Abstract

The extent to which holographic modal wavefront sensing can be applied to the detection of ocular aberrations was investigated. First, the idea of extending the dynamic range of the sensor by increasing the mask bias and the collection area of the pinhole detectors used in the sensor is reviewed. Errors in the detection of single-mode aberrations owing to reduced coherence from retinal scattering, photon, readout, and quantization noise are evaluated. A sensitivity-to-noise metric is introduced to evaluate sensor designs and is found to be maximized by using a pinhole detector radius of 8.6(fλ/NΔ) for every wave of mask bias (where f=transform lens focal length, λ=wavelength, and N and Δ are the number and size of the hologram pixels, respectively). The problem of detecting ocular aberrations composed of multiple modes required a generalization of the sensitivity measure to include all incident aberration modes. A "detect and correct" ocular aberration detection scheme was implemented that reduced the effects of cross talk and showed a maximum sensitivity-to-noise ratio of 40, which varied inversely with the size of the ocular aberration being detected.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

A. D. Corbett, D. G. Leyva, L. Diaz-Santana, T. D. Wilkinson, and J. J. Zhong, "Characterising a holographic modal phase mask for the detection of ocular aberrations," Proc. SPIE 6018, 601808 (2005).

J. J. Zhong, D. Gil Leyva, A. D. Corbett, L. Diaz-Santana, and T. D. Wilkinson, "Mirror-mode sensing with a holographic modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181I (2005).

F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and T. Hebert, "Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 44, 4032-4040 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Diaz-Santana, G. Walker, and S. Bará, "Sampling geometries for ocular aberrometry: a model for evaluation of performance," Opt. Express 13, 8801-8818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. J. Booth, "Direct measurement of Zernike aberration modes with a modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 5162, 79-90 (2003).

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

T. D. Wilkinson and R. J. Mears, "Compact optical correlator using silicon backplane FLC SLMs for fingerprint recognition," Ferroelectrics 181, 47-52 (1996).

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1966 (1)

Aragón, J. L.

Artal, P.

Bará, S.

Blanchard, P. M.

P. M. Blanchard, D. J. Fisher, S. C. Woods, and A. H. Greenaway, "Phase-diversity wave-front sensing with a distorted diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 39, 6649-6655 (2000).

L. J. Otten, P. Soliz, I. McMakin, A. H. Greenaway, and P. M. Blanchard, "3-D cataract imaging system," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G.D.Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 51-56.

Booth, M. J.

Brown, B. R.

Burns, S. A.

Corbett, A. D.

A. D. Corbett, D. G. Leyva, L. Diaz-Santana, T. D. Wilkinson, and J. J. Zhong, "Characterising a holographic modal phase mask for the detection of ocular aberrations," Proc. SPIE 6018, 601808 (2005).

J. J. Zhong, D. Gil Leyva, A. D. Corbett, L. Diaz-Santana, and T. D. Wilkinson, "Mirror-mode sensing with a holographic modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181I (2005).

Corke, P.

P. Corke, "High-performance visual closed-loop robot control," Ph.D. thesis (University of Melbourne, 1994).

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

Diaz-Santana, L.

J. J. Zhong, D. Gil Leyva, A. D. Corbett, L. Diaz-Santana, and T. D. Wilkinson, "Mirror-mode sensing with a holographic modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181I (2005).

A. D. Corbett, D. G. Leyva, L. Diaz-Santana, T. D. Wilkinson, and J. J. Zhong, "Characterising a holographic modal phase mask for the detection of ocular aberrations," Proc. SPIE 6018, 601808 (2005).

L. Diaz-Santana, G. Walker, and S. Bará, "Sampling geometries for ocular aberrometry: a model for evaluation of performance," Opt. Express 13, 8801-8818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D. J.

Gil Leyva, D.

J. J. Zhong, D. Gil Leyva, A. D. Corbett, L. Diaz-Santana, and T. D. Wilkinson, "Mirror-mode sensing with a holographic modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181I (2005).

Greenaway, A. H.

P. M. Blanchard, D. J. Fisher, S. C. Woods, and A. H. Greenaway, "Phase-diversity wave-front sensing with a distorted diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 39, 6649-6655 (2000).

