Abstract

In this paper, the phase-stepping technique is applied to improve a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on differential interferometry between focused radially polarized and azimuthally polarized cylindrical vector beams. Detailed analysis is presented for the phase-stepping method, and the least squares unwrapping algorithm is employed to detect the phase distribution in correspondence to the refractive index of sample. Benefiting from the phase-stepping technique, both the measurement speed and sensitivity are improved significantly. The proposed sensor maintains high sensitivity of 9.4×107RIU/1° and a wide dynamic range of 0.35 RIU simultaneously. Furthermore, the real-time binding reaction process of bovine serum albumin with antibody is monitored to verify the system for potential biological applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: Review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Rich and D. G. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2005 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recogn. 19, 478–534 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. K. Kong, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications,” Ann. Phys. 524, 637–662 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Kabashin, S. Patskovsky, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Phase and amplitude sensitivities in surface plamson resonance bio and chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 21191–21204 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Kabshin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 51–56 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534–3539 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. C. Li, Y. F. Chang, L. C. Su, and C. Chou, “Differential-phase surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 80, 5590–5595 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. P. Chiang, J. L. Lin, and Z. W. Chen, “Highly sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. Y. Wu, S. K. Kong, W. W. Wong, and P. Shum, “Phase sensitive SPR sensor for wide dynamic range detection,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4092–4094 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 1745–1754 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Focused cylindrical vector beam assisted microscopic pSPR biosensor with an ultrawide dynamic range,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2091–2093 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Zhang, R. Wang, C. Min, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Experimental approach to the microscopic phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Zhao, “A statistical method for fringe intensity-correlated error in phase-shifting measurement: the effect of quantization error on the N-bucket algorithm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 147–153 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

C. Zhang, R. Wang, C. Min, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Experimental approach to the microscopic phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. K. Kong, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications,” Ann. Phys. 524, 637–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Focused cylindrical vector beam assisted microscopic pSPR biosensor with an ultrawide dynamic range,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2091–2093 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Y. C. Li, Y. F. Chang, L. C. Su, and C. Chou, “Differential-phase surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 80, 5590–5595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

Q. Zhan, “Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1726–1728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Chiang, J. L. Lin, and Z. W. Chen, “Highly sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Rich and D. G. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2005 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recogn. 19, 478–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 96, 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Qian, “Comparison of some phase-shifting algorithms with a phase step of Π/2,” Proc. SPIE 4596, 310–313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: Review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. V. Kabshin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Zhao, “A statistical method for fringe intensity-correlated error in phase-shifting measurement: the effect of quantization error on the N-bucket algorithm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. C. Ghiglia and L. A. Romero, “Robust two-dimensional weighted and unweighted phase unwrapping that uses fast transforms and iterative methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 107–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1981 (1)

D. Axelrod, “Cell-substrate contacts illuminated by total internal reflection fluorescence,” J. Cell Biol. 89, 141–145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Math. Phys. Sci. 253, 358–379 (1959).

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, “Cell-substrate contacts illuminated by total internal reflection fluorescence,” J. Cell Biol. 89, 141–145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baev, A.

Bu, J.

Burge, R. E.

Chang, Y. F.

Y. C. Li, Y. F. Chang, L. C. Su, and C. Chou, “Differential-phase surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 80, 5590–5595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. W.

H. P. Chiang, J. L. Lin, and Z. W. Chen, “Highly sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, H. P.

H. P. Chiang, J. L. Lin, and Z. W. Chen, “Highly sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.

Y. C. Li, Y. F. Chang, L. C. Su, and C. Chou, “Differential-phase surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 80, 5590–5595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frankena, H. J.

Gao, B. Z.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: Review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghiglia, D. C.

D. C. Ghiglia and L. A. Romero, “Robust two-dimensional weighted and unweighted phase unwrapping that uses fast transforms and iterative methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 107–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

Ho, H. P.

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. K. Kong, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications,” Ann. Phys. 524, 637–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. Y. Wu, S. K. Kong, W. W. Wong, and P. Shum, “Phase sensitive SPR sensor for wide dynamic range detection,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4092–4094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 96, 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: Review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. H.

