Abstract

A laser induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) system, consisting of a pulsed 266 nm laser radiation, in conjunction with a high-resolution spectrograph, a gated intensified charge coupled device camera, and a built-in delay generator were used to develop a sensitive detector to quantify the concentration of toxic substances such as chromium in synthetic hair dyes available on the local market. The strong atomic transition line of chromium (Cr I) at 427.5 nm wavelength was used as a fingerprint wavelength to calibrate the detection system and also to quantify the levels of chromium in the hair dye samples. The limit of detection achieved by our LIBS detection system for chromium was 1.2 ppm, which enabled us to detect chromium concentration in the range of 5–11 ppm in the commercial hair dyes available on the local market. The concentrations of chromium in the hair dyes measured using our system were validated using a standard analytical technique such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and acceptable agreement (nearly 8%) was found between the results obtained by the two methods (LIBS and ICPMS). This study is highly significant for human health, specifically for people using synthetic hair dyes for changing the color of their hair.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  32. M. A. Gondal, M. A. Dastageer, A. A. Naqvi, A. A. Isab, and Y. W. Maganda, “Detection of toxic metals (lead and chromium) in talcum powder using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7395–7401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. M. Naser and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome tanned leather using locally developed laser induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).
  34. M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in waste water collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  36. T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).
  37. M. A. Gondal, M. H. Shwehdi, and A. A. Khalil, “Application of LIBS for determination of ionic species (NaCl) in electrical cables for investigation of electrical breakdown,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 915–922 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

M. M. Naser and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome tanned leather using locally developed laser induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).

M. A. Gondal, M. H. Shwehdi, and A. A. Khalil, “Application of LIBS for determination of ionic species (NaCl) in electrical cables for investigation of electrical breakdown,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 915–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

M. Qian, C. Ren, D. Wang, J. Zhang, and G. Wei, “Stark broadening measurement of electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double power electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Hong, G. C. Kwon, G. Cho, H. M. Shin, and E. H. Choi, “Measurement of electron temperature and density using stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1111–1117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gondal, Z. Seddigi, M. M. Nasr, and B. Gondal, “Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in Lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 726–732 (2010).

2009 (2)

C. Tonetti and R. Innocenti, “Determination of heavy metals in textile materials by atomic absorption spectrometry: verification of the test method,” AUTEX Res. J. 9, 66–70 (2009).

I. Al-Saleh, S. Al-Enazi, and N. Shinwari, “Assessment of lead in cosmetic products,” Regul. Toxicol. Parmacol. 54, 105–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in gulf war oil spill contaminated soil using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 136, 391–399 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).

2007 (2)

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in waste water collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Y. Mohamed, “Study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of six elements in aluminum alloys using LIBS with a portable Echelle spectrometer,” Progr. Phys. 2, 42–49 (2007).

2006 (2)

F. J. Gordillo-Vazquez, M. Camero, and C. Gomez-Alaixandre, “Spectroscopic measurements of the electron temperature in low pressure radiofrequency Ar/H2/C2H2 and Ar/H2/C2H4 plasmas used for synthesis of nanocarbon structures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 15, 42–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Saxena, G. M. Kannan, N. Saksenad, R. J. Tirpude, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead induced oxidative stress and DNA damage using comet assay in rat blood,” J. Cell Tissue Res. 6, 763–768 (2006).

2005 (1)

I. C. Nnorom, J. C. Igwe, and C. G. Oji-Nnorom, “Trace metal of facial (make up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria,” African J. Biotech. 4, 1113–1138 (2005).

2004 (4)

G. J. Nohynek, R. Fautz, F. Benech-Kieffer, and H. Toutain, “Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 517–543 (2004).

Y. Shih, J.-M. Zen, A. S. Kumar, Y.-C. Lee, and H.-R. Huang, “Determination of the toxic lead level in cosmetic hair dye formulations using a screen printed silver electrode,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 77, 311–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, C. Palagas, G. N. Angelopoulos, D. N. Papamantellos, and S. Couris, “Calibration measurements in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond and picosecond lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 59, 1885–1892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

P. Apostoli, “Elements in environmental and occupational medicine,” J. Chromatogr. B 778, 63–97 (2002).

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, P. K. Seth, and U. C. Chaturvedi, “Effects of chromium on the immune system,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 34, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Milan and J. J. Laserna, “Diagnostics of silicon plasmas produced by visible nanosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 275–288 (2001).

