Abstract

We present a polarimetric technique to improve fundus images that notably simplifies and extends a previous procedure [Opt. Lett. 27, 830 (2002)] . A generator of varying polarization states was incorporated into the illumination path of a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. A series of four images, corresponding to independent incoming polarization states, were recorded. From these images, the spatially resolved elements of the top row of the Mueller matrix were computed. From these elements, images with the highest and lowest quality (according to different image quality metrics) were constructed, some of which provided improved visualization of fundus structures of clinical importance (vessels and optic nerve head). The metric values were better for these constructed images than for the initially recorded images and better than averaged images. Entropy is the metric that is most sensitive to differences in the image quality. Improved visualization of features could aid in the detection, localization, and tracking of ocular disease and may be applicable in other biomedical imaging.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

2006

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptative optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "High-resolution imaging of the in-vivo human eye retina," DOPS-nyt (J. Danish Opt. Soc.) 2, 16-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "The influence of depolarization and corneal birefringence on ocular polarization," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S91-S99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, "Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification," Opt. Express 12, 5178-5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Aberro-polariscope for the human eye," Opt. Lett. 28, 1209-1211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties for in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

1998

1997

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high resolution retinal imaging through adaptative optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, and R. A. Hitchings, "Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840-845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

1996

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, and L. Zangwill, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).
[PubMed]

1992

1990

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

1987

1986

R. A. Weale, "New method for visualising discontinuities in the crystalline lens," Br. J. Ophthamol. 70, 925-930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

E. Peli, "Circular polarizers enhance visibility of endothelium in specular reflection biomicroscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 103, 670-672 (1985).

G. J. van Blokland, "Ellipsometry of the human retinain vivo: preservation of polarization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 72-75 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

Alim, O. A.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arkell, S.

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

Artal, P.

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "High-resolution imaging of the in-vivo human eye retina," DOPS-nyt (J. Danish Opt. Soc.) 2, 16-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Aberro-polariscope for the human eye," Opt. Lett. 28, 1209-1211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Polarization and retinal image quality estimates in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 489-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Iglesias and P. Artal, "High-resolution retinal images obtained by deconvolution from wave-front sensing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1804-1806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, M.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and Its Application, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 106-109.

Bará, S.

Beckman, C.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and Its Application, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 106-109.

Berrio, E.

Berry, C.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Bhandari, A.

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, C. E.

Bille, J. F.

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bond-Taylor, L.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bourne, R. R.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowd, C.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, J. M.

J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. M. Bueno, and M C. W. Campbell, "Characterizing image quality in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope with differing pinholes and induced scattered light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1284-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

J. M. Bueno, "The influence of depolarization and corneal birefringence on ocular polarization," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S91-S99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Aberro-polariscope for the human eye," Opt. Lett. 28, 1209-1211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties for in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry in the human eye using an imaging linear polariscope," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 553-561 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy improvement by use of Mueller-matrix polarimetry," Opt. Lett. 27, 830-832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Polarization and retinal image quality estimates in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 489-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "Depolarization effects in the human eye," Vision Res. 41, 2687-2696 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. W. Campbell, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, J. M. Bueno, and M. L. Kisilak, "Spatially resolved Mueller matrix analysis of properties of the optic nerve head," 2005 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 2556.

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. J. Hunter, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Degree of polarization of light reflected from optic nerve head," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4059.

Burk, R. O. W.

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burke, M. A.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptative optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bará, "Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M C. W.

Campbell, M.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and Its Application, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 106-109.

Campbell, M. C. W.

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties for in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III, H. Quenner, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy improvement by use of Mueller-matrix polarimetry," Opt. Lett. 27, 830-832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Campbell, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, J. M. Bueno, and M. L. Kisilak, "Spatially resolved Mueller matrix analysis of properties of the optic nerve head," 2005 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 2556.

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. J. Hunter, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Degree of polarization of light reflected from optic nerve head," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4059.

Caprioli, J.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, "Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 140-145 (2002).

Catlin, D.

Chen, L.

Cheney, M. C.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, "Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification," Opt. Express 12, 5178-5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choong, Y. F.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chrastek, R.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, A.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

Coleman, A. L.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, "Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 140-145 (2002).

