Abstract

After discussing the rationale and assumptions of the ANSI Z136.1-2000 Standard for protection of the human eye from laser exposure, we present the concise formulation of the exposure limits expressed as maximum permissible radiant exposure (in J/cm2) for light overfilling the pupil. We then translate the Standard to a form that is more practical for typical ophthalmic devices or in vision research situations, implementing the special qualifications of the Standard. The safety limits are then expressed as radiant power (watts) entering the pupil of the eye. Exposure by repetitive pulses is also addressed, as this is frequently employed in ophthalmic applications. Examples are given that will familiarize potential users with this format.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. ANSI, "American National Standard for safe use of lasers (ANSI 136.1)," ANSI 136.1-2000 (The Laser Institute of America, 2000).
  2. ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; TLVs and BEIs (ACGIH, 2005).
  3. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180nm and 1,000microns," Health Phys. 71, 804-819 (1996).
  4. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Revision of guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 400nm and 1.4micron," Health Phys. 79, 431-440 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), "Safety of laser products," IEC 60825 (IEC, 2001).
  6. Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN), "Health based exposure limits for electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from 100nanometre to 1millimetre," (HCN, 1993).
  7. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3microns)," Health Phys. 73, 539-554 (1997).
  8. J. J. Vos and D. van Norren, "Retinal damage by optical radiation. An alternative to current, ACGIH-inspired guidelines," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 200-211 (2005).
  9. F. C. Delori, J. S. Parker, and M. A. Mainster, "Light levels in fundus photography and fluorescein angiography," Vision Res. 20, 1099-1104 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, Jr., and F. C. Delori, "Potential retinal hazards. Instrument and environmental light sources," Ophthalmology 90, 927-932 (1983).
  11. G. C. de Wit, "Safety norms for Maxwellian view laser scanning devices based on the ANSI standards," Health Phys. 71, 766-769 (1996).
  12. D. Sliney, D. Aron-Rosa, F. Delori, F. Fankhauser,R. Landry, M. Mainster, J. Marshall, B. Rassow, B. Stuck, S. Trokel, T. M. West, and M. Wolffe, "Adjustment of guidelines for exposure of the eye to optical radiation from ocular instruments: statement from a task group of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)," Appl. Opt. 44, 2162-2176 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. H. Sliney, "Retinal injury from laser radiation," Nonlinear Opt. 21, 1-17 (1999).
  14. D. J. Lund, "Action spectrum for retinal thermal damage," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Optical Radiation, 1998), pp. 209-228.
  15. Thermal confinement occurs when the energy is delivered so rapidly that the energy absorbed in the relaxation volume of irradiated tissue is not changed by heat flow. The "thermal confinement duration" (tmin) is the duration during which confinement is assumed to occur. This duration increases with the wavelength because the relaxation volume of irradiated tissue is increased (stronger penetration of light in the deeper layers of the fundus). The duration tmin is very small when the relaxation volume is small (both in the UV and the IR) when penetration into tissue is small (skin).
  16. B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).
  17. W. T. J. Ham and H. A. Mueller, "The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources," in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M.L.Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, 1989), pp. 191-246.
  18. B. E. Stuck, "The retina and action spectrum for pnotoretintis," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Optical Radiation, 1998), pp. 193-208.
  19. D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, 1980), p. 469.
  20. D. H. Sliney, J. Mellerio, V. P. Gabel, and K. Schulmeister, "What is the meaning of threshold in laser injury experiments? Implications for human exposure limits," Health Phys. 82, 335-347 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Drafts of the ANSI 2005 Standard reveal no substantial changes in Table 5a and 5b of the current Standard, in the definition of parameters (CE,CA,CC,CB,T2,γ,P,tmin) in Section 8.3 ("Special Qualifications for Ocular Exposures"), and some clarifications in the assessment of exposures by repetitive pulses. Table and paragraph numbers remain the same. Among many other changes, the new Standard contains revised and modified definitions of parameters and a drastic revision in the classification of lasers.
  22. Class 1 lasers are those that cannot emit radiation in excess of the MP level for exposure durations longer than 2.7h(104s). There is no hazard. Class 2 lasers are those that cannot emit radiation in excess of the MP level (400-700nm) for exposure durations longer than 0.25s (aversion reflex). See ANSI Standard for complete classification.
  23. R. W. Gubisch, "Optical performance of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 407-415 (1967).
  24. D. H. Sliney and B. C. Frasier, "Evaluation of optical radiation hazards," Appl. Opt. 12, 1-24 (1973).
  25. E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).
  26. J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. A. Skavenski, D. A. Robinson, R. M. Steinman, and G. T. Timberlake, "Miniature eye movements of fixation in rhesus monkey," Vision Res. 15, 1269-1273 (1975).
  28. W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other sources," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 15-20 (1968).
  29. L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, "Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).
  30. D. H. Sliney and M. L. Wolborsht, "Safety standards and measurement techniques for high intensity light sources," Vision Res. 20, 1133-1141 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. A. Burns and R. H. Webb, "Optical generation of the visual stimulus," in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, E.W.van Stryland, D.R.Williams, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1994), pp. 1-28.
