Abstract

A fast and efficient method for quantifying photoreceptor density in images obtained with an en-face flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) imaging system is described. To improve accuracy of cone counting, en-face images are analyzed over extended areas. This is achieved with two separate semiautomated algorithms: (1) a montaging algorithm that joins retinal images with overlapping common features without edge effects and (2) a cone density measurement algorithm that counts the individual cones in the montaged image. The accuracy of the cone density measurement algorithm is high, with >97% agreement for a simulated retinal image (of known density, with low contrast) and for AO images from normal eyes when compared with previously reported histological data. Our algorithms do not require spatial regularity in cone packing and are, therefore, useful for counting cones in diseased retinas, as demonstrated for eyes with Stargardt’s macular dystrophy and retinitis pigmentosa.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (6)

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, "Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure," Proc. SPIE 6138, 260-266 (2006).

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics spectral optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. Bower, J. Izatt, S. S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, "Effect of wavelength on in vivo images of the human cone mosaic," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598-2605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics, an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580-4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vision 2, 404-412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Danias, F. Sbsen, D. Goldblum, and B. Chen, "Cytoarchitecture of the retinal ganglion cells in the rat," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 587-594 (2002).

P. Soliz, M. Wilson, S. Nemeth, and P. Nguyen, "Computer-aided methods for quantitative assessment of longitudinal changes in retinal images presenting with maculopathy," Proc. SPIE 4681, 159-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, and B. Roysam, "A feature-based technique for joint, linear estimation of high-order image-to-mosaic transformations: application to mosaicing the curved human retina," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 412-419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. R. Barber, B. Vojnovic, J. Kelly, and C. R. Mayes, "Automatic counting of mammalian cell colonies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 63-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. D. Stokes and G. B. Deane, "A new optical instrument for the study of bubbles at high void fractions within breaking waves," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 24, 300-311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Berger, M. E. Leventon, and N. Hata, "Design considerations for a computer-vision-enabled ophthalmic augmented reality environment," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1205, 399-408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. G. Brown, "A survey of image registration techniques," ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Barber, P. R.

P. R. Barber, B. Vojnovic, J. Kelly, and C. R. Mayes, "Automatic counting of mammalian cell colonies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 63-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belyakov, A.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, "Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure," Proc. SPIE 6138, 260-266 (2006).

Berger, J. W.

J. W. Berger, M. E. Leventon, and N. Hata, "Design considerations for a computer-vision-enabled ophthalmic augmented reality environment," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1205, 399-408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, C. E.

Bower, B.

Brown, L. G.

L. G. Brown, "A survey of image registration techniques," ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Can, A.

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, and B. Roysam, "A feature-based technique for joint, linear estimation of high-order image-to-mosaic transformations: application to mosaicing the curved human retina," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 412-419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, J.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics, an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castaneda, A. P.

F. A. Cosio, J. A. M. Flores, A. P. Castaneda, S. Solano, and P. Tato, "Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells," in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 17-21.

Chen, B.

J. Danias, F. Sbsen, D. Goldblum, and B. Chen, "Cytoarchitecture of the retinal ganglion cells in the rat," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 587-594 (2002).

Chen, L.

N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).

Cherezova, T.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, "Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure," Proc. SPIE 6138, 260-266 (2006).

Choi, S. S.

Christou, J.

Chung, M.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cosio, F. A.

F. A. Cosio, J. A. M. Flores, A. P. Castaneda, S. Solano, and P. Tato, "Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells," in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 17-21.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danias, J.

J. Danias, F. Sbsen, D. Goldblum, and B. Chen, "Cytoarchitecture of the retinal ganglion cells in the rat," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 587-594 (2002).

Deane, G. B.

M. D. Stokes and G. B. Deane, "A new optical instrument for the study of bubbles at high void fractions within breaking waves," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 24, 300-311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doble, N.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, "Effect of wavelength on in vivo images of the human cone mosaic," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598-2605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

Dubinin, A.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, "Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure," Proc. SPIE 6138, 260-266 (2006).