Cookson, C. J.

J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. M. Bueno, and M C. W. Campbell, "Characterizing image quality in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope with differing pinholes and induced scattered light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1284-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. J. Hunter, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Degree of polarization of light reflected from optic nerve head," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4059.

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

M. C. W. Campbell, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, J. M. Bueno, and M. L. Kisilak, "Spatially resolved Mueller matrix analysis of properties of the optic nerve head," 2005 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 2556.

Dainty, C.

D'Anna, S. A.

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

Delori, F. C.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 26, 1492-1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desautels, J. E.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dolgobrodov, S. G.

Donath, K.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A. W.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, "Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal never fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3730-3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

Eddins, S. L.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.

El-Faramawy, N. M.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, "Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification," Opt. Express 12, 5178-5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bará, "Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fischer, J. P.

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fitzke, F. W.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, "A fast, robust recognition system for low light level image registration and its application to retinal image," Opt. Express 3, 190-197 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontana, L.

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrester, J. V.

K. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, "Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images," in Conference Proceedings of the Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2001 (University of Birmingham, 2001), http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/miua2001/posters/goatman.pdf.

Garden, V.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Garway-Heath, D. F.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, "Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 140-145 (2002).

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, and R. A. Hitchings, "Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840-845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goatman, K.

K. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, "Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images," in Conference Proceedings of the Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2001 (University of Birmingham, 2001), http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/miua2001/posters/goatman.pdf.

Goelz, S.

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1984), Vol. 9, pp. 9-75.
[CrossRef]

Greaney, M. J.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, "Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 140-145 (2002).

Green, R. J.

Hammer, D. X.

Hebert, T. J.

Hipwell, J. H.

K. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, "Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images," in Conference Proceedings of the Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2001 (University of Birmingham, 2001), http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/miua2001/posters/goatman.pdf.

Hitchings, R. A.

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, and R. A. Hitchings, "Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840-845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

Hoffman, D. C.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, "Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 140-145 (2002).

Hoffmann, E. M.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hothorn, T.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudson, C.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, G. W.

Hunter, J. J.

J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. M. Bueno, and M C. W. Campbell, "Characterizing image quality in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope with differing pinholes and induced scattered light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1284-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. J. Hunter, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Degree of polarization of light reflected from optic nerve head," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4059.

M. C. W. Campbell, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, J. M. Bueno, and M. L. Kisilak, "Spatially resolved Mueller matrix analysis of properties of the optic nerve head," 2005 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 2556.

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

Hutchings, N.

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

Iftimia, N. V.

Iglesias, I.

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "High-resolution imaging of the in-vivo human eye retina," DOPS-nyt (J. Danish Opt. Soc.) 2, 16-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Iglesias and P. Artal, "High-resolution retinal images obtained by deconvolution from wave-front sensing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1804-1806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Irak, I.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, C. J.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kisilak, M. L.

J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. M. Bueno, and M C. W. Campbell, "Characterizing image quality in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope with differing pinholes and induced scattered light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1284-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. J. Hunter, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Degree of polarization of light reflected from optic nerve head," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4059.

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

M. C. W. Campbell, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, J. M. Bueno, and M. L. Kisilak, "Spatially resolved Mueller matrix analysis of properties of the optic nerve head," 2005 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 2556.

Kues, H. A.

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

Lammer, R.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lausen, B.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Liang, Q.

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

Lindblom, B.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lois, N.

K. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, "Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images," in Conference Proceedings of the Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2001 (University of Birmingham, 2001), http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/miua2001/posters/goatman.pdf.

Manivannan, A.

K. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, "Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images," in Conference Proceedings of the Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2001 (University of Birmingham, 2001), http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/miua2001/posters/goatman.pdf.

Marcos, S.

Mardin, C. Y.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medeiros, F. A.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mellem-Kairala, M. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michelson, G.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

Miura, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, J. E.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munger, R.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and Its Application, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 106-109.

Nakla, M.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, "Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 140-145 (2002).

Niemann, H.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

North, R. V.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oshako, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, D.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peli, E.

