch, R.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

Sample, P. A.

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seya, R.

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaf, M.

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, F.

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, and E. L. Smith III, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

Sihota, R.

R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, J. D.

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

Singh, R.

R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. L.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, and E. L. Smith III, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

Sony, P.

R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, W. H.

W. H. Swanson, J. Felius, and F. Pan, "Perimetric defects and ganglion cell damage: interpreting linear relations using a two-stage neural model," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 466-472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thienprasiddhi, P.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

Tsang, M. K.

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

Tse, K. K.

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

Varma, R.

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, A.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.

Viswanathan, S.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, M.

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

Weinreb, R. N.

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, M.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.

Williams, J.

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J.

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

Woodward, K. R.

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

Younger, C.

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

Yung, W. H.

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

Zangwill, L. M.

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

H. A. Quigley, G. R. Dunkelberger, and W. R. Green, "Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 107, 453-464 (1989).
[PubMed]

A. Kanamori, M. Nakamira, M. F. T. Escano, R. Seya, H. Maeda, and A. Negi, "Evaluation of the glaucomatous damage on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 513-520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (2)

R. S. Harwerth and H. A. Quigley, "Visual field defects and retinal ganglion cell losses in patients with glaucoma," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 124, 853-859 (2006).

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, J. G. Odel, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, J. M. Liebmann, J. E. Hong, and C. S. Chen, and P. Thienprasiddhi, "Visual field defects and multifocal visual evoked potentials: evidence for a linear relationship," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1672-1681 (2002).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eye (1)

M. Shaf, A. B. Bernardes, J. A. Cardillo, R. A. Costa, L. A. S. Melo, J. C. Castro, and R. Varma, "Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography," Eye 20, 431-439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (5)

D. C. Hood, V. C. Greenstein, K. Holopigian, R. Bauer, B. Firoz, J. M. Liebmann, J. G. Odel, and R. Ritch, "An attempt to detect glaucomatous damage to the inner retina with the multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1570-1579 (2000).

R. Sihota, P. Sony, V. Gupta, T. Dada, and R. Singh, "Diagnostic capability of optical coherence tomography in evaluating the degree of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber damage," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2006-2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, J. Felius, and F. Pan, "Perimetric defects and ganglion cell damage: interpreting linear relations using a two-stage neural model," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 466-472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, H. A. Quigley, M. E. Pease, D. F. Kerrigan, and R. S. Mitchell, "Number of ganglion cells in glaucoma eyes compared with threshold visual field tests in the same persons," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 741-748 (2000).

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, and E. L. Smith III, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

J. Process Control (1)

C. K. Leung, W. H. Yung, A. C. Ng, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and K. K. Tse, "Evaluation of scanning resolution on retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes," J. Process Control 13, 479-485 (2004).

Ophthalmologica (2)

L. M. Zangwill, J. Williams, C. C. Berry, S. Knauer, and R. N. Weinreb, "A comparison of optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography for detection of nerve fiber layer damage in glaucoma," Ophthalmologica 107, 1309-1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. El Beltagi, C. Bowd, C. Boden, P. Amini, P. A. Sample, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with optical coherence tomography is related to visual function in glaucomatous eyes," Ophthalmologica 110, 2185-2191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (2)

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood and V. C. Greenstein, "The multifocal VEP and ganglion cell damage: applications and limitations for the study of glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 22, 201-251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

T. E. Ogden, "Nerve fiber layer of the primate retina: thickness and glial content," Vision Res. 23, 581-587 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. C. Anderson, J. D. Sinclair, M. Wall, C. Doyle, K. R. Woodward, C. Younger, and R. H. Kardon, "Correlation of regional visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer (OCT) in asymmetric glaucoma using either monocular vs. interocular difference analysis," presented at the Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2006), Abstract 3673.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. Viswanathan, M. Westcott, D. Kamal, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Relationship between perimetric light sensitivity and optic disk neuroretinal rim area," in Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 381-389.

D. F. Garway-Heath, "Comparison of structural and functional methods--I," in Glaucoma Diagnosis. Structure and Function, R.N.Weinreb and E.L.Greve, eds. (Kugler, 2004), pp. 135-143.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical curve [Eq. (3)] describing the predictions of a simple linear model in which a signal decreases linearly with visual field loss reaching an asymptotic value b.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical curve [Eq. (3)] depicted in Fig. 1 shown for different starting ( s 0 + b ) points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average OCT RNFL thickness of the superior quadrant as a function of mean deviation of lower visual field loss on the 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field test. Each symbol is a single eye from a single individual. The groups included 10 controls (+), 16 glaucoma suspects based upon disk appearance (open circles), 15 glaucoma suspects based upon ocular hypertension (open squares), and 17 patients with open-angle glaucoma (filled circles). The solid curve is the fit of Eq. (3) as described in the text. Data courtesy of L. Zangwill and originally plotted in Fig. 2C of Ref. [12].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT RNFL thickness for a sector (clock hour 7) of the region around the optic disk as a function of the mean deviation (pattern standard deviation loss on the 24-2 HVF test) of a corresponding local region of the upper visual field. Each symbol is a single eye from a single individual with open angle glaucoma. The solid curve is the fit of Eq. (3) as described in the text. Data courtesy of C. Bowd and originally plotted in Fig. 2A of Ref. [13].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Parameters for SLM from the Literature

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = s 0 T ,
R = s 0 T + b .
R = s 0 10 0.1 D + b ,

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