Abstract

A methodology has been developed and applied to accurately quantify and analyze adjacency effects in satellite ocean color data for a set of realistic and representative observation conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea. The procedure properly accounts for sea surface reflectance anisotropy, off-nadir views, coastal morphology, and atmospheric multiple scattering. The study further includes a sensitivity analysis on commonly applied approximations. Results indicate that, within the accuracy limits defined by the radiometric resolution of ocean color sensors, adjacency effects in coastal waters might be significant at both visible and near-infrared wavelengths up to several kilometers off the coast. These results additionally highlight a significant dependence on the angle of observation, on the directional reflectance properties of the sea surface, and on the atmospheric multiple scattering.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and B. N. Holben, “Assessment of the aerosol products from the SeaWiFS and MODIS ocean-color missions,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 10, 1185–1189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. R. Gordon and B. A. Franz, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance for SeaWiFS and MODIS intercomparisons,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 2677–2685 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, C. B. Schaaf, and S. Platnick, “MODIS-derived spatially complete surface albedo products: spatial and temporal pixel distribution and zonal averages,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 2879–2894 (2008).

2007 (3)

G. Zibordi and B. Bulgarelli, “Effects of cosine error in irradiance measurements from field ocean color radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5529–5538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sei, “Analysis of adjacency effects for two Lambertian half-spaces,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1873–1890 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Bélanger, J. K. Ehn, and M. Babin, “Impact of sea ice on the retrieval of water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration and inherent optical properties from satellite ocean color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 51–68 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Iwabuchi, “Efficient Monte Carlo methods for radiative transfer modeling,” J. Atmos. Sci. 63, 2324–2339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Pinty, A. Lattanzio, J. V. Martonchik, M. M. Verstraete, N. Gobron, M. Taberner, J.-L. Widlowski, R. E. Dickinson, and Y. Govaerts, “Coupling diffuse sky radiation and surface albedo,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2580–2591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker and G. Zibordi, “Platform perturbations in above-water radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 44, 553–567 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. Bulgarelli and J. Doyle, “Comparison between numerical models for radiative transfer simulation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 315–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Kisselev and B. Bulgarelli, “Reflection of light from a rough water surface in numerical methods for solving the radiative transfer equation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 85, 419–435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J. Berthon, “Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5365–5381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli and G. Zibordi, “Remote sensing of ocean colour: accuracy assessment of an approximate atmospheric correction method,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 491–509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli and F. Mélin, “SeaWiFS-derived products in the Baltic Sea: performance analysis of a simple atmospheric correction algorithm,” Oceanologia 45, 655–677 (2003).

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400  nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. P. Doyle and G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within a three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinty, J. L. Widlowski, N. Gobron, M. M. Verstraete, and D. J. Diner, “Uniqueness of multiangular measurements. I. An indicator of subpixel surface heterogeneity from MISR,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1560–1573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturm and G. Zibordi, “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction by an approximate model and vicarious calibration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 489–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

B. Bulgarelli, V. Kisselev, and L. Roberti, “Radiative transfer in the atmosphere-ocean system: the finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1530–1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

L. Roberti, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer in the microwave and in the visible: biasing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7929–7938 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, D. Tanrè, J. L. Deuzè, M. Herman, and J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S): an Overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Rahman, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Coupled surface-atmosphere reflectance (CSAR) model: 2. Semiempirical surface model usable with NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20791–20801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

E. C. Monahan and I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Pearce, “Monte Carlo study of the atmospheric spread function,” Appl. Opt. 25, 438–447 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanré, “Definitions of atmospheric radiance and transmittances in remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 13, 89–92 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

1979 (3)

1974 (1)

A. A. Lacis and J. Hansen, “A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118–133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. A. Marggraf and M. Griggs, “Aircraft measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of solar radiation as a function of altitude,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 469–477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

A. Ångström, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1953 (1)

E. Vigroux, “Contribution à l’étude expérimentale de l’absorption de l’ozone,” Ann. Phys. 8, 709–762 (1953).

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, “Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based, long-term measurement program,” NASA Technical Memorandum 206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1–29.

Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

S. Bélanger, J. K. Ehn, and M. Babin, “Impact of sea ice on the retrieval of water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration and inherent optical properties from satellite ocean color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 51–68 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bélanger, S.

S. Bélanger, J. K. Ehn, and M. Babin, “Impact of sea ice on the retrieval of water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration and inherent optical properties from satellite ocean color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 51–68 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J. Berthon, “Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5365–5381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Berthon, F. Mélin, and G. Zibordi, “Ocean colour remote sensing of the optically complex European seas,” in Remote Sensing of the European Seas (Springer, 2008), pp. 35–52.

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, “Coastal atmosphere and sea time series (CoASTS), Part 1: a tower-based, long-term measurement program,” NASA Technical Memorandum 206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1–29.

J. F. Berthon, G. Zibordi, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, and C. Targa, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series Project (CoASTS), Part 2: Data Analysis,” NASA Technical Memorandum 206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002), Vol. 20, pp. 1–25.

Bruegge, C. J.

J. V. Martonchik, C. J. Bruegge, and A. H. Strahler, “A review of reflectance nomenclature used in remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Rev. 19, 9–20 (2000).

Bulgarelli, B.

G. Zibordi and B. Bulgarelli, “Effects of cosine error in irradiance measurements from field ocean color radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5529–5538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli and J. Doyle, “Comparison between numerical models for radiative transfer simulation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 315–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Kisselev and B. Bulgarelli, “Reflection of light from a rough water surface in numerical methods for solving the radiative transfer equation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 85, 419–435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli and F. Mélin, “SeaWiFS-derived products in the Baltic Sea: performance analysis of a simple atmospheric correction algorithm,” Oceanologia 45, 655–677 (2003).

B. Bulgarelli and G. Zibordi, “Remote sensing of ocean colour: accuracy assessment of an approximate atmospheric correction method,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 491–509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J. Berthon, “Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5365–5381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, V. Kisselev, and L. Roberti, “Radiative transfer in the atmosphere-ocean system: the finite-element method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1530–1542 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli and F. Mélin, “SeaWiFS data processing code REMBRANDT,” Version 1.0 EUR 19154 EN (2000).

Carder, K. L.

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Reinersman and K. L. Carder, “Monte Carlo simulation of the atmospheric point-spread function with an application to correction for the adjacency effect,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4453–4471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

de Leffe, A.

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