E. Peli, "Circular polarizers enhance visibility of endothelium in specular reflection biomicroscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 103, 670-672 (1985).

Pelz, B. C. E.

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Piercionek, B.

Poonja, S.

Quenner, H.

Quigley, H.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

Quigley, H. A.

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

Rakebrandt, F.

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rangayyan, R. M.

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reiter, K.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, "Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal never fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3730-3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

Robin, S.

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Sample, P. A.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shakiba, S.

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, and L. Zangwill, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).
[PubMed]

Sharp, P. F.

K. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, "Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images," in Conference Proceedings of the Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2001 (University of Birmingham, 2001), http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/miua2001/posters/goatman.pdf.

Shaw, B.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

Simmons, R. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sjostrand, J.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

Sommer, A.

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

Stargard, M.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and Its Application, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 106-109.

Tavares, I. M.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ustun, T. E.

Usui, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Blokland, G. J.

Venkataraman, S. T.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "High-resolution imaging of the in-vivo human eye retina," DOPS-nyt (J. Danish Opt. Soc.) 2, 16-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wade, A. R.

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, "New method for visualising discontinuities in the crystalline lens," Br. J. Ophthamol. 70, 925-930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. H.

Weber, A.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, "Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification," Opt. Express 12, 5178-5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, "Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2221-2228 (2002).

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, and L. Zangwill, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).
[PubMed]

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, "Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal never fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3730-3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weschenmoser, C.

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Wolf, M.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, and R. A. Hitchings, "Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840-845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woods, R. E.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zangwill, L.

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, and L. Zangwill, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).
[PubMed]

Zangwill, L. M.

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, "Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2221-2228 (2002).

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Oshako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, and L. Zangwill, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, "Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve-fiber layer thickness," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 108, 557-560 (1990).

E. Peli, "Circular polarizers enhance visibility of endothelium in specular reflection biomicroscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 103, 670-672 (1985).

A. Sommer, H. A. Kues, S. A. D'Anna, S. Arkell, S. Robin, and H. A. Quigley, "Cross-polarization photography of the nerve fiber layer," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 864-869 (1984).

L. Zangwill, I. Irak, C. Berry, and V. Garden, "Effect of cararact and pupil size on image quality with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 115, 983-990 (1997).

Br. J. Ophthamol.

C. Beckman, L. Bond-Taylor, B. Lindblom, and J. Sjostrand, "Confocal fundus imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in eyes with cataract," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 900-904 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Weale, "New method for visualising discontinuities in the crystalline lens," Br. J. Ophthamol. 70, 925-930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Garway-Heath, G. Wollstein, and R. A. Hitchings, "Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma," Br. J. Ophthamol. 81, 840-845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Choong, F. Rakebrandt, R. V. North, and J. E. Morgan, "Acutance, an objective measure of retinal nerve fibre image clarity," Br. J. Ophthamol. 87, 322-326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Eye Res.

A. Bhandari, L. Fontana, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, "Quantitative analysis of the lamina cribrosa in vivo using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Curr. Eye Res. 16, 1-8 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DOPS-nyt (J. Danish Opt. Soc.)

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "High-resolution imaging of the in-vivo human eye retina," DOPS-nyt (J. Danish Opt. Soc.) 2, 16-19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

R. M. Rangayyan, N. M. El-Faramawy, J. E. Desautels, and O. A. Alim, "Measures of acutance and shape for classification of breast tumors," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 16, 799-810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, "Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with glaucoma," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 140-145 (2002).

C. Bowd, L. M. Zangwill, F. A. Medeiros, I. M. Tavares, E. M. Hoffmann, R. R. Bourne, P. A. Sample, and R. N. Weinreb, "Structure-function relationships using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2889-2895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, "Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2221-2228 (2002).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry in the human eye using an imaging linear polariscope," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 553-561 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "The influence of depolarization and corneal birefringence on ocular polarization," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S91-S99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Med. Image Anal.

R. Chrastek, M. Wolf, K. Donath, H. Niemann, D. Paulus, T. Hothorn, B. Lausen, R. Lammer, C. Y. Mardin, and G. Michelson, "Automated segmentation of the optic nerve head for diagnosis of glaucoma," Med. Image Anal. 9, 297-314 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties for in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optom. Vision Sci.