1998 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

I. T. Urasa and S. H. Nam, “Direct determination of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) with ion chromatography using direct current plasma emission as element selective detector,” J. Chromatogr. Sci. 27, 30–37 (1989).

1988 (1)

D. P. Bruyzee, G. Hennipmann, and W. G. Van Ketel, “Irritant contact dermatitis and chromium passivated metal,” Contact Dermatitis 19, 175–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Tande, “Simultaneous determination of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) in water by reversed phase HPLC, after chelating with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate,” Chromatographia 13, 607–610 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. Gillian, G. Duyckaerts, and A. Disteche, “Direct and simultaneous determination Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Sb, Bi dissolved in sea water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with a hanging mercury drop electrode,” Ann. Chim. Acta 106, 23–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

H. Brieger, “Zur Klinik der akuten Chromatvergiftung,” Zeitchrift fur experimentelle pathologie und Therapie 21, 393–408 (1920).

Al-Enazi, S.

I. Al-Saleh, S. Al-Enazi, and N. Shinwari, “Assessment of lead in cosmetic products,” Regul. Toxicol. Parmacol. 54, 105–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, I.

I. Al-Saleh, S. Al-Enazi, and N. Shinwari, “Assessment of lead in cosmetic products,” Regul. Toxicol. Parmacol. 54, 105–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alti, K.

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

Angelopoulos, G. N.

P. Stavropoulos, C. Palagas, G. N. Angelopoulos, D. N. Papamantellos, and S. Couris, “Calibration measurements in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond and picosecond lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 59, 1885–1892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Apostoli, P.

P. Apostoli, “Elements in environmental and occupational medicine,” J. Chromatogr. B 778, 63–97 (2002).

Benech-Kieffer, F.

G. J. Nohynek, R. Fautz, F. Benech-Kieffer, and H. Toutain, “Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 517–543 (2004).

Bindhu, C. V.

Brieger, H.

H. Brieger, “Zur Klinik der akuten Chromatvergiftung,” Zeitchrift fur experimentelle pathologie und Therapie 21, 393–408 (1920).

Bruyzee, D. P.

D. P. Bruyzee, G. Hennipmann, and W. G. Van Ketel, “Irritant contact dermatitis and chromium passivated metal,” Contact Dermatitis 19, 175–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Camero, M.

F. J. Gordillo-Vazquez, M. Camero, and C. Gomez-Alaixandre, “Spectroscopic measurements of the electron temperature in low pressure radiofrequency Ar/H2/C2H2 and Ar/H2/C2H4 plasmas used for synthesis of nanocarbon structures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 15, 42–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chaturvedi, U. C.

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, P. K. Seth, and U. C. Chaturvedi, “Effects of chromium on the immune system,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 34, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G.

Y. J. Hong, G. C. Kwon, G. Cho, H. M. Shin, and E. H. Choi, “Measurement of electron temperature and density using stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1111–1117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. H.

Y. J. Hong, G. C. Kwon, G. Cho, H. M. Shin, and E. H. Choi, “Measurement of electron temperature and density using stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1111–1117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

P. Stavropoulos, C. Palagas, G. N. Angelopoulos, D. N. Papamantellos, and S. Couris, “Calibration measurements in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond and picosecond lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 59, 1885–1892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dastageer, M. A.

Denli, M.

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

Disteche, A.

G. Gillian, G. Duyckaerts, and A. Disteche, “Direct and simultaneous determination Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Sb, Bi dissolved in sea water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with a hanging mercury drop electrode,” Ann. Chim. Acta 106, 23–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Duyckaerts, G.

G. Gillian, G. Duyckaerts, and A. Disteche, “Direct and simultaneous determination Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Sb, Bi dissolved in sea water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with a hanging mercury drop electrode,” Ann. Chim. Acta 106, 23–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Elhassan, A.

M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fautz, R.

G. J. Nohynek, R. Fautz, F. Benech-Kieffer, and H. Toutain, “Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 517–543 (2004).

Flora, S. J. S.

G. Saxena, G. M. Kannan, N. Saksenad, R. J. Tirpude, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead induced oxidative stress and DNA damage using comet assay in rat blood,” J. Cell Tissue Res. 6, 763–768 (2006).

Gillian, G.