  32. CJ is not explicitly named in the Standard but was included here to reflect a factor-2 discontinuity in the Standard: MPHc's in the 700-1050nm range are 2 times smaller than those in the corresponding 1050-1400nm range.
  33. J. J. Vos, "A theory of retinal burns," Bull. Math. Biophys. 24, 115-128 (1962).
  34. C. R. Thompson, B. S. Gerstman, S. L. Jacques, and M. E. Rogers, "Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina," Bull. Math. Biol. 58, 513-553 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, "Retinal temperature increases produced by intense light sources," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 264-270 (1970).
  36. E. S. Beatrice and G. D. Frisch, "Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter," Arch. Environ. Health 27, 322-326 (1973).
  37. J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).
  38. D. J. Lund, K. Schulmeister, B. Seiser, and F. Edthofer, "Laser-induced retinal injury thresholds: variation with retinal irradiated area," Proc. SPIE 5688, 469-478 (2005).
  39. The pupil factor P is not used explicitly in the Standard. For 400≥λ≥600nm and t≥0.7s, the pupil diameter is assumed to be 3mm, and the factor P is (7/3)2=5.44 (cell b; rounded down to 5.4 in the Standard). The Standard provides interpolations that we translated in Table (upper part): between 0.07s and 0.7s (cell a) and between 600 and 700nm (cell d). We added an interpolation for the combined interval 0.07≤t≤0.7s and 400≥λ≥600nm that was not covered in the Standard (cell c); P is then the product of the values in cells a and d, divided by 5.44.
  40. The discrepancy comes from reducing the source radiance from 100CBJcm−2sr−1 (ANSI Table 5b) to 20CBJcm−2sr−1 [ANSI Section 8.3(1)], and thus a factor of 5, to account for change in the pupil diameter instead of a factor 5.44 [ANSI Section 8.3(2)].
  41. Extrapolation of the MPΦ from cell 7 (Table ) toward shorter exposure durations intersects the MPΦ from cell 4a at a duration tex=2.75×10−3(CBα)1.33. The shortest value for tex occurs for CB=1(400<λ<450nm) and α=1.5mrad and equals 4.7ms.
  42. The IEC laser safety Standards defines CE differently from the ANSI Standard for large sources (CE,IEC=αmax/αmin for all α>αmax). The reason is that the IEC Standard emphasizes measurements and requires one to measure only the power or energy arriving within a cone angle of αmax; hence, CE is constant for larger angles. However, the ANSI Standard emphasizes calculations rather than measurements and therefore provides an ever-increasing CE for angles increasing beyond αmax.
  43. For a circular area with α≥αmax exposed with a radiant power Φtotal, the power Φin within a cone of angle αmax[Φin=(αmax/α)2Φtotal] is compared with the MPΦin calculated using CE=αmax/αmin. The factor CE is thus essentially replaced by (α/αmax)2(αmax/αmin)=(α2/αminαmax), identical to the value of CE for α≥αmax already incorporated into the Standard (Table II[a]). The method of "ignoring the power outside an αmax-cone" is identical to proper application of the current Standard for circular fields.
  44. ANSI, "American National Standard for safe use of lasers (ANSI 136.1)," ANSI 136.1-1993 (Revision of ANSI 136.1-1986) (The Laser Institute of America, 1993).
  45. D. E. Freund, R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrel, and D. H. Sliney, "A theoretical comparison of retinal temperature changes resulting from exposure to rectangular and Gaussian beams," Lasers Life Sci. 7, 71-89 (1996).
  46. D. E. Freund and D. H. Sliney, "Dependence of retinal model temperature calculations on beam shape and absorption coefficients," Lasers Life Sci. 8, 229-247 (1999).
  47. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).
  48. W.H.A. Rushton, "Visual pigments in man," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, H. J. A.Dartnall, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1972), pp. 364-394.
  49. We have developed such programs written in an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft, Mac, or PC). We will share this program with interested individuals only if they assume full responsibility for its use . If interested, contact F. C. Delori by e-mail at francois.delori@schepens.harvard.edu. Individuals can also write their own. However, be aware of small discrepancies in Tables to between the limits or parameters given in neighboring cells. For example, In Table , there is a 5% difference between the MPHc's given on the left and right sides of the α=γ line. In Table (lower part), there is a 4% difference between the pupil factor P given in cells 1 and 2 (at t=0.7s).
  50. T. S. Group, "Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin: one-year results of 2 randomized clinical trials--TAP report. Treatment of age-related macular degeneration with photodynamic therapy (TAP) Study Group," Arch. Ophthalmol. 117, 1329-1345 (1999).
  51. D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).
  52. R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).
  53. For application of rule 3, the MP radiant exposure for cell 3 of Table applies to an exposure duration as short as 100fs (the limit of the Standard). This is because the formulation of rule 3 predates the introduction of the more conservative thermoacoustic limits (cells 1 and 2, Table ).
  54. M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).
  55. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 26, 1492-1449 (1987).
  56. R. W. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
  57. F. Romero-Borja, K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and T. Hebert, "Optical slicing of human retinal tissue in vivo with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 44, 4032-4040 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  58. Commercially available SLO's are manufactured by Heidelberg Engineering (Heideberg, Germany) and by Confocal Technologies (Buena Vista, Virginia).
  59. D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  60. U. Klingbeil, "Safety aspects of laser scanning ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 51, 81-93 (1986).
  61. L. Li and J. S. Rosenshein, "Safety considerations for simultaneous multiple wavelength exposure in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 64, 170-177 (1993).
  62. T. L. Lyon, "Hazard analysis technique for multiple wavelength lasers," Health Phys. 49, 221-226 (1985).
  63. W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