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernandez, E. J.

Flores, J. A. M.

F. A. Cosio, J. A. M. Flores, A. P. Castaneda, S. Solano, and P. Tato, "Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells," in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 17-21.

Gendron, E.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glanc, M.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldblum, D.

J. Danias, F. Sbsen, D. Goldblum, and B. Chen, "Cytoarchitecture of the retinal ganglion cells in the rat," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 587-594 (2002).

Hammer, D. X.

Haralick, R. M.

R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, "Connected components labeling," in Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol. 1, pp. 28-48.

Hardy, J.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartimo, I.

H. Liang and I. Hartimo, "A feature extraction algorithm based on wavelet packet decomposition for heart sound signals," in Proceedings of the IEEE-SP International Symposium on Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis (IEEE, 1998), pp. 93-96.
[CrossRef]

Hata, N.

J. W. Berger, M. E. Leventon, and N. Hata, "Design considerations for a computer-vision-enabled ophthalmic augmented reality environment," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1205, 399-408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T. J.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics, an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580-4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J.

Jones, S.

Jones, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, J.

P. R. Barber, B. Vojnovic, J. Kelly, and C. R. Mayes, "Automatic counting of mammalian cell colonies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 63-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keltner, J.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, A.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, "Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure," Proc. SPIE 6138, 260-266 (2006).

Lacombe, F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lafaille, D.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Le Gargasson, J. F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lena, P.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leventon, M. E.

J. W. Berger, M. E. Leventon, and N. Hata, "Design considerations for a computer-vision-enabled ophthalmic augmented reality environment," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1205, 399-408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

H. Liang and I. Hartimo, "A feature extraction algorithm based on wavelet packet decomposition for heart sound signals," in Proceedings of the IEEE-SP International Symposium on Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis (IEEE, 1998), pp. 93-96.
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayes, C. R.

P. R. Barber, B. Vojnovic, J. Kelly, and C. R. Mayes, "Automatic counting of mammalian cell colonies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 63-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Neitz, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics, an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

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S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
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R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, "Connected components labeling," in Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol. 1, pp. 28-48.

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A. Can, C. V. Stewart, and B. Roysam, "A feature-based technique for joint, linear estimation of high-order image-to-mosaic transformations: application to mosaicing the curved human retina," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 412-419 (2002).
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M. D. Stokes and G. B. Deane, "A new optical instrument for the study of bubbles at high void fractions within breaking waves," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 24, 300-311 (1999).
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J. Tarrant and A. Roorda, "The extent of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. E-Abstract 1195/B60 (2006).

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J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, "Effect of wavelength on in vivo images of the human cone mosaic," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598-2605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics, an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580-4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vision 2, 404-412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M.

P. Soliz, M. Wilson, S. Nemeth, and P. Nguyen, "Computer-aided methods for quantitative assessment of longitudinal changes in retinal images presenting with maculopathy," Proc. SPIE 4681, 159-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolfing, J. I.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
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M. D. Stokes and G. B. Deane, "A new optical instrument for the study of bubbles at high void fractions within breaking waves," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 24, 300-311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, and B. Roysam, "A feature-based technique for joint, linear estimation of high-order image-to-mosaic transformations: application to mosaicing the curved human retina," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 412-419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

J. Danias, F. Sbsen, D. Goldblum, and B. Chen, "Cytoarchitecture of the retinal ganglion cells in the rat," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 587-594 (2002).

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580-4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, "Effect of wavelength on in vivo images of the human cone mosaic," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598-2605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision (2)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vision 2, 404-412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).

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J. W. Berger, M. E. Leventon, and N. Hata, "Design considerations for a computer-vision-enabled ophthalmic augmented reality environment," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1205, 399-408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (2)

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. R. Barber, B. Vojnovic, J. Kelly, and C. R. Mayes, "Automatic counting of mammalian cell colonies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 63-76 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics, an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, "Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure," Proc. SPIE 6138, 260-266 (2006).

