Abstract

Wide-dynamic numerical images are increasingly frequent in professional environments, military photointerpretation, and x-ray or magnetic resonance medical imagery. However, a dynamic compression process is necessary to exploit such images without incessant image manipulation. A wealth of efficient methods has been developed to tackle this problem on aesthetic grounds. We argue that professional imagery interpretation needs preservation of the original radiometric order. We develop a measure of image efficiency use of the 8-bit radiometric channel and find that it correlates nicely with subjective appraisal. The image underscores a radiometric order-preserving process to reach a standard radiometric efficiency. Lost information is then reintroduced by addition of an edge image devoid of artifacts, with an automatic weighting ensuring a natural-looking image.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2004 (1)

Zhou Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Chan, S. Osher, and Jianhong Shen, "The digital TV filter and nonlinear denoising," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. A. Stark, "Adaptive image contrast enhancement using generalizations of histogram equalisation," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 889-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Caselles, J. L. Lisani, J. M. Morel, and G. Sapiro, "Shape preserving local histogram modification," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 220-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. W. Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, "A multiscale retinex for bridging the gap between color images and the human observation of scenes," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6 (Special Issue on Color Processing), 965-976 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

C. A. Poynton, "Gamma and its disguises: the nonlinear mappings of intensity in perception, CRTs, film and video," SMPTE J. 102, 1099-1108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, J. Yao, J. P. Rolland, and K. J. Myers, "Model observers for assessment of image quality," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9758-9765 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

F. O. Huck, R. Alter-Gartenberg, and Z. Rahman, "Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality," CVGIP: Graph. Models Image Process. 53, 71-83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1987 (2)

D. Field, "Relations between the statistics of natural images and the response properties of cortical cells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2379-2394 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory," Vision Res. 26, 7-21 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alter-Gartenberg, R.

F. O. Huck, R. Alter-Gartenberg, and Z. Rahman, "Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality," CVGIP: Graph. Models Image Process. 53, 71-83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Amburn, E. P.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ashikhmin, M.

M. Ashikhmin, "A tone mapping algorithm for high contrast images," in Proceedings of the 13th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, Vol. 28 of the ACM International Conference Proceedings Series, S.Gibson and P.Debevec, eds. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 145-156; www.siggraph.org.

Austin, J. D.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H. H.

Barten, P. J.

P. J. Barten, Contrast Sensitivity of the Human Eye and Its Effects on Image Quality (SPIE, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Blume, H.

H. Blume, A. M. Ho, F. Stevens, and P. Steven, "Practical aspects of grayscale calibration of display systems," in Medical Imaging 2001: PACS and Integrated Medical Information Systems Design and Evaluation, E. L. Siegal and H. K. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE 4323, 28-41 (2001).

Bovik, A. C.

Zhou Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caselles, V.

V. Caselles, J. L. Lisani, J. M. Morel, and G. Sapiro, "Shape preserving local histogram modification," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 220-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T.

T. Chan, S. Osher, and Jianhong Shen, "The digital TV filter and nonlinear denoising," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Liying

Chiu, K.

K. Chiu, M. Herf, S. Swamy, C. Wang, and K. Zimmerman, "Spatially nonuniform scaling functions for high contrast images," in Proceedings of Graphics Interface '93 (Morgan Kaufmann, 1993), pp. 245-254.

Clarkson, E.

Cromartie, R.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dorsey, J.

F. Durand and J. Dorsey, "Fast bilateral filtering for the display of high dynamic range image," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference Proceedings, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 257-265; www.siggraph.org.

Durand, F.

F. Durand and J. Dorsey, "Fast bilateral filtering for the display of high dynamic range image," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference Proceedings, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 257-265; www.siggraph.org.

Fairchild, M. D.

S. N. Pattanaik, J. A. Ferwerda, M. D. Fairchild, and D. P. Greenberg, "A multiscale model of adaptation and spatial vision for realistic image display," in Proceedings, of SIGGRAPH 98 Conference, M.Cohen, ed. (ACM Press, 1998), pp. 287-298; www. siggraph.org.
[CrossRef]

Fattal, R.