2006 (3)

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2002 (1)

D. H. Sliney, J. Mellerio, V. P. Gabel, and K. Schulmeister, "What is the meaning of threshold in laser injury experiments? Implications for human exposure limits," Health Phys. 82, 335-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

2000 (3)

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Revision of guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 400nm and 1.4micron," Health Phys. 79, 431-440 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

D. E. Freund and D. H. Sliney, "Dependence of retinal model temperature calculations on beam shape and absorption coefficients," Lasers Life Sci. 8, 229-247 (1999).

T. S. Group, "Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin: one-year results of 2 randomized clinical trials--TAP report. Treatment of age-related macular degeneration with photodynamic therapy (TAP) Study Group," Arch. Ophthalmol. 117, 1329-1345 (1999).

D. H. Sliney, "Retinal injury from laser radiation," Nonlinear Opt. 21, 1-17 (1999).

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

1997 (1)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3microns)," Health Phys. 73, 539-554 (1997).

1996 (5)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180nm and 1,000microns," Health Phys. 71, 804-819 (1996).

G. C. de Wit, "Safety norms for Maxwellian view laser scanning devices based on the ANSI standards," Health Phys. 71, 766-769 (1996).

D. E. Freund, R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrel, and D. H. Sliney, "A theoretical comparison of retinal temperature changes resulting from exposure to rectangular and Gaussian beams," Lasers Life Sci. 7, 71-89 (1996).

C. R. Thompson, B. S. Gerstman, S. L. Jacques, and M. E. Rogers, "Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina," Bull. Math. Biol. 58, 513-553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

1993 (1)

L. Li and J. S. Rosenshein, "Safety considerations for simultaneous multiple wavelength exposure in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 64, 170-177 (1993).

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

U. Klingbeil, "Safety aspects of laser scanning ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 51, 81-93 (1986).

1985 (1)

T. L. Lyon, "Hazard analysis technique for multiple wavelength lasers," Health Phys. 49, 221-226 (1985).

1984 (1)

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, "Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

1983 (1)

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, Jr., and F. C. Delori, "Potential retinal hazards. Instrument and environmental light sources," Ophthalmology 90, 927-932 (1983).

1980 (3)

F. C. Delori, J. S. Parker, and M. A. Mainster, "Light levels in fundus photography and fluorescein angiography," Vision Res. 20, 1099-1104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sliney and M. L. Wolborsht, "Safety standards and measurement techniques for high intensity light sources," Vision Res. 20, 1133-1141 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).

1977 (1)

E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).

1975 (1)

A. A. Skavenski, D. A. Robinson, R. M. Steinman, and G. T. Timberlake, "Miniature eye movements of fixation in rhesus monkey," Vision Res. 15, 1269-1273 (1975).

1973 (2)

E. S. Beatrice and G. D. Frisch, "Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter," Arch. Environ. Health 27, 322-326 (1973).

D. H. Sliney and B. C. Frasier, "Evaluation of optical radiation hazards," Appl. Opt. 12, 1-24 (1973).

1970 (1)

1968 (1)

W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other sources," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 15-20 (1968).

