Abstract

The purposes of the study were to compare the performance of ten representative focus measures in the presence of nondefocus aberrations and to evaluate their applicability to the eye. For fixed amounts of nondefocus aberrations, the amount of defocus was changed to generate a series of blurred images from which focus measure curves were derived. In the presence of small amounts of nondefocus aberrations, all focus measures showed unimodal and monotonic behavior, although there were large differences in their sensitivity to defocus and effective ranges. There were breakdowns in monotonicity and unimodality for some focus measures when applied to data from human eyes, while other focus measures could detect the shift in the best-focus plane in the blurred image series resulting from spherical aberration.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

Y. Tian, "Monte Carlo evaluation of ten focus measures," Proc. SPIE 6502, 65020C (2007).

Y. Tian, K. Shieh, and C. Wildsoet, "Do focus measures apply to retinal images?" Proc. SPIE 6492, 64920P (2007).

J. Tarrant and C. Wildsoet, "Interactions between the Zernike modes, spherical aberration, and defocus during accommodation and effects of multifocal soft contact lenses," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, ARVO E-abstract 1510 (2007).

2006 (3)

Y. Tian, "Dynamic focus window selection using a statistical color model," Proc. SPIE 6069, 60690A (2006).

R. Schachar, "The mechanism of accommodation and presbyopia," Int. Ophthalmology Clinics 46, 39-61 (2006).

Y. Tian and C. Wildsoet, "Diurnal fluctuations and developmental changes in ocular dimensions and optical aberrations in young chicks," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4168-4178 (2006).

2005 (1)

Y. Tian, H. Feng, Z. Xu, and J. Huang, "Dynamic focus window selection strategy for digital cameras," Proc. SPIE 5678, 219-229 (2005).

2004 (4)

J. Marsack, L. Thibos, and R. Applegate, "Metrics of optical quality derived from wave aberrations predict visual performance," J. Vision 4, 322-328 (2004).

A. Watson and A. Ahumada, "Human optical image quality and the spatial standard observer," J. Vision 4, 2a (2004).

X. Cheng, A. Bradley, and L. Thibos, "Predicting subjective judgment of best focus with objective image quality metrics," J. Vision 4, 310-321 (2004).

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

J. Kautsky, J. Flusser, B. Zitová, and S. Simberová, "A new wavelet-based measure of image focus," Pattern Recogn. Lett. 23, 1785-1794 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Castejon-Mochon, N. Lopez-Gil, A. Benito, and A. Artal, "Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population," Vision Res. 42, 1611-1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Thibos, R. Applegate, J. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652-660 (2002).

Y. Tian, H. Feng, and Z. Xu, "A new autofocusing technique based on analysing the RGB components of color images," Acta Photon. Sinica 31, 363-366 (2002).

L. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329-2348 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and C. Wen, "A new focus measure method using moments," Image Vis. Comput. 18, 959-965 (2000).

1999 (2)

T. Oshika, S. Klyce, R. Applegate, H. Howland, and M. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wavefront aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Choi, J. Lee, and S. Ko, "New auto-focusing technique using the frequency selective weighted median filter for video cameras," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 45, 820-826 (1999).

1997 (3)

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

M. Subbarao, T. Choi, and A. Nikzad, "Focusing techniques," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 2824-2836 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

C. Schor and J. Kotulak, "A computational model of the error detector of human visual accommodation," Biol. Cybern. 54, 189-194 (1986).

1985 (1)

F. Groen, I. Young, and G. Ligthart, "A comparison of different focus functions for use in autofocus algorithms," Cytometry 6, 81-91 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

F. Toates, "Accommodation function of the human eye," Physiol. Rev. 52, 828-863 (1972).

1957 (1)

F. Campbell, "The depth of field of the human eye," J. Mod. Opt. 4, 157-164 (1957).

Acta Photon. Sinica (1)

Y. Tian, H. Feng, and Z. Xu, "A new autofocusing technique based on analysing the RGB components of color images," Acta Photon. Sinica 31, 363-366 (2002).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Oshika, S. Klyce, R. Applegate, H. Howland, and M. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wavefront aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Cybern. (1)

C. Schor and J. Kotulak, "A computational model of the error detector of human visual accommodation," Biol. Cybern. 54, 189-194 (1986).

Cytometry (1)

F. Groen, I. Young, and G. Ligthart, "A comparison of different focus functions for use in autofocus algorithms," Cytometry 6, 81-91 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. (1)

K. Choi, J. Lee, and S. Ko, "New auto-focusing technique using the frequency selective weighted median filter for video cameras," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 45, 820-826 (1999).

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and C. Wen, "A new focus measure method using moments," Image Vis. Comput. 18, 959-965 (2000).

Int. Ophthalmology Clinics (1)

R. Schachar, "The mechanism of accommodation and presbyopia," Int. Ophthalmology Clinics 46, 39-61 (2006).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

Y. Tian and C. Wildsoet, "Diurnal fluctuations and developmental changes in ocular dimensions and optical aberrations in young chicks," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 4168-4178 (2006).

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, and D. Elliott, "Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132-1137 (1994).

J. Tarrant and C. Wildsoet, "Interactions between the Zernike modes, spherical aberration, and defocus during accommodation and effects of multifocal soft contact lenses," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, ARVO E-abstract 1510 (2007).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Campbell, "The depth of field of the human eye," J. Mod. Opt. 4, 157-164 (1957).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

L. Thibos, R. Applegate, J. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652-660 (2002).

J. Vision (3)

J. Marsack, L. Thibos, and R. Applegate, "Metrics of optical quality derived from wave aberrations predict visual performance," J. Vision 4, 322-328 (2004).

A. Watson and A. Ahumada, "Human optical image quality and the spatial standard observer," J. Vision 4, 2a (2004).

X. Cheng, A. Bradley, and L. Thibos, "Predicting subjective judgment of best focus with objective image quality metrics," J. Vision 4, 310-321 (2004).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

C. Wildsoet, "Active emmetropization--evidence for its existence and ramifications for clinical practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 279-290 (1997).

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

M. Subbarao, T. Choi, and A. Nikzad, "Focusing techniques," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 2824-2836 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

J. Kautsky, J. Flusser, B. Zitová, and S. Simberová, "A new wavelet-based measure of image focus," Pattern Recogn. Lett. 23, 1785-1794 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

F. Toates, "Accommodation function of the human eye," Physiol. Rev. 52, 828-863 (1972).

Proc. SPIE (4)

Y. Tian, H. Feng, Z. Xu, and J. Huang, "Dynamic focus window selection strategy for digital cameras," Proc. SPIE 5678, 219-229 (2005).

Y. Tian, "Monte Carlo evaluation of ten focus measures," Proc. SPIE 6502, 65020C (2007).

Y. Tian, K. Shieh, and C. Wildsoet, "Do focus measures apply to retinal images?" Proc. SPIE 6492, 64920P (2007).

Y. Tian, "Dynamic focus window selection using a statistical color model," Proc. SPIE 6069, 60690A (2006).

Vision Res. (1)

J. Castejon-Mochon, N. Lopez-Gil, A. Benito, and A. Artal, "Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population," Vision Res. 42, 1611-1617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1992).

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