Abstract

Presented are intra- and inter-observer variability data comparing the unique-hue (UH) selections of sets of males and females, using two different visual experimental procedures incorporating Munsell color chips of varying hue but identical chroma and value. Although 34 of the 40 Munsell hue chips were selected by at least one observer as a UH, selections were generally repeatable. In addition, intra-observer variability represented approximately 15% of inter-observer variability. Also, when only three consecutive Munsell chips were viewed at a time, females showed significantly larger intra-observer variability than males, especially when making unique green selections. However, variability in UH selections was statistically insignificant between males and females when all Munsell chips were viewed simultaneously. No correlation was found between UH selections or intra-observer variability and hue ordering ability.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

T. Hansen and K. R. Gegenfurtner, "Higher level chromatic mechanisms for image segmentation," J. Vision 6, 239-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, "The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism," Vision Res. 45, 3210-3223 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Raz, J. Fan, and M. I. Posner, "Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9978-9983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, "Variations in normal color vision. VI. Binary hues and hue scaling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154-2168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, "Seeing unique hues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. G. Kuehni, "Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon," Color Res. Appl. 29, 158-162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

R. G. Kuehni, "Determination of unique hues using Munsell color chips," Color Res. Appl. 26, 61-66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. Pridmore, "Unique and binary hues as functions of luminance and illuminant color temperature, and relations with invariant hues," Vision Res. 39, 3892-3908 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, "Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females," Vision Res. 38, 3213-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, "The bimodality of unique green revisited," Vision Res. 37, 407-416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

1975 (1)

S. R. Cobb, "The unique green phenomenon and colour vision," Clin. Genet. 7, 274-279 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

1961 (1)

M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromates," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 166-172 (1961).
[PubMed]

1943 (1)

Abramov, I.

Atkinson, P.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, "The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism," Vision Res. 45, 3210-3223 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayama, M.

Ayde, C. J.

Bharadwaj, S.

Cobb, S. R.

S. R. Cobb, "The unique green phenomenon and colour vision," Clin. Genet. 7, 274-279 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cropper, S.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, "The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism," Vision Res. 45, 3210-3223 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005).

Fan, J.

A. Raz, J. Fan, and M. I. Posner, "Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9978-9983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farnsworth, D.

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

T. Hansen and K. R. Gegenfurtner, "Higher level chromatic mechanisms for image segmentation," J. Vision 6, 239-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

Hansen, T.

T. Hansen and K. R. Gegenfurtner, "Higher level chromatic mechanisms for image segmentation," J. Vision 6, 239-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, C. E.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, "The bimodality of unique green revisited," Vision Res. 37, 407-416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Springer, 1905-1911).

E. Hering, Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne (Gerold, 1872-1874).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, transl., Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, 1964).

Ishihara, S.

S. Ishihara, Series of Plates Designed as Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara, 1917).

Jaikuma, J.

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, transl., Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, 1964).

Kaiser, P. E.

Kay, P.

Kraft, T. W.

M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, "Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females," Vision Res. 38, 3213-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, "Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon," Color Res. Appl. 29, 158-162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, "Determination of unique hues using Munsell color chips," Color Res. Appl. 26, 61-66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Mada, G.

Malkoc, G.

Miyahara, E.

Nakatsue, T.

Neitz, J.

M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, "Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females," Vision Res. 38, 3213-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, Manual: Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

Neitz, M.

M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, "Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females," Vision Res. 38, 3213-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nerger, J.

Nerger, J. L.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, "The bimodality of unique green revisited," Vision Res. 37, 407-416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posner, M. I.

A. Raz, J. Fan, and M. I. Posner, "Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9978-9983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pridmore, R.

R. Pridmore, "Unique and binary hues as functions of luminance and illuminant color temperature, and relations with invariant hues," Vision Res. 39, 3892-3908 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raker, V. E.

Raz, A.

A. Raz, J. Fan, and M. I. Posner, "Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9978-9983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, W.

Rubin, M. L.

M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromates," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 166-172 (1961).
[PubMed]

Schefrin, B. E.

Vaithilingham, E.

Verma, R.

Volbrecht, V. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, "The bimodality of unique green revisited," Vision Res. 37, 407-416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollbrecht, V. J.

Waaler, G. H. M.

G. H. M. Waaler, "The heredity of two types of normal colour vision," in Avandlinger Utgitt av det Norske Videnskap-Akademi (Universitetsforlaget, 1967).

Webster, M. A.

Webster, S. M.

Werner, J. S.

Wuerger, S. M.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, "The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism," Vision Res. 45, 3210-3223 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromates," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 166-172 (1961).
[PubMed]

Clin. Genet. (1)

S. R. Cobb, "The unique green phenomenon and colour vision," Clin. Genet. 7, 274-279 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

R. G. Kuehni, "Determination of unique hues using Munsell color chips," Color Res. Appl. 26, 61-66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, "Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon," Color Res. Appl. 29, 158-162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

J. Vision (1)

T. Hansen and K. R. Gegenfurtner, "Higher level chromatic mechanisms for image segmentation," J. Vision 6, 239-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. Raz, J. Fan, and M. I. Posner, "Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9978-9983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

R. Pridmore, "Unique and binary hues as functions of luminance and illuminant color temperature, and relations with invariant hues," Vision Res. 39, 3892-3908 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, "The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism," Vision Res. 45, 3210-3223 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, "The bimodality of unique green revisited," Vision Res. 37, 407-416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, "Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females," Vision Res. 38, 3213-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. H. M. Waaler, "The heredity of two types of normal colour vision," in Avandlinger Utgitt av det Norske Videnskap-Akademi (Universitetsforlaget, 1967).

S. Ishihara, Series of Plates Designed as Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara, 1917).

J. Neitz, Manual: Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Springer, 1905-1911).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, transl., Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, 1964).

E. Hering, Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne (Gerold, 1872-1874).

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rotating tray exhibiting the 40 Munsell chips of value 6 and chroma 8 in the standard viewing booth, (a) without and (b) with a stationary mask (close up view).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the 40 Munsell chips in the CIE a * , b * plane using D 65 daylight simulator and CIE 2° standard observer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency of mean selection of Munsell chips by 54 females and 48 males without the mask.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Munsell psychological hue diagram with the mean unique hues of all 102 observers (solid lines) and the corresponding ranges based on mean observer data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Munsell psychological uniform hue diagram with the unique hue chip choices of (a) observer F20II, (b) observer F2II, and (c) observer F10I.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Summary of Observers Used in Each Experiment and Type of Viewing Method

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Table 2 Intra-Observer Variability of UH Stimulus Choices in Munsell 40 Hue Grades between Two Assessments for All Observers without the Mask (Experiments I–III Combined)

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Table 3 Summary Data of a Mann–Whitney Test for Each UH Stimulus Choice Variation between Females and Males (No Mask)

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Table 4 Intra-Observer Variability of UH Stimulus Selections for 34 Females and 35 Males

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Table 5 Summary Data for the Wilcoxon Analysis of Intra-Observer Variability Differences between UH Stimulus Selection with and without the Mask for Females and Males

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Table 6 Mean Angles between UH Stimuli Selections, Ranges, and Intervals of the Ranges Expressed in Degrees in the Munsell UH Diagram for Females and Males for Average Results of all 102 Observers, without the Mask

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Table 7 Matrix of Nonparametric Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients between Hue Angles in the Munsell Hue Diagram of Mean Individual UH Stimulus Choices of 102 Observers

Metrics