1967 (1)

1962 (1)

J. J. Vos, "A theory of retinal burns," Bull. Math. Biophys. 24, 115-128 (1962).

Agopov, M.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Ahmad, K.

Aldrich, R. C.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

Amnotte, R. E.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Aron-Rosa, D.

Beatrice, E. S.

E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).

E. S. Beatrice and G. D. Frisch, "Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter," Arch. Environ. Health 27, 322-326 (1973).

Berry, E. R.

W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other sources," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 15-20 (1968).

Bille, J. F.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Bindewald-Wittich, A.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Buffington, G.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns and R. H. Webb, "Optical generation of the visual stimulus," in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, E.W.van Stryland, D.R.Williams, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1994), pp. 1-28.

Cain, C.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Carothers, V.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Connolly, E.

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

de Wit, G. C.

G. C. de Wit, "Safety norms for Maxwellian view laser scanning devices based on the ANSI standards," Health Phys. 71, 766-769 (1996).

Delori, F.

Delori, F. C.

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 26, 1492-1449 (1987).

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, Jr., and F. C. Delori, "Potential retinal hazards. Instrument and environmental light sources," Ophthalmology 90, 927-932 (1983).

F. C. Delori, J. S. Parker, and M. A. Mainster, "Light levels in fundus photography and fluorescein angiography," Vision Res. 20, 1099-1104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

DiCarlo, C.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Druessel, J. J.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Dubra, A.

Edsall, P. R.

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

Edthofer, F.

D. J. Lund, K. Schulmeister, B. Seiser, and F. Edthofer, "Laser-induced retinal injury thresholds: variation with retinal irradiated area," Proc. SPIE 5688, 469-478 (2005).

Eilert, B.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Eldridge, S.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, "Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

Fankhauser, F.

Farrel, R. A.

D. E. Freund, R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrel, and D. H. Sliney, "A theoretical comparison of retinal temperature changes resulting from exposure to rectangular and Gaussian beams," Lasers Life Sci. 7, 71-89 (1996).

Feeney-Burns, L.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, "Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

Flotte, T. J.

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

Frasier, B. C.

Freund, D. E.

D. E. Freund and D. H. Sliney, "Dependence of retinal model temperature calculations on beam shape and absorption coefficients," Lasers Life Sci. 8, 229-247 (1999).

D. E. Freund, R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrel, and D. H. Sliney, "A theoretical comparison of retinal temperature changes resulting from exposure to rectangular and Gaussian beams," Lasers Life Sci. 7, 71-89 (1996).

Frisch, G. D.

E. S. Beatrice and G. D. Frisch, "Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter," Arch. Environ. Health 27, 322-326 (1973).

Gabel, V. P.

D. H. Sliney, J. Mellerio, V. P. Gabel, and K. Schulmeister, "What is the meaning of threshold in laser injury experiments? Implications for human exposure limits," Health Phys. 82, 335-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gee, B. P.

Geeraets, W. J.

W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other sources," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 15-20 (1968).

Gerstman, B. S.

C. R. Thompson, B. S. Gerstman, S. L. Jacques, and M. E. Rogers, "Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina," Bull. Math. Biol. 58, 513-553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giese, G.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Gragoudas, E. S.

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

Gray, D. C.

Group, T. S.

T. S. Group, "Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin: one-year results of 2 randomized clinical trials--TAP report. Treatment of age-related macular degeneration with photodynamic therapy (TAP) Study Group," Arch. Ophthalmol. 117, 1329-1345 (1999).

Gubisch, R. W.

Ham, W. T.

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, Jr., and F. C. Delori, "Potential retinal hazards. Instrument and environmental light sources," Ophthalmology 90, 927-932 (1983).

Ham, W. T. J.

W. T. J. Ham and H. A. Mueller, "The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources," in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M.L.Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, 1989), pp. 191-246.

Hammer, D. X.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Han, M.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Hebert, T.

Hilderbrand, E. S.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, "Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

Hollins, R. C.

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

Holz, F. G.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Hopkins, R. A.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Hughes, G. W.

Husain, D.

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

Jacques, S. L.

C. R. Thompson, B. S. Gerstman, S. L. Jacques, and M. E. Rogers, "Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina," Bull. Math. Biol. 58, 513-553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, P. K.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Klingbeil, U.

U. Klingbeil, "Safety aspects of laser scanning ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 51, 81-93 (1986).

La Schiazza, O.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Landry, R.

Li, L.

L. Li and J. S. Rosenshein, "Safety considerations for simultaneous multiple wavelength exposure in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 64, 170-177 (1993).

