Abstract

The lamina cribrosa has been postulated from in vitro studies as an early site of damage in glaucoma. Prior in vivo measures of laminar morphology have been confounded by ocular aberrations. In this study the lamina cribrosa was imaged after correcting for ocular aberrations using the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) in normal and glaucomatous eyes of rhesus monkeys. All measured laminar morphological parameters showed increased magnitudes in glaucomatous eyes relative to fellow control eyes, indicating altered structure. The AOSLO provides high-quality images of the lamina cribrosa and may have potential as a tool for early identification of glaucoma.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. A. Quigley and W. Richard Green, "The histology of human glaucoma cupping and optic nerve damage: clinicopathologic correlation in 21 eyes," Ophthalmology 86, 1803-1830 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  5. H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, "The mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental acute intraocular pressure elevation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505-517 (1980).
  6. H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. Richard Green, and A. E. Maumenee, "Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 635-649 (1981).
  7. H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).
  8. H. A. Quigley, A. Brown, and M. E. Dorman-Pease, "Alterations in elastin of the optic nerve head in human and experimental glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 552-557 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. A. Quigley, M. E. Dorman-Pease, and A. E. Brown, "Quantitative study of collagen and elastin of the optic nerve head and sclera in human and experimental monkey glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 10, 877-888 (1991b).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. R. L. Radius, "Distribution of pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve: an autoradiographic study," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 1253-1257 (1981a).
  22. R. L. Radius, "Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 478-480 (1981b).
  23. R. L. Radius and B. Bade, "Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 100, 1661-1664 (1982).
  24. D. S. Minckler, "Correlations between anatomic features and axonal transport in primate optic nerve head," 84, 429-452 (1986).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 363-369 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  41. R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  43. L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  46. I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. Ross Ethier, "Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4189-4199 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  47. S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).
  48. E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, "Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2849-2855 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (6)

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J.-K. F. Suh, and R. T. Hart, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 24, 39-73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-580 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. Ross Ethier, "Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4189-4199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and T. Hebert, "Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 44, 4032-4040 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, and M. B. Wax, "Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jonas, E. Berenshtein, and L. Holbach, "Anatomic relationship between lamina cribrosa, intraocular space, and cerebrospinal fluid space," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5189-5195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, "Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2849-2855 (2001).

C. F. Burgoyne and J. C. Morrison, "The anatomy and pathophysiology of the optic nerve head in glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 10 (Suppl. 1), S16-S18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. R. Hernandez, "The optic nerve head in glaucoma: role of astrocytes in tissue remodeling," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 19, 297-321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: initial finite element modeling," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2991-3000 (2000).

1999 (3)

H. Maeda, M. Nakamura, and M. Yamamoto, "Morphometric features of laminar pores in lamina cribrosa observed by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 415-421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, E. L. Smith III, and M. L. J. Crawford, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).

1998 (3)

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 363-369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Morgan, G. Jeffery, and A. J. E. Foss, "Axon deviation in the human lamina cribrosa," Br. J. Ophthamol. 82, 680-683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser opthlamoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, and L. DeSantis, "Experimental glaucoma: perimetric field defects and intraocular pressure," J. Glaucoma 6, 390-401 (1997).

J. Liang and D. R. Williams, "Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873-2883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

1994 (1)

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann's method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. E. Yablonski and A. Asamoto, "Hypothesis concerning the pathophysiology of optic nerve damage in open angle glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 2, 119-127 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

W. H. Woon, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, "Confocal imaging of the fundus using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 76, 470-474 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

H. A. Quigley, A. Brown, and M. E. Dorman-Pease, "Alterations in elastin of the optic nerve head in human and experimental glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 552-557 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Quigley, M. E. Dorman-Pease, and A. E. Brown, "Quantitative study of collagen and elastin of the optic nerve head and sclera in human and experimental monkey glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 10, 877-888 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. R. Hernandez, W. M. Andrzejewska, and A. H. Neufeld, "Changes in the extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head in primary open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 109, 180-188 (1990).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. S. Minckler, "Correlations between anatomic features and axonal transport in primate optic nerve head," 84, 429-452 (1986).

1983 (1)

H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).

1982 (1)

R. L. Radius and B. Bade, "Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 100, 1661-1664 (1982).

1981 (3)

R. L. Radius, "Distribution of pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve: an autoradiographic study," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 1253-1257 (1981a).