G. Gillian, G. Duyckaerts, and A. Disteche, “Direct and simultaneous determination Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Sb, Bi dissolved in sea water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with a hanging mercury drop electrode,” Ann. Chim. Acta 106, 23–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Alaixandre, C.

F. J. Gordillo-Vazquez, M. Camero, and C. Gomez-Alaixandre, “Spectroscopic measurements of the electron temperature in low pressure radiofrequency Ar/H2/C2H2 and Ar/H2/C2H4 plasmas used for synthesis of nanocarbon structures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 15, 42–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gondal, B.

M. A. Gondal, Z. Seddigi, M. M. Nasr, and B. Gondal, “Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in Lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 726–732 (2010).

Gondal, M. A.

M. A. Gondal, M. A. Dastageer, A. A. Naqvi, A. A. Isab, and Y. W. Maganda, “Detection of toxic metals (lead and chromium) in talcum powder using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7395–7401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Naser and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome tanned leather using locally developed laser induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).

M. A. Gondal, M. H. Shwehdi, and A. A. Khalil, “Application of LIBS for determination of ionic species (NaCl) in electrical cables for investigation of electrical breakdown,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 915–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gondal, Z. Seddigi, M. M. Nasr, and B. Gondal, “Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in Lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 726–732 (2010).

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in gulf war oil spill contaminated soil using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 136, 391–399 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in waste water collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

F. J. Gordillo-Vazquez, M. Camero, and C. Gomez-Alaixandre, “Spectroscopic measurements of the electron temperature in low pressure radiofrequency Ar/H2/C2H2 and Ar/H2/C2H4 plasmas used for synthesis of nanocarbon structures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 15, 42–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grant, K. J.

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University, 1997).

Gupta, G. P.

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

Harilal, S. S.

Harith, M.

M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hennipmann, G.

D. P. Bruyzee, G. Hennipmann, and W. G. Van Ketel, “Irritant contact dermatitis and chromium passivated metal,” Contact Dermatitis 19, 175–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, G. C. Kwon, G. Cho, H. M. Shin, and E. H. Choi, “Measurement of electron temperature and density using stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1111–1117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-R.

Y. Shih, J.-M. Zen, A. S. Kumar, Y.-C. Lee, and H.-R. Huang, “Determination of the toxic lead level in cosmetic hair dye formulations using a screen printed silver electrode,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 77, 311–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, T.

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in gulf war oil spill contaminated soil using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 136, 391–399 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in waste water collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Igwe, J. C.

I. C. Nnorom, J. C. Igwe, and C. G. Oji-Nnorom, “Trace metal of facial (make up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria,” African J. Biotech. 4, 1113–1138 (2005).

Imam, H.

M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Innocenti, R.

C. Tonetti and R. Innocenti, “Determination of heavy metals in textile materials by atomic absorption spectrometry: verification of the test method,” AUTEX Res. J. 9, 66–70 (2009).

Isab, A. A.

Ismail, M. A.

M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, G. M.

G. Saxena, G. M. Kannan, N. Saksenad, R. J. Tirpude, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead induced oxidative stress and DNA damage using comet assay in rat blood,” J. Cell Tissue Res. 6, 763–768 (2006).

Kartha, V. B.

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

Khalil, A. A.

M. A. Gondal, M. H. Shwehdi, and A. A. Khalil, “Application of LIBS for determination of ionic species (NaCl) in electrical cables for investigation of electrical breakdown,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 915–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A. S.

Y. Shih, J.-M. Zen, A. S. Kumar, Y.-C. Lee, and H.-R. Huang, “Determination of the toxic lead level in cosmetic hair dye formulations using a screen printed silver electrode,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 77, 311–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, G. C.

Y. J. Hong, G. C. Kwon, G. Cho, H. M. Shin, and E. H. Choi, “Measurement of electron temperature and density using stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1111–1117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laserna, J. J.

M. Milan and J. J. Laserna, “Diagnostics of silicon plasmas produced by visible nanosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 275–288 (2001).

Lee, Y.-C.

Y. Shih, J.-M. Zen, A. S. Kumar, Y.-C. Lee, and H.-R. Huang, “Determination of the toxic lead level in cosmetic hair dye formulations using a screen printed silver electrode,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 77, 311–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maganda, Y. W.

Mehtap, A.

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

Milan, M.

M. Milan and J. J. Laserna, “Diagnostics of silicon plasmas produced by visible nanosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 275–288 (2001).

Mohamed, W. T. Y.