Lund, B. J.

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lund, D. J.

D. J. Lund, K. Schulmeister, B. Seiser, and F. Edthofer, "Laser-induced retinal injury thresholds: variation with retinal irradiated area," Proc. SPIE 5688, 469-478 (2005).

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).

D. J. Lund, "Action spectrum for retinal thermal damage," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Optical Radiation, 1998), pp. 209-228.

Lyon, T. L.

T. L. Lyon, "Hazard analysis technique for multiple wavelength lasers," Health Phys. 49, 221-226 (1985).

Mainster, M.

Mainster, M. A.

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, Jr., and F. C. Delori, "Potential retinal hazards. Instrument and environmental light sources," Ophthalmology 90, 927-932 (1983).

F. C. Delori, J. S. Parker, and M. A. Mainster, "Light levels in fundus photography and fluorescein angiography," Vision Res. 20, 1099-1104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, "Retinal temperature increases produced by intense light sources," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 264-270 (1970).

Marshall, J.

Marshall, W. J.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

McCally, R. L.

D. E. Freund, R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrel, and D. H. Sliney, "A theoretical comparison of retinal temperature changes resulting from exposure to rectangular and Gaussian beams," Lasers Life Sci. 7, 71-89 (1996).

McLin, L. N.

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

Mellerio, J.

D. H. Sliney, J. Mellerio, V. P. Gabel, and K. Schulmeister, "What is the meaning of threshold in laser injury experiments? Implications for human exposure limits," Health Phys. 82, 335-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merigan, W.

Michaud, N.

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

Miller, J. W.

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

Molchany, J. W.

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. J. Ham and H. A. Mueller, "The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources," in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M.L.Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, 1989), pp. 191-246.

Ness, J. W.

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niemz, M. H.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Noojin, G. D.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Notabartolo, J.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Parker, J. S.

F. C. Delori, J. S. Parker, and M. A. Mainster, "Light levels in fundus photography and fluorescein angiography," Vision Res. 20, 1099-1104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. J.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Phillips, S.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Polhamus, G.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Pomerantzeff, O.

Porter, J.

Randolph, D. I.

E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).

Rassow, B.

Reinholz, F.

Roach, W.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Roach, W. P.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Robinson, D. A.

A. A. Skavenski, D. A. Robinson, R. M. Steinman, and G. T. Timberlake, "Miniature eye movements of fixation in rhesus monkey," Vision Res. 15, 1269-1273 (1975).

Rockwell, B.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Rockwell, B. A.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Rockwell, R. J.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

Rogers, M. E.

C. R. Thompson, B. S. Gerstman, S. L. Jacques, and M. E. Rogers, "Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina," Bull. Math. Biol. 58, 513-553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rosenshein, J. S.

L. Li and J. S. Rosenshein, "Safety considerations for simultaneous multiple wavelength exposure in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 64, 170-177 (1993).

Rushton, W.H.A.

W.H.A. Rushton, "Visual pigments in man," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, H. J. A.Dartnall, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1972), pp. 364-394.

Schulmeister, K.

D. J. Lund, K. Schulmeister, B. Seiser, and F. Edthofer, "Laser-induced retinal injury thresholds: variation with retinal irradiated area," Proc. SPIE 5688, 469-478 (2005).

D. H. Sliney, J. Mellerio, V. P. Gabel, and K. Schulmeister, "What is the meaning of threshold in laser injury experiments? Implications for human exposure limits," Health Phys. 82, 335-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Seiser, B.

D. J. Lund, K. Schulmeister, B. Seiser, and F. Edthofer, "Laser-induced retinal injury thresholds: variation with retinal irradiated area," Proc. SPIE 5688, 469-478 (2005).

Skavenski, A. A.

A. A. Skavenski, D. A. Robinson, R. M. Steinman, and G. T. Timberlake, "Miniature eye movements of fixation in rhesus monkey," Vision Res. 15, 1269-1273 (1975).

Sliney, D.

Sliney, D. H.

D. H. Sliney, J. Mellerio, V. P. Gabel, and K. Schulmeister, "What is the meaning of threshold in laser injury experiments? Implications for human exposure limits," Health Phys. 82, 335-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sliney, "Retinal injury from laser radiation," Nonlinear Opt. 21, 1-17 (1999).

D. E. Freund and D. H. Sliney, "Dependence of retinal model temperature calculations on beam shape and absorption coefficients," Lasers Life Sci. 8, 229-247 (1999).

D. E. Freund, R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrel, and D. H. Sliney, "A theoretical comparison of retinal temperature changes resulting from exposure to rectangular and Gaussian beams," Lasers Life Sci. 7, 71-89 (1996).