R. L. Radius, "Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 478-480 (1981b).

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. Richard Green, and A. E. Maumenee, "Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 635-649 (1981).

1980 (1)

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, "The mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental acute intraocular pressure elevation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505-517 (1980).

1979 (1)

H. A. Quigley and W. Richard Green, "The histology of human glaucoma cupping and optic nerve damage: clinicopathologic correlation in 21 eyes," Ophthalmology 86, 1803-1830 (1979).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

D. S. Minckler, A. H. Bunt, and G. W. Johanson, "Orthograde and retrograde axoplasmic transport during acute ocular hypertension in the monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 426-441 (1977).

1976 (1)

H. A. Quigley and R. Anderson "The dynamics and location of axonal transport blockade by acute intraocular pressure elevation in primate optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 606-616 (1976).
[PubMed]

1974 (3)

J. M. Emery, D. Landis, D. Paton, M. Boniuk, and J. M. Craig, "The lamina cribrosa in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 78, 290-297 (1974).

D. R. Anderson and A. Hendrickson, "Effect of intraocular pressure on rapid axoplasmic transport in monkey optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 771-783 (1974).
[PubMed]

D. Gaasterland and C. Kupfer, "Experimental glaucoma in the rhesus monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 455-457 (1974).
[PubMed]

Addicks, E. M.

H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. Richard Green, and A. E. Maumenee, "Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 635-649 (1981).

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, "The mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental acute intraocular pressure elevation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505-517 (1980).

Anderson, D. R.

D. R. Anderson and A. Hendrickson, "Effect of intraocular pressure on rapid axoplasmic transport in monkey optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 771-783 (1974).
[PubMed]

Anderson, R.

H. A. Quigley and R. Anderson "The dynamics and location of axonal transport blockade by acute intraocular pressure elevation in primate optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 606-616 (1976).
[PubMed]

Andrzejewska, W. M.

M. R. Hernandez, W. M. Andrzejewska, and A. H. Neufeld, "Changes in the extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head in primary open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 109, 180-188 (1990).
[PubMed]

Asamoto, A.

M. E. Yablonski and A. Asamoto, "Hypothesis concerning the pathophysiology of optic nerve damage in open angle glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 2, 119-127 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspinall, P.

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Azuara-Blanco, A.

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bade, B.

R. L. Radius and B. Bade, "Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 100, 1661-1664 (1982).

Bellezza, A. J.

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J.-K. F. Suh, and R. T. Hart, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 24, 39-73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: initial finite element modeling," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2991-3000 (2000).

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann's method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berenshtein, E.

J. B. Jonas, E. Berenshtein, and L. Holbach, "Anatomic relationship between lamina cribrosa, intraocular space, and cerebrospinal fluid space," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5189-5195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhandari, A.

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 363-369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser opthlamoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, A. C.

W. H. Woon, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, "Confocal imaging of the fundus using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 76, 470-474 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

Boniuk, M.

J. M. Emery, D. Landis, D. Paton, M. Boniuk, and J. M. Craig, "The lamina cribrosa in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 78, 290-297 (1974).

Brown, A.

H. A. Quigley, A. Brown, and M. E. Dorman-Pease, "Alterations in elastin of the optic nerve head in human and experimental glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 552-557 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. E.

H. A. Quigley, M. E. Dorman-Pease, and A. E. Brown, "Quantitative study of collagen and elastin of the optic nerve head and sclera in human and experimental monkey glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 10, 877-888 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

Bunt, A. H.

D. S. Minckler, A. H. Bunt, and G. W. Johanson, "Orthograde and retrograde axoplasmic transport during acute ocular hypertension in the monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 426-441 (1977).

Burgoyne, C. F.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J.-K. F. Suh, and R. T. Hart, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 24, 39-73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Burgoyne and J. C. Morrison, "The anatomy and pathophysiology of the optic nerve head in glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 10 (Suppl. 1), S16-S18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: initial finite element modeling," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2991-3000 (2000).

Campbell, M.

Carter-Dawson, L.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, E. L. Smith III, and M. L. J. Crawford, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

Craig, J. M.

J. M. Emery, D. Landis, D. Paton, M. Boniuk, and J. M. Craig, "The lamina cribrosa in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 78, 290-297 (1974).

Crawford, M. L. J.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, E. L. Smith III, and M. L. J. Crawford, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

DeSantis, L.

