The combination of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis provides an original approach to study the profile of virgin olive oils (VOOs) in relation to composition and geographical origin. Chemometric treatment of mid-infrared spectra (<i>n</i> = 402) is assessed for quantification of fatty acids (14 components) and triacylglycerols (19 components) in VOO samples and for classification into six very geographically closed registered designations of origin (RDOs) of French VOO ("Aix-en-Provence", "Haute-Provence", "Vallée des Baux de Provence", "Nice", "Nîmes", and "Nyons"). Spectroscopic interpretation of regression vectors has shown that each RDO is correlated to one specific component of VOO according to their cultivar compositions. The results are satisfactory, in spite of the similarity of cultivar compositions between two denominations of origin ("Aix-en-Provence" and "Vallée des Baux de Provence"). Chemometric treatment of MIR spectra makes it possible to obtain similar results to those obtained by time-consuming analytical techniques such as gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and constitutes a fast and robust tool for authentication of these French VOOs.

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