M. A. Burke, C. J. Khanna, A. Miller, S. T. Venkataraman, and C. Hudson, "The impact of artificial light scatter on scanning laser tomography," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 222-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. E. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, "In vivo measurement of the retinal birefringence with regard to corneal effects using an electro-optical ellipsometer," Proc. SPIE 2930, 92-101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 611-616 (2005).

Vision Res.

J. M. Bueno, "Depolarization effects in the human eye," Vision Res. 41, 2687-2696 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of subretinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1984), Vol. 9, pp. 9-75.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), p. 609.

C. Beckman, M. Atkinson, M. Stargard, R. Munger, and M. Campbell, "The influence of increased interocular light scatter on the contrast in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope image," in Vision Science and Its Application, Vol. 1 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), pp. 106-109.

K. Goatman, A. Manivannan, J. H. Hipwell, P. F. Sharp, N. Lois, and J. V. Forrester, "Automatic registration and averaging of ophthalmic autofluorescence images," in Conference Proceedings of the Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2001 (University of Birmingham, 2001), http://events.cs.bham.ac.uk/miua2001/posters/goatman.pdf.

N. Hutchings, C. J. Cookson, J. J. Hunter, M. L. Kisilak, Q. Liang, J. M. Bueno, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Subjective evaluation of polarization images of the optic nerve head and retinal structures," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4060.

M. C. W. Campbell, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, J. M. Bueno, and M. L. Kisilak, "Spatially resolved Mueller matrix analysis of properties of the optic nerve head," 2005 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 2556.