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, and L. DeSantis, "Experimental glaucoma: perimetric field defects and intraocular pressure," J. Glaucoma 6, 390-401 (1997).

Diggle, P. J.

P. J. Diggle, Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns (Academic, 1983).

Donnelly, W. J.

Dorman-Pease, M. E.

H. A. Quigley, M. E. Dorman-Pease, and A. E. Brown, "Quantitative study of collagen and elastin of the optic nerve head and sclera in human and experimental monkey glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 10, 877-888 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Quigley, A. Brown, and M. E. Dorman-Pease, "Alterations in elastin of the optic nerve head in human and experimental glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 552-557 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dorr, D. A.

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Downs, J. C.

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J.-K. F. Suh, and R. T. Hart, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 24, 39-73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, L.

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

Edgar, D. F.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann's method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Emery, J. M.

J. M. Emery, D. Landis, D. Paton, M. Boniuk, and J. M. Craig, "The lamina cribrosa in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 78, 290-297 (1974).

Feldmann, B.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fitzke, F. W.

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 363-369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser opthlamoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Woon, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, "Confocal imaging of the fundus using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 76, 470-474 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

Flanagan, J. G.

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. Ross Ethier, "Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4189-4199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flower, R. W.

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, "The mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental acute intraocular pressure elevation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505-517 (1980).

Fontana, L.

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 363-369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser opthlamoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foss, A. J. E.

J. E. Morgan, G. Jeffery, and A. J. E. Foss, "Axon deviation in the human lamina cribrosa," Br. J. Ophthamol. 82, 680-683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frishman, L. J.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

Gaasterland, D.

D. Gaasterland and C. Kupfer, "Experimental glaucoma in the rhesus monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 455-457 (1974).
[PubMed]

Hare, W. A.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hart, R. T.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J.-K. F. Suh, and R. T. Hart, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 24, 39-73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: initial finite element modeling," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2991-3000 (2000).

Harwerth, R. S.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, E. L. Smith III, and M. L. J. Crawford, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, and L. DeSantis, "Experimental glaucoma: perimetric field defects and intraocular pressure," J. Glaucoma 6, 390-401 (1997).

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

Hebert, T.

Hendrickson, A.

D. R. Anderson and A. Hendrickson, "Effect of intraocular pressure on rapid axoplasmic transport in monkey optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 771-783 (1974).
[PubMed]

Henry, L.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-580 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hernandez, M. R.

M. R. Hernandez, "The optic nerve head in glaucoma: role of astrocytes in tissue remodeling," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 19, 297-321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hernandez, W. M. Andrzejewska, and A. H. Neufeld, "Changes in the extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head in primary open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 109, 180-188 (1990).
[PubMed]

Hill, A. R.

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hitchings, R. A.

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 363-369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser opthlamoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohman, R. M.

H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).

Holbach, L.

J. B. Jonas, E. Berenshtein, and L. Holbach, "Anatomic relationship between lamina cribrosa, intraocular space, and cerebrospinal fluid space," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5189-5195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeffery, G.

J. E. Morgan, G. Jeffery, and A. J. E. Foss, "Axon deviation in the human lamina cribrosa," Br. J. Ophthamol. 82, 680-683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johanson, G. W.

D. S. Minckler, A. H. Bunt, and G. W. Johanson, "Orthograde and retrograde axoplasmic transport during acute ocular hypertension in the monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 426-441 (1977).

Jonas, J. B.

J. B. Jonas, E. Berenshtein, and L. Holbach, "Anatomic relationship between lamina cribrosa, intraocular space, and cerebrospinal fluid space," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5189-5195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kupfer, C.

D. Gaasterland and C. Kupfer, "Experimental glaucoma in the rhesus monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 455-457 (1974).
[PubMed]

Landis, D.

J. M. Emery, D. Landis, D. Paton, M. Boniuk, and J. M. Craig, "The lamina cribrosa in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 78, 290-297 (1974).

Liang, J.

Maeda, H.

H. Maeda, M. Nakamura, and M. Yamamoto, "Morphometric features of laminar pores in lamina cribrosa observed by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 415-421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshal, J.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

Marshall, J.

W. H. Woon, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, "Confocal imaging of the fundus using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 76, 470-474 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

J. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massof, R. W.

H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).

Maumenee, A. E.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. Richard Green, and A. E. Maumenee, "Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 635-649 (1981).

McLeod, D. S.