R. Fattal, D. Lischinski, and M. Werman, "Gradient domain high dynamic range compression," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 249-256; www.siggraph.org.

Ferwerda, J.

E. Reinhard, M. Stark, P. Shirley, and J. Ferwerda, "Photographic tone reproduction for digital images," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 267-276; www.siggraph.org.

Ferwerda, J. A.

S. N. Pattanaik, J. A. Ferwerda, M. D. Fairchild, and D. P. Greenberg, "A multiscale model of adaptation and spatial vision for realistic image display," in Proceedings, of SIGGRAPH 98 Conference, M.Cohen, ed. (ACM Press, 1998), pp. 287-298; www. siggraph.org.
[CrossRef]

Field, D.

Geselowitz, A.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goshtasby, A. A.

A. A. Goshtasby, "High dynamic range reduction via maximization of image information," http://www.cs.wright.edu/~agoshtas/hdr.html.

Greenberg, D. P.

S. N. Pattanaik, J. A. Ferwerda, M. D. Fairchild, and D. P. Greenberg, "A multiscale model of adaptation and spatial vision for realistic image display," in Proceedings, of SIGGRAPH 98 Conference, M.Cohen, ed. (ACM Press, 1998), pp. 287-298; www. siggraph.org.
[CrossRef]

Greer, T.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Herf, M.

K. Chiu, M. Herf, S. Swamy, C. Wang, and K. Zimmerman, "Spatially nonuniform scaling functions for high contrast images," in Proceedings of Graphics Interface '93 (Morgan Kaufmann, 1993), pp. 245-254.

Ho, A. M.

H. Blume, A. M. Ho, F. Stevens, and P. Steven, "Practical aspects of grayscale calibration of display systems," in Medical Imaging 2001: PACS and Integrated Medical Information Systems Design and Evaluation, E. L. Siegal and H. K. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE 4323, 28-41 (2001).

Huang, J.

Huck, F. O.

F. O. Huck, R. Alter-Gartenberg, and Z. Rahman, "Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality," CVGIP: Graph. Models Image Process. 53, 71-83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jobson, D. J.

D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, "A multiscale retinex for bridging the gap between color images and the human observation of scenes," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6 (Special Issue on Color Processing), 965-976 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kattnig, A. P.

A. P. Kattnig and J. Primot, "Model of the second-order statistic of the radiance field of natural scenes, adapted to system conceiving," in Visual Information Processing VI, S. K. Park and R. D. Juday, eds., Proc. SPIE 3074, 132-141 (1997).

Kersten, D.

Knill, D. C.

Kupinski, M. A.

Land, E.

E. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory," Vision Res. 26, 7-21 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, G. W.

G. W. Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lisani, J. L.

V. Caselles, J. L. Lisani, J. M. Morel, and G. Sapiro, "Shape preserving local histogram modification," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 220-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lischinski, D.

R. Fattal, D. Lischinski, and M. Werman, "Gradient domain high dynamic range compression," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 249-256; www.siggraph.org.

Morel, J. M.

V. Caselles, J. L. Lisani, J. M. Morel, and G. Sapiro, "Shape preserving local histogram modification," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 220-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Myers, K. J.

H. H. Barrett, J. Yao, J. P. Rolland, and K. J. Myers, "Model observers for assessment of image quality," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9758-9765 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, C. N.

C. N. Nelson, "The theory of tone reproduction," in The Theory of the Photographic Process, 3rd ed., T.H.James, ed. (Macmillan, 1966), p. 498.

Osher, S.

T. Chan, S. Osher, and Jianhong Shen, "The digital TV filter and nonlinear denoising," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, Subok

Pattanaik, S. N.

S. N. Pattanaik, J. A. Ferwerda, M. D. Fairchild, and D. P. Greenberg, "A multiscale model of adaptation and spatial vision for realistic image display," in Proceedings, of SIGGRAPH 98 Conference, M.Cohen, ed. (ACM Press, 1998), pp. 287-298; www. siggraph.org.
[CrossRef]

Piatko, C.

G. W. Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pizer, S. M.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Poynton, C.

