Abstract

We recently suggested the use of a holographic multivergence target to measure the spherical refractive error and the amplitude of accommodation of the human eye [ K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, Opt. Lett. 28, 123 (2003) ]. In this paper we report the performance of the holographic target in measuring real eyes. The holographic technique compared well with subjective refraction and autorefraction in the measurement of spherical refractive error. The performance of the holographic technique in measuring the amplitude of accommodation was similar to that of the minus lens to blur method and that of the push-up method. These results promote holography as a promising technique for testing human vision.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Benjamin, Borish's Clinical Refraction (Saunders, 1998).
  2. R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett and Rabbetts' Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).
  3. M. Rosenfield and A. S. Cohen, "Repeatability of clinical measurements of the amplitude of accommodation," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 247-249 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, "Holographic multivergence target for subjective measurement of the spherical power error of the human eye," Opt. Lett. 28, 123-125 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. C. Donders, Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye (New Sydenham Society, 1864).
  6. A. Duane, "Normal values of the accommodation of all ages," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 59, 1010-1013 (1912).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Bland and D. J. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, "Holographic multivergence target for subjective measurement of the astigmatic error of the human eye," Opt. Lett. 32, 1926-1928 (2007).
    [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Rosenfield and A. S. Cohen, "Repeatability of clinical measurements of the amplitude of accommodation," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 247-249 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. M. Bland and D. J. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1912 (1)

A. Duane, "Normal values of the accommodation of all ages," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 59, 1010-1013 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Altman, D. J.

J. M. Bland and D. J. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avudainayagam, C. S.

Avudainayagam, K. V.

Benjamin, W. J.

W. J. Benjamin, Borish's Clinical Refraction (Saunders, 1998).

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. J. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, A. S.

M. Rosenfield and A. S. Cohen, "Repeatability of clinical measurements of the amplitude of accommodation," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 247-249 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donders, F. C.

F. C. Donders, Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye (New Sydenham Society, 1864).

Duane, A.

A. Duane, "Normal values of the accommodation of all ages," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 59, 1010-1013 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Rabbetts, R. B.

R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett and Rabbetts' Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).

Rosenfield, M.

M. Rosenfield and A. S. Cohen, "Repeatability of clinical measurements of the amplitude of accommodation," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 247-249 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

A. Duane, "Normal values of the accommodation of all ages," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 59, 1010-1013 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Lancet (1)

J. M. Bland and D. J. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

M. Rosenfield and A. S. Cohen, "Repeatability of clinical measurements of the amplitude of accommodation," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 16, 247-249 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

F. C. Donders, Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye (New Sydenham Society, 1864).

W. J. Benjamin, Borish's Clinical Refraction (Saunders, 1998).

R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett and Rabbetts' Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interference between the object wave (image-forming wavefronts emerging from the lens) and the plane reference wave is recorded on the holographic plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

When the hologram is illuminated by the reverse-traveling reference wave the phase-conjugated object wave is recreated. For testing the lens is removed and the eye is placed at the location of the lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Plot of spherical refractive error obtained by holographic refraction against subjective refraction. (b) Difference versus mean plot for the measurements obtained by holographic and subjective refraction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Plot of spherical refractive error obtained by autorefraction against subjective refraction. (b) Difference versus mean plot for the measurements obtained by autorefraction and subjective refraction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Plot of the first set of measurements of spherical refractive error obtained using the holographic target against the second set of measurements. (b) Difference versus mean plot for the two sets of measurements obtained using the holographic target.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Plot of the amplitude of accommodation obtained by the PU method against those obtained by the MLB method. (b) Difference versus mean plot for the measurements obtained by the PU and MLB methods.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Plot of the amplitude of accommodation obtained using the holographic target against those obtained by the MLB method. (b) Difference versus mean plot for the measurements obtained by the holographic and MLB methods.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Plot of the amplitude of accommodation obtained using the holographic target against the amplitudes obtained by the PU method. (b) Difference versus mean plot for the measurements obtained by the holographic and PU methods.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Plot of the first set of measurements of the amplitude of accommodation obtained using the holographic target against the second set of measurements. (b) Difference versus mean plot for the two sets of measurements obtained using the holographic target.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spherical Refractive Error Measured by Holographic Refraction, Subjective Refraction, and Autorefraction for 22 Subjects Aged between 11 and 33   Years

Tables Icon

Table 2 Data Obtained for the Amplitude of Accommodation Using the Holographic Target, MLB, and PU Methods

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