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, "The mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental acute intraocular pressure elevation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505-517 (1980).

Minckler, D. S.

D. S. Minckler, "Correlations between anatomic features and axonal transport in primate optic nerve head," 84, 429-452 (1986).

D. S. Minckler, A. H. Bunt, and G. W. Johanson, "Orthograde and retrograde axoplasmic transport during acute ocular hypertension in the monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 426-441 (1977).

Morgan, J. E.

J. E. Morgan, G. Jeffery, and A. J. E. Foss, "Axon deviation in the human lamina cribrosa," Br. J. Ophthamol. 82, 680-683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgan-Davies, J.

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, J. C.

C. F. Burgoyne and J. C. Morrison, "The anatomy and pathophysiology of the optic nerve head in glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 10 (Suppl. 1), S16-S18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

H. Maeda, M. Nakamura, and M. Yamamoto, "Morphometric features of laminar pores in lamina cribrosa observed by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 415-421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netland, P. A.

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, A. H.

M. R. Hernandez, W. M. Andrzejewska, and A. H. Neufeld, "Changes in the extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head in primary open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 109, 180-188 (1990).
[PubMed]

O'Brien, C. J.

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patel, S.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-580 (2005).
[PubMed]

Paton, D.

J. M. Emery, D. Landis, D. Paton, M. Boniuk, and J. M. Craig, "The lamina cribrosa in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 78, 290-297 (1974).

Pena, J. D. O.

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poonja, S.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-580 (2005).
[PubMed]

Queener, H.

Quigley, H. A.

H. A. Quigley, M. E. Dorman-Pease, and A. E. Brown, "Quantitative study of collagen and elastin of the optic nerve head and sclera in human and experimental monkey glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 10, 877-888 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Quigley, A. Brown, and M. E. Dorman-Pease, "Alterations in elastin of the optic nerve head in human and experimental glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 552-557 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. Richard Green, and A. E. Maumenee, "Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 635-649 (1981).

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, "The mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental acute intraocular pressure elevation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505-517 (1980).

H. A. Quigley and W. Richard Green, "The histology of human glaucoma cupping and optic nerve damage: clinicopathologic correlation in 21 eyes," Ophthalmology 86, 1803-1830 (1979).
[PubMed]

H. A. Quigley and R. Anderson "The dynamics and location of axonal transport blockade by acute intraocular pressure elevation in primate optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 606-616 (1976).
[PubMed]

Radius, R. L.

R. L. Radius and B. Bade, "Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 100, 1661-1664 (1982).

R. L. Radius, "Distribution of pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve: an autoradiographic study," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 1253-1257 (1981a).

R. L. Radius, "Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 478-480 (1981b).

Rasky, A.

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richard Green, W.

H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. Richard Green, and A. E. Maumenee, "Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 635-649 (1981).

H. A. Quigley and W. Richard Green, "The histology of human glaucoma cupping and optic nerve damage: clinicopathologic correlation in 21 eyes," Ophthalmology 86, 1803-1830 (1979).
[PubMed]

Rintalan, C. J.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, L.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

Robson, J. G.

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

J. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-580 (2005).
[PubMed]

F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and T. Hebert, "Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 44, 4032-4040 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ross Ethier, C.

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. Ross Ethier, "Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4189-4199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rudnicka, A. R.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann's method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, G.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, "Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2849-2855 (2001).

Shen, F.

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, E. L. Smith III, and M. L. J. Crawford, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

Sigal, I. A.

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. Ross Ethier, "Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4189-4199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. L.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, E. L. Smith III, and M. L. J. Crawford, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, and L. DeSantis, "Experimental glaucoma: perimetric field defects and intraocular pressure," J. Glaucoma 6, 390-401 (1997).

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

Suh, J.-K. F.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J.-K. F. Suh, and R. T. Hart, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 24, 39-73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, N.

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tezel, G.

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, and M. B. Wax, "Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, K. A.

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, H. W.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Timberlake, G. T.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

Ton, H.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trinkaus, K.

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, and M. B. Wax, "Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswaran, K.

F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and T. Hebert, "Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 44, 4032-4040 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vidal, I.

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, S.

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).

Wax, M. B.

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, and M. B. Wax, "Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weinreb, R. N.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, L.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, L. A.

E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, "Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2849-2855 (2001).

Wijono, M.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, "Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2849-2855 (2001).

Williams, D. R.

WoldeMussie, E.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, "Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2849-2855 (2001).