C. Poynton, "Frequently-asked questions about gamma," http://www.poynton.com/GammaFAQ.html.

Poynton, C. A.

C. A. Poynton, "Gamma and its disguises: the nonlinear mappings of intensity in perception, CRTs, film and video," SMPTE J. 102, 1099-1108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Primot, J.

A. P. Kattnig and J. Primot, "Model of the second-order statistic of the radiance field of natural scenes, adapted to system conceiving," in Visual Information Processing VI, S. K. Park and R. D. Juday, eds., Proc. SPIE 3074, 132-141 (1997).

Rahman, Z.

D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, "A multiscale retinex for bridging the gap between color images and the human observation of scenes," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6 (Special Issue on Color Processing), 965-976 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. O. Huck, R. Alter-Gartenberg, and Z. Rahman, "Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality," CVGIP: Graph. Models Image Process. 53, 71-83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, E.

E. Reinhard, M. Stark, P. Shirley, and J. Ferwerda, "Photographic tone reproduction for digital images," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 267-276; www.siggraph.org.

Rolland, J. P.

H. H. Barrett, J. Yao, J. P. Rolland, and K. J. Myers, "Model observers for assessment of image quality," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9758-9765 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romeny, B.

S. M. Pizer, E. P. Amburn, J. D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B. Romeny, J. B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuidervel, "Adaptive histogram equalisation and its variations," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 39, 355-368 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rosenholtz, R.

R. Rosenholtz and A. B. Watson, "Perceptual adaptive JPEG coding," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 901-904.
[CrossRef]

Rushmeier, H.

G. W. Larson, H. Rushmeier, and C. Piatko, "A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 3, 291-306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sapiro, G.

V. Caselles, J. L. Lisani, J. M. Morel, and G. Sapiro, "Shape preserving local histogram modification," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 220-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlick, C.

C. Schlick, "Quantization techniques for visualization of high dynamic range pictures," in Proceedings of the 5th Eurographics Rendering Workshop, G.Sakas, P.Shirley, and S.Mueller, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 7-20.

Sheikh, H. R.

Zhou Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Jianhong

T. Chan, S. Osher, and Jianhong Shen, "The digital TV filter and nonlinear denoising," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, P.

E. Reinhard, M. Stark, P. Shirley, and J. Ferwerda, "Photographic tone reproduction for digital images," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 267-276; www.siggraph.org.

Simoncelli, E. P.

Zhou Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, J. A.

J. A. Stark, "Adaptive image contrast enhancement using generalizations of histogram equalisation," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 889-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stark, M.

E. Reinhard, M. Stark, P. Shirley, and J. Ferwerda, "Photographic tone reproduction for digital images," in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 267-276; www.siggraph.org.

Steven, P.

H. Blume, A. M. Ho, F. Stevens, and P. Steven, "Practical aspects of grayscale calibration of display systems," in Medical Imaging 2001: PACS and Integrated Medical Information Systems Design and Evaluation, E. L. Siegal and H. K. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE 4323, 28-41 (2001).

Stevens, F.

H. Blume, A. M. Ho, F. Stevens, and P. Steven, "Practical aspects of grayscale calibration of display systems," in Medical Imaging 2001: PACS and Integrated Medical Information Systems Design and Evaluation, E. L. Siegal and H. K. Huang, eds., Proc. SPIE 4323, 28-41 (2001).

Swamy, S.

K. Chiu, M. Herf, S. Swamy, C. Wang, and K. Zimmerman, "Spatially nonuniform scaling functions for high contrast images," in Proceedings of Graphics Interface '93 (Morgan Kaufmann, 1993), pp. 245-254.

Tumblin, J.

J. Tumblin and G. Turk, "LCIS: a boundary hierarchy for detail-preserving contrast reduction," in SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings (ACM Press, 1999), pp. 83-90; www.siggraph.org.
[CrossRef]

Turcotte, D. L.

Turk, G.