L. J. Otten, P. Soliz, I. McMakin, A. H. Greenaway, and P. M. Blanchard, "3-D cataract imaging system," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G.D.Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 51-56.

He, J. C.

Hebert, T.

Hofer, H.

Juskaitis, R.

Kawata, S.

Leyva, D. G.

A. D. Corbett, D. G. Leyva, L. Diaz-Santana, T. D. Wilkinson, and J. J. Zhong, "Characterising a holographic modal phase mask for the detection of ocular aberrations," Proc. SPIE 6018, 601808 (2005).

Lohmann, A. W.

Marcos, S.

McMakin, I.

L. J. Otten, P. Soliz, I. McMakin, A. H. Greenaway, and P. M. Blanchard, "3-D cataract imaging system," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G.D.Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 51-56.

Mears, R. J.

Neil, M. A. A.

O'Brien, D. C.

Otten, L. J.

L. J. Otten, P. Soliz, I. McMakin, A. H. Greenaway, and P. M. Blanchard, "3-D cataract imaging system," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G.D.Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 51-56.

Petillot, Y.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Singer, B.

Soliz, P.

L. J. Otten, P. Soliz, I. McMakin, A. H. Greenaway, and P. M. Blanchard, "3-D cataract imaging system," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G.D.Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 51-56.

Tanaka, T.

Venkateswaran, K.

Walker, G.

Wilkinson, T. D.

A. D. Corbett, D. G. Leyva, L. Diaz-Santana, T. D. Wilkinson, and J. J. Zhong, "Characterising a holographic modal phase mask for the detection of ocular aberrations," Proc. SPIE 6018, 601808 (2005).

J. J. Zhong, D. Gil Leyva, A. D. Corbett, L. Diaz-Santana, and T. D. Wilkinson, "Mirror-mode sensing with a holographic modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181I (2005).

T. D. Wilkinson and R. J. Mears, "Compact optical correlator using silicon backplane FLC SLMs for fingerprint recognition," Ferroelectrics 181, 47-52 (1996).

T. D. Wilkinson, Y. Petillot, R. J. Mears, and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Scale invariant optical correlators using ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Appl. Opt. 34, 1885-1890 (1995).

T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and R. J. Mears, "Scale invariant binary phase-only matched filter using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 33, 4452-4453 (1993).

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, T.

Woods, S. C.

Zhong, J. J.

J. J. Zhong, D. Gil Leyva, A. D. Corbett, L. Diaz-Santana, and T. D. Wilkinson, "Mirror-mode sensing with a holographic modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181I (2005).

A. D. Corbett, D. G. Leyva, L. Diaz-Santana, T. D. Wilkinson, and J. J. Zhong, "Characterising a holographic modal phase mask for the detection of ocular aberrations," Proc. SPIE 6018, 601808 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Ferroelectrics (1)

T. D. Wilkinson and R. J. Mears, "Compact optical correlator using silicon backplane FLC SLMs for fingerprint recognition," Ferroelectrics 181, 47-52 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. J. Zhong, D. Gil Leyva, A. D. Corbett, L. Diaz-Santana, and T. D. Wilkinson, "Mirror-mode sensing with a holographic modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181I (2005).

M. J. Booth, "Direct measurement of Zernike aberration modes with a modal wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 5162, 79-90 (2003).

A. D. Corbett, D. G. Leyva, L. Diaz-Santana, T. D. Wilkinson, and J. J. Zhong, "Characterising a holographic modal phase mask for the detection of ocular aberrations," Proc. SPIE 6018, 601808 (2005).

Other (3)

American National Standards Institute "Ophthalmics--Methods for reporting optical aberrations of the eye," ANSI Z80, 28-2004 (ANSI, 2004), http://www.ansi.org/.

P. Corke, "High-performance visual closed-loop robot control," Ph.D. thesis (University of Melbourne, 1994).

L. J. Otten, P. Soliz, I. McMakin, A. H. Greenaway, and P. M. Blanchard, "3-D cataract imaging system," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G.D.Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 51-56.

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