D. H. Sliney and M. L. Wolborsht, "Safety standards and measurement techniques for high intensity light sources," Vision Res. 20, 1133-1141 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sliney and B. C. Frasier, "Evaluation of optical radiation hazards," Appl. Opt. 12, 1-24 (1973).

Smith, P. A.

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

Snyder, S.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Steinman, R. M.

A. A. Skavenski, D. A. Robinson, R. M. Steinman, and G. T. Timberlake, "Miniature eye movements of fixation in rhesus monkey," Vision Res. 15, 1269-1273 (1975).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Stockton, K.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Stolarski, D.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Stolarski, D. J.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Stuck, B.

Stuck, B. E.

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).

B. E. Stuck, "The retina and action spectrum for pnotoretintis," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Optical Radiation, 1998), pp. 193-208.

Sun, H.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Thomas, R.

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Thomas, R. J.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

Thompson, C. R.

C. R. Thompson, B. S. Gerstman, S. L. Jacques, and M. E. Rogers, "Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina," Bull. Math. Biol. 58, 513-553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Till, S.

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

Timberlake, G. T.

A. A. Skavenski, D. A. Robinson, R. M. Steinman, and G. T. Timberlake, "Miniature eye movements of fixation in rhesus monkey," Vision Res. 15, 1269-1273 (1975).

Tips, J. H.

Toth, C. A.

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

Trokel, S.

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

van Norren, D.

J. J. Vos and D. van Norren, "Retinal damage by optical radiation. An alternative to current, ACGIH-inspired guidelines," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 200-211 (2005).

Venkateswaran, K.

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and D. van Norren, "Retinal damage by optical radiation. An alternative to current, ACGIH-inspired guidelines," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 200-211 (2005).

J. J. Vos, "A theory of retinal burns," Bull. Math. Biophys. 24, 115-128 (1962).

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 26, 1492-1449 (1987).

S. A. Burns and R. H. Webb, "Optical generation of the visual stimulus," in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, E.W.van Stryland, D.R.Williams, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1994), pp. 1-28.

Webb, R. W.

West, T. M.

White, T. J.

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, P. W.

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, 1980), p. 469.

Wolborsht, M. L.

D. H. Sliney and M. L. Wolborsht, "Safety standards and measurement techniques for high intensity light sources," Vision Res. 20, 1133-1141 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wolffe, M.

Wolfing, J. I.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Yu, J.

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

Zimmerman, S. A.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

Zuclich, J. A.

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

Zwick, H.

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other sources," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 15-20 (1968).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Arch. Environ. Health (1)

E. S. Beatrice and G. D. Frisch, "Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter," Arch. Environ. Health 27, 322-326 (1973).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

T. S. Group, "Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin: one-year results of 2 randomized clinical trials--TAP report. Treatment of age-related macular degeneration with photodynamic therapy (TAP) Study Group," Arch. Ophthalmol. 117, 1329-1345 (1999).

D. Husain, J. W. Miller, N. Michaud, E. Connolly, T. J. Flotte, and E. S. Gragoudas, "Intravenous infusion of liposomal benzoporphyrin derivative for photodynamic therapy of experimental choroidal neovascularization," Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 978-985 (1996).

Bull. Math. Biol. (1)

C. R. Thompson, B. S. Gerstman, S. L. Jacques, and M. E. Rogers, "Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina," Bull. Math. Biol. 58, 513-553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Math. Biophys. (1)

J. J. Vos, "A theory of retinal burns," Bull. Math. Biophys. 24, 115-128 (1962).

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

J. J. Vos and D. van Norren, "Retinal damage by optical radiation. An alternative to current, ACGIH-inspired guidelines," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 200-211 (2005).

Health Phys. (10)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180nm and 1,000microns," Health Phys. 71, 804-819 (1996).

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[CrossRef]

G. C. de Wit, "Safety norms for Maxwellian view laser scanning devices based on the ANSI standards," Health Phys. 71, 766-769 (1996).

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D. H. Sliney, J. Mellerio, V. P. Gabel, and K. Schulmeister, "What is the meaning of threshold in laser injury experiments? Implications for human exposure limits," Health Phys. 82, 335-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Ness, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, D. J. Lund, B. J. Lund,J. W. Molchany, and D. H. Sliney, "Retinal image motion during deliberate fixation: implications to laser safety for long duration viewing," Health Phys. 78, 131-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Klingbeil, "Safety aspects of laser scanning ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 51, 81-93 (1986).

L. Li and J. S. Rosenshein, "Safety considerations for simultaneous multiple wavelength exposure in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Health Phys. 64, 170-177 (1993).