J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, J. J. Hunter, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Degree of polarization of light reflected from optic nerve head," 2006 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 4059.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the polarimetric CSLO: P, linear polarizer; QWP, rotating quarter-wave plate; BS, beam splitter; CL, collector lens; AP1 and AP2, pinholes; PMT, photomultiplier detector; GU, generator unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Improvement in CSLO images by frame averaging: single frames (upper row) and averages of four frames (bottom row). Left, middle, and right panels correspond to subjects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Images subtend 3.3 ° .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarimetric CSLO images for subject 2 (upper row). Each image (an average of eight frames) corresponds to an independent incoming polarization and subtends 5.6 ° . Symbols at the bottom-left corner of each image indicate the orientation of the fast axis of the rotating QWP with respect to the linear polarizer in the GU (circle, 45 ° ; vertical line, 0 ° ; ellipses, 30 ° and 60 ° ). Spatially resolved elements of the first row of the Mueller matrix are shown in the bottom row. The gray level code for the Mueller matrix is shown at the bottom.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images for a retinal region of 5.6 ° in subject 2 computed from the Mueller matrix elements in Fig. 3. The figure shows constructed images with maximum SNR (a), minimum SNR (b), maximum entropy (c), minimum entropy (d), maximum acutance (e), minimum acutance (f), the image for incident nonpolarized light (g), and an average of 32 frames taken with a QWP orientation of 0 ° (h).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Elements of the first row of the Mueller matrix (left) and constructed images for a retinal area 7.7 ° across the ONH of subject 4. (a) Original image (average of eight frames) with the highest SNR, entropy, and acutance; (b) constructed image with maximum SNR; (c) constructed image with maximum entropy; (d) average of 32 frames taken with a QWP orientation of 0 ° . The gray-level code for the Mueller matrix is shown in the center.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Improvement in both SNR and entropy for blood vessel images of two subjects (subject 2, black bars, images shown in Figs. 3, 4; subject 4, white bars, images shown in Fig. 5). Labels 1, 2, and 3 correspond to (1) results of the improvement given by averaging of 32 frames with linear (vertical) polarization, (2) image for nonpolarized incident light ( M 00 ) , and (3) constructed image with the maximum metric value, respectively. The improvements are calculated with respect to the polarimetric eight-frame-averaged original image with the highest metric value. The results indicate that improvements in image quality are dependent on information obtained with other than vertically polarized light. Not shown is that the M 00 image had metric values higher than those of the initial image (average of eight frames) taken with linearly polarized light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Poincaré sphere for the blood vessel images of subject 2. Shown are the Stokes vectors corresponding to maximum SNR (solid triangle), minimum SNR (open triangle), maximum entropy (solid circle), minimum entropy (open circle), maximum acutance (solid square), and minimum acutance (open square). (b) Longitude ( 2 * Azimuth, solid symbols) and latitude ( 2 * Ellipticity, open symbols) on the Poincaré sphere of the Stokes vectors, providing the images with maximum and minimum SNR, entropy (E), and acutance (A) for vessel images for subject 1 (circles) and for subject 4 (squares).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CSLO images for the ONH of subject 3 corresponding to the average of four frames in each of the four polarization states in the GU (upper panels) and spatially resolved elements of the first row of the Mueller matrix (bottom panels). Each image subtends 7 ° . Numbers at the bottom-left corner of the upper images indicate the orientation of the fast axis of the rotating QWP with respect to the linear polarizer in the GU. The gray-level code for the Mueller matrix is shown at the bottom. The area inside the square on the first image will be used for later comparisons.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Constructed images for the ONH of subject 3. The figure shows constructed images of maximum SNR (a), minimum SNR (b), maximum entropy (c), minimum entropy (d), maximum acutance (e), minimum acutance (f), and the image for incident nonpolarized light (g).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Elements of the first row of the Mueller matrix (left) and constructed images for the subarea of the ONH images marked in Fig. 8. (a) Original image with the highest SNR, (b) constructed image with maximum SNR, (c) constructed image with minimum SNR. Each image subtends 2.5 ° . Numbers at the bottom are the SNR values. The gray-level code for the Mueller matrix is shown in the center.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Polarimetric CSLO images of the ONH for subject 2 (upper row). Each image corresponds to an eight-frame average for an independent incoming polarization. Symbols at the bottom-left corner of each image indicate the orientation of the fast axis of the rotating QWP with respect to the linear polarizer in the GU. Elements of the first row of the spatially resolved Mueller matrix with the corresponding gray-level code are shown in the bottom row.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Subject 2’s images with highest SNR (a), entropy (c), and acutance (e); with lowest SNR (b), entropy (d), and acutance (f). (g) nonpolarized incident light image and (h) average of 32 frames taken with a QWP orientation of 0 ° (linear polarized incident light).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Poincaré sphere with the Stokes vectors corresponding to the constructed images with maximum (solid symbols) and minimum (open symbols) SNR values in subject 3 for the whole ONH image (Fig. 9; 7 ° across, circles) and a small area within the ONH (Fig. 10; triangles).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Longitude ( 2 * Azimuth, solid symbols) and latitude ( 2 * Ellipticity, open symbols) on the Poincaré sphere of the Stokes vectors providing the images with maximum and minimum SNR, entropy (E), and acutance (A) for ONH images of subjects 2 (squares) and 3 (circles).

Equations (4)

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I ( O U T ) = ( m 00 ( C ) m 01 ( C ) m 02 ( C ) m 03 ( C ) ) ( 1 cos ( 2 χ ) cos ( 2 φ ) sin ( 2 χ ) cos ( 2 φ ) sin ( 2 φ ) ) = M 0 S I N .
S F ( i ) = M C S G ( i ) = M S Y S T ( 2 ) M e y e M S Y S T ( 1 ) S G ( i ) ,
I F = ( I F ( 1 ) I F ( 2 ) I F ( 3 ) I F ( 4 ) ) T = ( m 00 ( C ) m 01 ( C ) m 02 ( C ) m 03 ( C ) ) ( S 0 G ( 1 ) S 0 G ( 2 ) S 0 G ( 3 ) S 0 G ( 4 ) S 1 G ( 1 ) S 1 G ( 2 ) S 1 G ( 3 ) S 1 G ( 4 ) S 2 G ( 1 ) S 2 G ( 2 ) S 2 G ( 3 ) S 2 G ( 4 ) S 3 G ( 1 ) S 3 G ( 2 ) S 3 G ( 3 ) S 3 G ( 4 ) ) = M 0 M G ,
M 0 = I F ( M G ) 1 .

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