W. T. Y. Mohamed, “Study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of six elements in aluminum alloys using LIBS with a portable Echelle spectrometer,” Progr. Phys. 2, 42–49 (2007).

Nam, S. H.

I. T. Urasa and S. H. Nam, “Direct determination of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) with ion chromatography using direct current plasma emission as element selective detector,” J. Chromatogr. Sci. 27, 30–37 (1989).

Nampoori, V. P. N.

Naqvi, A. A.

Naser, M. M.

M. M. Naser and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome tanned leather using locally developed laser induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).

Nasr, M. M.

M. A. Gondal, Z. Seddigi, M. M. Nasr, and B. Gondal, “Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in Lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 726–732 (2010).

Nnorom, I. C.

I. C. Nnorom, J. C. Igwe, and C. G. Oji-Nnorom, “Trace metal of facial (make up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria,” African J. Biotech. 4, 1113–1138 (2005).

Nohynek, G. J.

G. J. Nohynek, R. Fautz, F. Benech-Kieffer, and H. Toutain, “Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 517–543 (2004).

Oji-Nnorom, C. G.

I. C. Nnorom, J. C. Igwe, and C. G. Oji-Nnorom, “Trace metal of facial (make up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria,” African J. Biotech. 4, 1113–1138 (2005).

Palagas, C.

P. Stavropoulos, C. Palagas, G. N. Angelopoulos, D. N. Papamantellos, and S. Couris, “Calibration measurements in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond and picosecond lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 59, 1885–1892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Papamantellos, D. N.

P. Stavropoulos, C. Palagas, G. N. Angelopoulos, D. N. Papamantellos, and S. Couris, “Calibration measurements in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond and picosecond lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 59, 1885–1892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paul, G. L.

Qian, M.

M. Qian, C. Ren, D. Wang, J. Zhang, and G. Wei, “Stark broadening measurement of electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double power electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, C.

M. Qian, C. Ren, D. Wang, J. Zhang, and G. Wei, “Stark broadening measurement of electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double power electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rusen, D.

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

Saksenad, N.

G. Saxena, G. M. Kannan, N. Saksenad, R. J. Tirpude, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead induced oxidative stress and DNA damage using comet assay in rat blood,” J. Cell Tissue Res. 6, 763–768 (2006).

Santhosh, C.

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

Saxena, G.

G. Saxena, G. M. Kannan, N. Saksenad, R. J. Tirpude, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead induced oxidative stress and DNA damage using comet assay in rat blood,” J. Cell Tissue Res. 6, 763–768 (2006).

Seddigi, Z.

M. A. Gondal, Z. Seddigi, M. M. Nasr, and B. Gondal, “Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in Lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 726–732 (2010).

Seth, P. K.

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, P. K. Seth, and U. C. Chaturvedi, “Effects of chromium on the immune system,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 34, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

Y. Shih, J.-M. Zen, A. S. Kumar, Y.-C. Lee, and H.-R. Huang, “Determination of the toxic lead level in cosmetic hair dye formulations using a screen printed silver electrode,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 77, 311–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. M.

Y. J. Hong, G. C. Kwon, G. Cho, H. M. Shin, and E. H. Choi, “Measurement of electron temperature and density using stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1111–1117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shinwari, N.

I. Al-Saleh, S. Al-Enazi, and N. Shinwari, “Assessment of lead in cosmetic products,” Regul. Toxicol. Parmacol. 54, 105–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shrivastava, R.

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, P. K. Seth, and U. C. Chaturvedi, “Effects of chromium on the immune system,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 34, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shwehdi, M. H.

M. A. Gondal, M. H. Shwehdi, and A. A. Khalil, “Application of LIBS for determination of ionic species (NaCl) in electrical cables for investigation of electrical breakdown,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 915–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stavropoulos, P.

P. Stavropoulos, C. Palagas, G. N. Angelopoulos, D. N. Papamantellos, and S. Couris, “Calibration measurements in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond and picosecond lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 59, 1885–1892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suri, B. M.

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

Tande, T.

T. Tande, “Simultaneous determination of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) in water by reversed phase HPLC, after chelating with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate,” Chromatographia 13, 607–610 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, A. P.

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics, 2nd ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1998).

Tirpude, R. J.

G. Saxena, G. M. Kannan, N. Saksenad, R. J. Tirpude, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead induced oxidative stress and DNA damage using comet assay in rat blood,” J. Cell Tissue Res. 6, 763–768 (2006).