Woon, H.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

Woon, W. H.

W. H. Woon, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, "Confocal imaging of the fundus using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 76, 470-474 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yablonski, M. E.

M. E. Yablonski and A. Asamoto, "Hypothesis concerning the pathophysiology of optic nerve damage in open angle glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 2, 119-127 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, M.

H. Maeda, M. Nakamura, and M. Yamamoto, "Morphometric features of laminar pores in lamina cribrosa observed by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 415-421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangwill, L.

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

H. A. Quigley, R. M. Hohman, E. M. Addicks, R. W. Massof, and W. Richard Green, "Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with neural loss in open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 95, 673-691 (1983).

M. R. Hernandez, W. M. Andrzejewska, and A. H. Neufeld, "Changes in the extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head in primary open-angle glaucoma," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 109, 180-188 (1990).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (4)

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. Richard Green, and A. E. Maumenee, "Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma II. The site of injury and susceptibility to damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 635-649 (1981).

R. L. Radius, "Distribution of pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve: an autoradiographic study," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 1253-1257 (1981a).

R. L. Radius, "Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 99, 478-480 (1981b).

R. L. Radius and B. Bade, "Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 100, 1661-1664 (1982).

Br. J. Ophthamol. (5)

J. E. Morgan, G. Jeffery, and A. J. E. Foss, "Axon deviation in the human lamina cribrosa," Br. J. Ophthamol. 82, 680-683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Tezel, K. Trinkaus, and M. B. Wax, "Alterations in the morphology of lamina cribrosa pores in glaucomatous eyes," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Morgan-Davies, N. Taylor, A. R. Hill, P. Aspinall, C. J. O'Brien, and A. Azuara-Blanco, "Three dimensional analysis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 1299-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Woon, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, "Confocal imaging of the fundus using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 76, 470-474 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Quigley, A. Brown, and M. E. Dorman-Pease, "Alterations in elastin of the optic nerve head in human and experimental glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 552-557 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Eye Res. (3)

H. A. Quigley, M. E. Dorman-Pease, and A. E. Brown, "Quantitative study of collagen and elastin of the optic nerve head and sclera in human and experimental monkey glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 10, 877-888 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser opthlamoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fontana, A. Bhandari, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "In vivo morphometry of the lamina cribrosa and its relation to visual field loss in glaucoma," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 363-369 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

J. D. O. Pena, P. A. Netland, I. Vidal, D. A. Dorr, A. Rasky, and M. R. Hernandez, "Elastosis of the lamina cribrosa in glaucomatous optic neuropathy," Exp. Eye Res. 67, 517-524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann's method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (3)

D. R. Anderson and A. Hendrickson, "Effect of intraocular pressure on rapid axoplasmic transport in monkey optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 771-783 (1974).
[PubMed]

H. A. Quigley and R. Anderson "The dynamics and location of axonal transport blockade by acute intraocular pressure elevation in primate optic nerve," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 606-616 (1976).
[PubMed]

D. Gaasterland and C. Kupfer, "Experimental glaucoma in the rhesus monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 455-457 (1974).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (12)

L. J. Frishman, F. Shen, L. Du, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, L. Carter-Dawson, and M. L. J. Crawford, "The scotopic electroretinogram of macaque after retinal ganglion cell loss from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 125-141 (1996).

R. S. Harwerth, L. Carter-Dawson, F. Shen, E. L. Smith III, and M. L. J. Crawford, "Ganglion cell losses underlying visual field defects from experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2242-2250 (1999).

D. S. Minckler, A. H. Bunt, and G. W. Johanson, "Orthograde and retrograde axoplasmic transport during acute ocular hypertension in the monkey," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 426-441 (1977).

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 623-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Downs, J.-K. F. Suh, K. A. Thomas, A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucomatous monkey eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 540-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bellezza, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: initial finite element modeling," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 2991-3000 (2000).

H. A. Quigley, R. W. Flower, E. M. Addicks, and D. S. McLeod, "The mechanism of optic nerve damage in experimental acute intraocular pressure elevation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 505-517 (1980).

J. B. Jonas, E. Berenshtein, and L. Holbach, "Anatomic relationship between lamina cribrosa, intraocular space, and cerebrospinal fluid space," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5189-5195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. Ross Ethier, "Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4189-4199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, J. G. Robson, R. S. Harwerth, and E. L. Smith III, "The photopic negative response in the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1124-1136 (1999).