T. L. Lyon, "Hazard analysis technique for multiple wavelength lasers," Health Phys. 49, 221-226 (1985).

W. Roach, R. Thomas, G. Buffington, G. Polhamus, J. Notabartolo, C. DiCarlo, K. Stockton, D. Stolarski, K. Schuster, V. Carothers, B. Rockwell, and C. Cain, "Simultaneous exposure using 532 and 860nm lasers for visible lesion thresholds in the rhesus retina," Health Phys. 90, 241-249 (2006).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand, and S. Eldridge, "Aging human RPE: morphometric analysis of macular, equatorial, and peripheral cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Han, A. Bindewald-Wittich, F. G. Holz, G. Giese, M. H. Niemz, S. Snyder, H. Sun, J. Yu, M. Agopov, O. La Schiazza, and J. F. Bille, "Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 010501 (2006).

J. Laser Appl. (3)

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, "A procedure for multiple-pulse maximum permissible exposure determination under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," J. Laser Appl. 13, 134-140 (2001).

J. A. Zuclich, D. J. Lund, P. R. Edsall, R. C. Hollins, P. A. Smith, B. E. Stuck, L. N. McLin, and S. Till, "Variation of laser-induced retinal damage threshold with retinal image size," J. Laser Appl. 12, 74-80 (2000).

B. A. Rockwell, D. X. Hammer, R. A. Hopkins, D. J. Payne, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, J. J. Druessel, P. K. Kennedy, R. E. Amnotte, B. Eilert, S. Phillips, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, and C. Cain, "Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety," J. Laser Appl. 11, 42-44 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Lasers Life Sci. (2)

D. E. Freund, R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrel, and D. H. Sliney, "A theoretical comparison of retinal temperature changes resulting from exposure to rectangular and Gaussian beams," Lasers Life Sci. 7, 71-89 (1996).

D. E. Freund and D. H. Sliney, "Dependence of retinal model temperature calculations on beam shape and absorption coefficients," Lasers Life Sci. 8, 229-247 (1999).

Mil. Med. (1)

E. S. Beatrice, D. I. Randolph, H. Zwick, B. E. Stuck, and D. J. Lund, "Laser hazards: biomedical threshold level investigations," Mil. Med. 142, 889-891 (1977).

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

D. H. Sliney, "Retinal injury from laser radiation," Nonlinear Opt. 21, 1-17 (1999).

Ophthalmology (1)

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, Jr., and F. C. Delori, "Potential retinal hazards. Instrument and environmental light sources," Ophthalmology 90, 927-932 (1983).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. J. Lund, K. Schulmeister, B. Seiser, and F. Edthofer, "Laser-induced retinal injury thresholds: variation with retinal irradiated area," Proc. SPIE 5688, 469-478 (2005).

Vision Res. (3)

F. C. Delori, J. S. Parker, and M. A. Mainster, "Light levels in fundus photography and fluorescein angiography," Vision Res. 20, 1099-1104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Skavenski, D. A. Robinson, R. M. Steinman, and G. T. Timberlake, "Miniature eye movements of fixation in rhesus monkey," Vision Res. 15, 1269-1273 (1975).

D. H. Sliney and M. L. Wolborsht, "Safety standards and measurement techniques for high intensity light sources," Vision Res. 20, 1133-1141 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (24)

S. A. Burns and R. H. Webb, "Optical generation of the visual stimulus," in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, E.W.van Stryland, D.R.Williams, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1994), pp. 1-28.

CJ is not explicitly named in the Standard but was included here to reflect a factor-2 discontinuity in the Standard: MPHc's in the 700-1050nm range are 2 times smaller than those in the corresponding 1050-1400nm range.

For application of rule 3, the MP radiant exposure for cell 3 of Table applies to an exposure duration as short as 100fs (the limit of the Standard). This is because the formulation of rule 3 predates the introduction of the more conservative thermoacoustic limits (cells 1 and 2, Table ).

Commercially available SLO's are manufactured by Heidelberg Engineering (Heideberg, Germany) and by Confocal Technologies (Buena Vista, Virginia).

ANSI, "American National Standard for safe use of lasers (ANSI 136.1)," ANSI 136.1-2000 (The Laser Institute of America, 2000).

ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; TLVs and BEIs (ACGIH, 2005).

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), "Safety of laser products," IEC 60825 (IEC, 2001).

Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN), "Health based exposure limits for electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from 100nanometre to 1millimetre," (HCN, 1993).

D. J. Lund, "Action spectrum for retinal thermal damage," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Optical Radiation, 1998), pp. 209-228.