Tonetti, C.

C. Tonetti and R. Innocenti, “Determination of heavy metals in textile materials by atomic absorption spectrometry: verification of the test method,” AUTEX Res. J. 9, 66–70 (2009).

Toutain, H.

G. J. Nohynek, R. Fautz, F. Benech-Kieffer, and H. Toutain, “Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 517–543 (2004).

Tucer, D.

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

Unnikrishnan, V. K.

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

Upreti, R. K.

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, P. K. Seth, and U. C. Chaturvedi, “Effects of chromium on the immune system,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 34, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Urasa, I. T.

I. T. Urasa and S. H. Nam, “Direct determination of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) with ion chromatography using direct current plasma emission as element selective detector,” J. Chromatogr. Sci. 27, 30–37 (1989).

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

Van Ketel, W. G.

D. P. Bruyzee, G. Hennipmann, and W. G. Van Ketel, “Irritant contact dermatitis and chromium passivated metal,” Contact Dermatitis 19, 175–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Volkan, B.

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

Wang, D.

M. Qian, C. Ren, D. Wang, J. Zhang, and G. Wei, “Stark broadening measurement of electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double power electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G.

M. Qian, C. Ren, D. Wang, J. Zhang, and G. Wei, “Stark broadening measurement of electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double power electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Younisss, W. T.

M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zelihagul, D.

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

Zen, J.-M.

Y. Shih, J.-M. Zen, A. S. Kumar, Y.-C. Lee, and H.-R. Huang, “Determination of the toxic lead level in cosmetic hair dye formulations using a screen printed silver electrode,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 77, 311–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. Qian, C. Ren, D. Wang, J. Zhang, and G. Wei, “Stark broadening measurement of electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double power electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

African J. Biotech. (1)

I. C. Nnorom, J. C. Igwe, and C. G. Oji-Nnorom, “Trace metal of facial (make up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria,” African J. Biotech. 4, 1113–1138 (2005).

Ann. Chim. Acta (1)

G. Gillian, G. Duyckaerts, and A. Disteche, “Direct and simultaneous determination Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Sb, Bi dissolved in sea water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with a hanging mercury drop electrode,” Ann. Chim. Acta 106, 23–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. A. Gondal, M. H. Shwehdi, and A. A. Khalil, “Application of LIBS for determination of ionic species (NaCl) in electrical cables for investigation of electrical breakdown,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 915–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

AUTEX Res. J. (1)

C. Tonetti and R. Innocenti, “Determination of heavy metals in textile materials by atomic absorption spectrometry: verification of the test method,” AUTEX Res. J. 9, 66–70 (2009).

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1)

Y. Shih, J.-M. Zen, A. S. Kumar, Y.-C. Lee, and H.-R. Huang, “Determination of the toxic lead level in cosmetic hair dye formulations using a screen printed silver electrode,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 77, 311–312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1)

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of toxic metals in waste water dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80, 561–565 (2008).

Chromatographia (1)

T. Tande, “Simultaneous determination of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) in water by reversed phase HPLC, after chelating with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate,” Chromatographia 13, 607–610 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Contact Dermatitis (1)

D. P. Bruyzee, G. Hennipmann, and W. G. Van Ketel, “Irritant contact dermatitis and chromium passivated metal,” Contact Dermatitis 19, 175–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Monit. Assess. (2)

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in gulf war oil spill contaminated soil using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 136, 391–399 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Naser and M. A. Gondal, “Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome tanned leather using locally developed laser induced breakdown spectrometer,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 175, 387–395 (2011).

FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (1)

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, P. K. Seth, and U. C. Chaturvedi, “Effects of chromium on the immune system,” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 34, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Food Chem. Toxicol. (1)

G. J. Nohynek, R. Fautz, F. Benech-Kieffer, and H. Toutain, “Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes,” Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 517–543 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

Y. J. Hong, G. C. Kwon, G. Cho, H. M. Shin, and E. H. Choi, “Measurement of electron temperature and density using stark broadening of the coaxial focused plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 1111–1117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

M. A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W. T. Younisss, and M. Harith, “LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 489–494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Qian, C. Ren, D. Wang, J. Zhang, and G. Wei, “Stark broadening measurement of electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double power electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell Tissue Res. (1)

G. Saxena, G. M. Kannan, N. Saksenad, R. J. Tirpude, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead induced oxidative stress and DNA damage using comet assay in rat blood,” J. Cell Tissue Res. 6, 763–768 (2006).