E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, "Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 2849-2855 (2001).

W. A. Hare, E. WoldeMussie, R. N. Weinreb, H. Ton, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, B. Feldmann, L. Zangwill, and L. Wheeler, "Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: structural measures," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2640-2651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma (3)

R. S. Harwerth, E. L. Smith III, and L. DeSantis, "Experimental glaucoma: perimetric field defects and intraocular pressure," J. Glaucoma 6, 390-401 (1997).

M. E. Yablonski and A. Asamoto, "Hypothesis concerning the pathophysiology of optic nerve damage in open angle glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 2, 119-127 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Burgoyne and J. C. Morrison, "The anatomy and pathophysiology of the optic nerve head in glaucoma," J. Glaucoma 10 (Suppl. 1), S16-S18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-580 (2005).
[PubMed]

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Maeda, M. Nakamura, and M. Yamamoto, "Morphometric features of laminar pores in lamina cribrosa observed by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 415-421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Light Ophthalmology (1)

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. T. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshal, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmology 4, 7-14 (1991).

Ophthalmology (2)

J. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Quigley and W. Richard Green, "The histology of human glaucoma cupping and optic nerve damage: clinicopathologic correlation in 21 eyes," Ophthalmology 86, 1803-1830 (1979).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Ret. Eye Res. (3)

M. R. Hernandez, "The optic nerve head in glaucoma: role of astrocytes in tissue remodeling," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 19, 297-321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J.-K. F. Suh, and R. T. Hart, "The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 24, 39-73 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Harwerth, M. L. J. Crawford, L. J. Frishman, S. Viswanathan, E. L. Smith III, and L. Carter-Dawson, "Visual field defects and neural losses from experimental glaucoma," Prog. Ret. Eye Res. 21, 91-125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. (1)

J. M. Emery, D. Landis, D. Paton, M. Boniuk, and J. M. Craig, "The lamina cribrosa in normal and glaucomatous eyes," Trans.-Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 78, 290-297 (1974).

Other (2)

P. J. Diggle, Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns (Academic, 1983).

D. S. Minckler, "Correlations between anatomic features and axonal transport in primate optic nerve head," 84, 429-452 (1986).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Axial sections at the optic nerve head traveling in the anterior-to-posterior direction from the top left to bottom right frame. The focal plane for laminar analysis was identified by locating the plane at which the lamina was in best focus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Single video frame showing the lamina cribrosa of the right eye of a monkey. This image illustrates the noise inherent in the single video image. Fifteen such frames were averaged to obtain better images [example shown in (b)], where signal to noise ratio was clearly improved by averaging. All subsequent figures in this paper subtend the same visual angle and represent the same physical distance on the retina.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Polygons were drawn interactively around clearly demarcated and visible laminar pores in the averaged images. (b) The image was then binarized such that areas within the polygons were white while other areas were black. The binarization allows ImageTool image analysis software to automatically detect and measure areas and elongation of each laminar pore. (c) Nearest-neighbor distance was calculated by interactively identifying centers of each clearly demarcated laminar pore.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lamina cribrosa images from two normal (left) eyes of two monkeys. Laminar pores are clearly visible in both cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Altman–Bland analysis of inter-observer variability in the measurement of laminar pore area for the same image. Difference between observers is plotted against mean of measurements. The solid line is mean of differences; dashed lines represent two standard deviations above and below the mean. (b) Plot of inter-session reproducibility of laminar area measurements. The vertical bars represent average laminar pore area; error bars show the standard error of the mean.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The three morphological parameters (area, elongation; and nearest-neighbor distance) measured in all control eyes of the four monkeys ED, OR, OD, and JA. In each graph the gray bars represent individual eyes and the black bar is the group average of all control eyes. The bars are means and the error bars show the standard error of the mean.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Experimental glaucoma and (b) normal eyes of the same monkey (OD). In the two panels the central optic nerve head is imaged in the two eyes to compare the lamina cribrosa. The images illustrate that, on average, pores in the eye with experimental glaucoma have greater area and elongation than its normal fellow eye, indicating altered morphology in the glaucomatous eye.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Average area, (b) elongation, and (c) nearest-neighbor distance comparisons between experimental glaucoma eyes (gray bars) and their contralateral (black bars) in all four monkeys. Bars plot average laminar morphology, error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Asterisks indicate that the difference is statistically significant.

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