P. Soliz, M. Wilson, S. Nemeth, and P. Nguyen, "Computer-aided methods for quantitative assessment of longitudinal changes in retinal images presenting with maculopathy," Proc. SPIE 4681, 159-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

F. A. Cosio, J. A. M. Flores, A. P. Castaneda, S. Solano, and P. Tato, "Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells," in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 17-21.

Specification Sheet for Princeton Instruments VersArray 1024, http://www.piacton.com/products/versarray/datasheets.aspx.

R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, "Connected components labeling," in Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol. 1, pp. 28-48.

H. Liang and I. Hartimo, "A feature extraction algorithm based on wavelet packet decomposition for heart sound signals," in Proceedings of the IEEE-SP International Symposium on Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis (IEEE, 1998), pp. 93-96.
[CrossRef]

J. Tarrant and A. Roorda, "The extent of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. E-Abstract 1195/B60 (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AO retinal images using a 550 nm imaging wavelength at three locations from one normal subject, N1: (a) 2° temporal retina, (b) 4° temporal retina, (c) 7° nasal retina. Scale bar corresponds to 10 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cone density measurement on a simulated cone mosaic image. (a) Artificial cone mosaic image (peak intensity of each cone, 0.5–1). (b) Image (a) after adding background and Gaussian filtering ( contrast = 0.37 ) . (c) PSF of a typical subject (Strehl ratio = 0.018 ; RMS = 2.3 μ m ; 650 nm wavelength; 7 mm pupil) before AO correction. (d) Image (b) after PSF filtering and addition of simulated noise ( contrast = 0.18 ) . (e) Calculated cone mosaic by the connected component labeling algorithm. (f) Cone density measurement for image (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flowchart of semiautomated cone density measurement procedure. (a) Cropped AO retinal image from subject N1 at 4° temporal retina (imaging wavelength = 550 nm ). (b) Image (a) after Gaussian filtering. (c) Image after background subtraction and linear scaling. (d) Cone counting result in the first intensity section 246–255. (e) Cone counting result in the second intensity section 236–245. (f) Cone counting result in the last intensity section 16–25. (g) Outcome of cone counting (all the cones are accurately identified with cone density of 25,164   cells mm 2 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retinal image montage and corresponding cone density measurement for the subject ST1. (a) Montage of four retinal images taken at 650 nm . (b) Cone density map of montaged image in (a) (cone density = 5247   cells mm 2 ). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μ m on the retina.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retinal images and cone density maps for two normal subjects, N2 and N3. (a) Cropped retinal image and cone density measurement for N2 at 2° temporal retina (cone density = 42,389   cells mm 2 ). (b) Cropped retinal image and cone density measurement for N3 at 4° temporal 4° superior retina (cone density = 20,151   cells mm 2 ). Images were taken with a 650 nm imaging wavelength. Scale bar corresponds to 10 μ m on the retina.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AO retinal images at two locations and the corresponding cone density calculations for subject RP1. (a) AO retinal image and cone density map at 2° temporal 4° superior retina (cone density = 4779   cells mm 2 ). (b) AO retinal image and cone density map at 4° temporal 4° inferior retina (cone density = 4012   cells mm 2 ). Images were taken at a 650 nm imaging wavelength. Scale bar corresponds to 10 μ m on the retina.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Subject Eye Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cone Density Measurements for the Three Normal Subjects, N1, N2, and N3: Comparison between Cone Counting Algorithm and Histology Data

Tables Icon

Table 3 Cone Density Measurements from the Adaptive Optics Retinal Images for Subjects ST1 and RP1

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M ( x , y ) = i = 1 N ( d i 2 ( x , y ) × I i ( x , y ) ) i = 1 N d i 2 ( x , y ) ,
I = I orig I orig e ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 σ 2 ,

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