J. Chromatogr. B (1)

P. Apostoli, “Elements in environmental and occupational medicine,” J. Chromatogr. B 778, 63–97 (2002).

J. Chromatogr. Sci. (1)

I. T. Urasa and S. H. Nam, “Direct determination of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) with ion chromatography using direct current plasma emission as element selective detector,” J. Chromatogr. Sci. 27, 30–37 (1989).

J. Hazard. Mater. (1)

M. A. Gondal, Z. Seddigi, M. M. Nasr, and B. Gondal, “Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in Lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 726–732 (2010).

Med. J. Kocatepe (1)

M. Denli, D. Rusen, D. Zelihagul, D. Tucer, A. Mehtap, and B. Volkan, “Effect of long term use of hair dyes on the DNA damage in health female subjects,” Med. J. Kocatepe 3, 57–62 (2002).

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol (1)

F. J. Gordillo-Vazquez, M. Camero, and C. Gomez-Alaixandre, “Spectroscopic measurements of the electron temperature in low pressure radiofrequency Ar/H2/C2H2 and Ar/H2/C2H4 plasmas used for synthesis of nanocarbon structures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 15, 42–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pramana J. Phys. (1)

V. K. Unnikrishnan, K. Alti, V. B. Kartha, C. Santhosh, G. P. Gupta, and B. M. Suri, “Measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in laser induced copper plasma by time resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions,” Pramana J. Phys. 74, 983–993 (2010).]
[CrossRef]

Progr. Phys. (1)

W. T. Y. Mohamed, “Study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of six elements in aluminum alloys using LIBS with a portable Echelle spectrometer,” Progr. Phys. 2, 42–49 (2007).

Regul. Toxicol. Parmacol. (1)

I. Al-Saleh, S. Al-Enazi, and N. Shinwari, “Assessment of lead in cosmetic products,” Regul. Toxicol. Parmacol. 54, 105–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B (2)

M. Milan and J. J. Laserna, “Diagnostics of silicon plasmas produced by visible nanosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 275–288 (2001).

P. Stavropoulos, C. Palagas, G. N. Angelopoulos, D. N. Papamantellos, and S. Couris, “Calibration measurements in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond and picosecond lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 59, 1885–1892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talanta (1)

M. A. Gondal and T. Hussain, “Determination of poisonous metals in waste water collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Talanta 71, 73–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeitchrift fur experimentelle pathologie und Therapie (1)

H. Brieger, “Zur Klinik der akuten Chromatvergiftung,” Zeitchrift fur experimentelle pathologie und Therapie 21, 393–408 (1920).

Other (6)

“Some metals and metallic compounds,” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Vol. 23 (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1990).

“Health assessment document for chromium,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, final report No.  (1984).

“Chromium, nickel and welding,” in IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Vol. 49 (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1990), pp. 463–474.

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics, 2nd ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1998).

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University, 1997).

NIST Atomic spectra database, http://www.nist.gov/physlab/data/asd.cfm .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

LIBS signal intensity of 427.5 nm Cr spectral line as a function of time/gate delay.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

LIBS signal intensity of 427.5 nm Cr spectral line as a function of laser fluence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Boltzmann plot for plasma temperature determination.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Lorenztian fit for spectral line 427.5 nm for time/gate delay and laser fluence of 800 ns and 24Jcm2, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical LIBS spectrum for hair dye in the 400–500 nm wavelength range for a time/gate delay and laser fluence of 800 ns and 24Jcm2, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Intensity as a function of wavelength for different chromium concentrations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calibration curve for chromium using 427.5 nm Cr spectral line.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Typical LIBS spectra showing chromium concentration variation in all the cosmetic hair dye samples.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectroscopic Data for Chromium Spectral Lines [24]

Tables Icon

Table 2. Concentrations of Chromium Present in Cosmetic Hair Dye Samples

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ne1.4×1014T1/2(ΔE)3cm3,
ln(IαkiλgkAki)=EkKBT+ln(CαFUα(Tα)),
Δλ1/2=2W[ne1016],
Iz=hc4πλki,zAki,zLnzPzgk,zexp(Ek,zKBT),
LOD=2(σBS),
RSD=100%(SM),

Metrics