J. Tumblin and G. Turk, "LCIS: a boundary hierarchy for detail-preserving contrast reduction," in SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings (ACM Press, 1999), pp. 83-90; www.siggraph.org.
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

K. Chiu, M. Herf, S. Swamy, C. Wang, and K. Zimmerman, "Spatially nonuniform scaling functions for high contrast images," in Proceedings of Graphics Interface '93 (Morgan Kaufmann, 1993), pp. 245-254.

Wang, Zhou

Zhou Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, G.

G. Ward, "A contrast-based scalefactor for luminance display," in Graphics Gems IV, P.S.Heckbert, ed. (Academic, 1994), Chap. VII. 2, pp. 415-421.

Watson, A. B.

R. Rosenholtz and A. B. Watson, "Perceptual adaptive JPEG coding," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 901-904.
[CrossRef]

Werman, M.

R. Fattal, D. Lischinski, and M. Werman, "Gradient domain high dynamic range compression," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference, J.Hughes, ed. (ACM Press, 2002), pp. 249-256; www.siggraph.org.

Woodell, G. A.

D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, "A multiscale retinex for bridging the gap between color images and the human observation of scenes," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6 (Special Issue on Color Processing), 965-976 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

H. H. Barrett, J. Yao, J. P. Rolland, and K. J. Myers, "Model observers for assessment of image quality," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9758-9765 (1993).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Repartition of the occupancy of the 8-bit radiometric channel (in percentage) for the ARS image database. Note the very sharp maximum at 96%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image k7890-5 of the ARS database, (b) histogram of the image k7890-5. The radiometric occupancy value is 51%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Extraction of the wasp from its background of Fig. 2, (b) histogram of the wasp image without its background. The radiometric occupancy value is 92.1%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Band III ( 8 127 μ m ) infrared city image that has undergone a full histogram equalization, (b) same image except that its histogram has been truncated for a radiometric occupancy value of 90%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Original band III ( 8 127 μ m ) infrared city image, (b) histogram computed with the original radiometric resolution of the city image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Result of the partial histogram equalization of the city area image with a radiometric occupancy of 90%, (b) histogram of the processed image. We show on the histogram the lowest histogram value found by iteration to generate the desired radiometric occupancy value.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Histogram of the image details of the kl 0004-11 image of the ARS database, (b) same histogram restricted to a 1:100 scale with the model (dots, in color online) superimposed. The average error is about 2% of the dynamic.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Distribution of the Laplace parameter for ARS image details following the Laplace model.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Inverse video band II image of a residential area, (b) histogram of the image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Partially equalized close-up on saturated roofs, (b) edge image computed from the original 14-bit image.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Result of a local LUT optimization of the saturated roof area, (b) final product of our process. Tiles appeared on both images, and, from a photointerpreter's point of view, they are similar although our product is slightly sharper (because of the edge adjunction).

Equations (12)

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Information ( image ) = i ϵ [ 0,255 ] p ( level i ) log [ p ( level i ) ] ,
Image Equalized = MIN ( Image ) + [ MAX ( Image ) MIN ( Image ) ] CFD ( Image ) ,
CFD ( n ) = n > i Size ( Digital level = i ) i Size ( Digital level = i ) .
v α = β α h α β ( u ) u β + [ 1 h α α ( u ) ] u α ,
h α β ( u ) = w α β ( u ) λ + γ α w α γ ( u ) , h α α ( u ) = λ λ + γ α w α γ ( u ) ,
w α β ( u ) = 1 α ( u ) a + 1 β ( u ) a .
α ( u ) a = β α ( u β u α ) 2 a 2 .
Δ Luminance original ( pixel 1 , pixel 2 ) = X U 1 X U 2 ,
Δ Luminance original ( pixel 1 , pixel 2 ) = ( X U 1 Y E x p 1 ) ( X U 2 Y E x p 2 ) ,
pdf X U 1 + X U 2 ( x ) = { 1 Dynamic ( 1 1 Dynamic ) if x Dynamic , 0 elsewhere )
pdf Y E x p 1 + Y E x p 2 ( x ) = α 4 ( 1 + α x ) e α x ,
+ pdf X U 1 + X U 2 ( x ) P ( Y E x p 1 + Y E x p 2 x ) d x .

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