Thermal confinement occurs when the energy is delivered so rapidly that the energy absorbed in the relaxation volume of irradiated tissue is not changed by heat flow. The "thermal confinement duration" (tmin) is the duration during which confinement is assumed to occur. This duration increases with the wavelength because the relaxation volume of irradiated tissue is increased (stronger penetration of light in the deeper layers of the fundus). The duration tmin is very small when the relaxation volume is small (both in the UV and the IR) when penetration into tissue is small (skin).

W. T. J. Ham and H. A. Mueller, "The photopathology and nature of the blue light and near-UV retinal lesions produced by lasers and other optical sources," in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M.L.Wolbarsht, ed. (Plenum, 1989), pp. 191-246.

B. E. Stuck, "The retina and action spectrum for pnotoretintis," in Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards, R.Matthes and D.Sliney, eds. (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Optical Radiation, 1998), pp. 193-208.

D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, 1980), p. 469.

The pupil factor P is not used explicitly in the Standard. For 400≥λ≥600nm and t≥0.7s, the pupil diameter is assumed to be 3mm, and the factor P is (7/3)2=5.44 (cell b; rounded down to 5.4 in the Standard). The Standard provides interpolations that we translated in Table (upper part): between 0.07s and 0.7s (cell a) and between 600 and 700nm (cell d). We added an interpolation for the combined interval 0.07≤t≤0.7s and 400≥λ≥600nm that was not covered in the Standard (cell c); P is then the product of the values in cells a and d, divided by 5.44.

The discrepancy comes from reducing the source radiance from 100CBJcm−2sr−1 (ANSI Table 5b) to 20CBJcm−2sr−1 [ANSI Section 8.3(1)], and thus a factor of 5, to account for change in the pupil diameter instead of a factor 5.44 [ANSI Section 8.3(2)].

Extrapolation of the MPΦ from cell 7 (Table ) toward shorter exposure durations intersects the MPΦ from cell 4a at a duration tex=2.75×10−3(CBα)1.33. The shortest value for tex occurs for CB=1(400<λ<450nm) and α=1.5mrad and equals 4.7ms.

The IEC laser safety Standards defines CE differently from the ANSI Standard for large sources (CE,IEC=αmax/αmin for all α>αmax). The reason is that the IEC Standard emphasizes measurements and requires one to measure only the power or energy arriving within a cone angle of αmax; hence, CE is constant for larger angles. However, the ANSI Standard emphasizes calculations rather than measurements and therefore provides an ever-increasing CE for angles increasing beyond αmax.

For a circular area with α≥αmax exposed with a radiant power Φtotal, the power Φin within a cone of angle αmax[Φin=(αmax/α)2Φtotal] is compared with the MPΦin calculated using CE=αmax/αmin. The factor CE is thus essentially replaced by (α/αmax)2(αmax/αmin)=(α2/αminαmax), identical to the value of CE for α≥αmax already incorporated into the Standard (Table II[a]). The method of "ignoring the power outside an αmax-cone" is identical to proper application of the current Standard for circular fields.

ANSI, "American National Standard for safe use of lasers (ANSI 136.1)," ANSI 136.1-1993 (Revision of ANSI 136.1-1986) (The Laser Institute of America, 1993).

Drafts of the ANSI 2005 Standard reveal no substantial changes in Table 5a and 5b of the current Standard, in the definition of parameters (CE,CA,CC,CB,T2,γ,P,tmin) in Section 8.3 ("Special Qualifications for Ocular Exposures"), and some clarifications in the assessment of exposures by repetitive pulses. Table and paragraph numbers remain the same. Among many other changes, the new Standard contains revised and modified definitions of parameters and a drastic revision in the classification of lasers.

Class 1 lasers are those that cannot emit radiation in excess of the MP level for exposure durations longer than 2.7h(104s). There is no hazard. Class 2 lasers are those that cannot emit radiation in excess of the MP level (400-700nm) for exposure durations longer than 0.25s (aversion reflex). See ANSI Standard for complete classification.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

W.H.A. Rushton, "Visual pigments in man," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, H. J. A.Dartnall, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1972), pp. 364-394.

We have developed such programs written in an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft, Mac, or PC). We will share this program with interested individuals only if they assume full responsibility for its use . If interested, contact F. C. Delori by e-mail at francois.delori@schepens.harvard.edu. Individuals can also write their own. However, be aware of small discrepancies in Tables to between the limits or parameters given in neighboring cells. For example, In Table , there is a 5% difference between the MPHc's given on the left and right sides of the α=γ line. In Table (lower part), there is a 4% difference between the pupil factor P given in cells 1 and 2 (at t=0.7s).

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