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. K. Kong, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications,” Ann. Phys. 524, 637–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. Y. Wu, S. K. Kong, W. W. Wong, and P. Shum, “Phase sensitive SPR sensor for wide dynamic range detection,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4092–4094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. K. Kong, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications,” Ann. Phys. 524, 637–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, S. Patskovsky, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Phase and amplitude sensitivities in surface plamson resonance bio and chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 21191–21204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 1745–1754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kabshin, A. V.

A. V. Kabshin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kochergin, V. E.

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. K. Kong, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications,” Ann. Phys. 524, 637–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. Y. Wu, S. K. Kong, W. W. Wong, and P. Shum, “Phase sensitive SPR sensor for wide dynamic range detection,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4092–4094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lam, W. W.

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 96, 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Li, Y. C.

Y. C. Li, Y. F. Chang, L. C. Su, and C. Chou, “Differential-phase surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 80, 5590–5595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. L.

H. P. Chiang, J. L. Lin, and Z. W. Chen, “Highly sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markowicz, P. P.

Min, C.

C. Zhang, R. Wang, C. Min, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Experimental approach to the microscopic phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moh, K. J.

Myszka, D. G.

R. L. Rich and D. G. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2005 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recogn. 19, 478–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, S. P.

S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabshin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patskovsky, S.

Prasad, P. N.

Qian, K.

K. Qian, “Comparison of some phase-shifting algorithms with a phase step of Π/2,” Proc. SPIE 4596, 310–313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rich, R. L.

R. L. Rich and D. G. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2005 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recogn. 19, 478–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Math. Phys. Sci. 253, 358–379 (1959).

Romero, L. A.

D. C. Ghiglia and L. A. Romero, “Robust two-dimensional weighted and unweighted phase unwrapping that uses fast transforms and iterative methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 107–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Smorenburg, C.

Su, L. C.

Y. C. Li, Y. F. Chang, L. C. Su, and C. Chou, “Differential-phase surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 80, 5590–5595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

C. Zhang, R. Wang, C. Min, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Experimental approach to the microscopic phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Focused cylindrical vector beam assisted microscopic pSPR biosensor with an ultrawide dynamic range,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2091–2093 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wingerden, J. V.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Math. Phys. Sci. 253, 358–379 (1959).

Wong, W. W.

Wu, C. M. L.

S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. Y. Wu, S. K. Kong, W. W. Wong, and P. Shum, “Phase sensitive SPR sensor for wide dynamic range detection,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4092–4094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: Review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, R. Wang, C. Min, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Experimental approach to the microscopic phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Focused cylindrical vector beam assisted microscopic pSPR biosensor with an ultrawide dynamic range,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2091–2093 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, “A statistical method for fringe intensity-correlated error in phase-shifting measurement: the effect of quantization error on the N-bucket algorithm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

C. Zhang, R. Wang, C. Min, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Experimental approach to the microscopic phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Focused cylindrical vector beam assisted microscopic pSPR biosensor with an ultrawide dynamic range,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2091–2093 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

Y. C. Li, Y. F. Chang, L. C. Su, and C. Chou, “Differential-phase surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 80, 5590–5595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

Y. H. Huang, H. P. Ho, S. K. Kong, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications,” Ann. Phys. 524, 637–662 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Zhang, R. Wang, C. Min, S. Zhu, and X.-C. Yuan, “Experimental approach to the microscopic phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Chiang, J. L. Lin, and Z. W. Chen, “Highly sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

S. P. Ng, C. M. L. Wu, S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, and S. K. Kong, “Differential spectral phase interferometry for wide dynamic range surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1593–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

D. Axelrod, “Cell-substrate contacts illuminated by total internal reflection fluorescence,” J. Cell Biol. 89, 141–145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Recogn. (1)

R. L. Rich and D. G. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2005 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recogn. 19, 478–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. C. Ghiglia and L. A. Romero, “Robust two-dimensional weighted and unweighted phase unwrapping that uses fast transforms and iterative methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 107–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Zhao, “A statistical method for fringe intensity-correlated error in phase-shifting measurement: the effect of quantization error on the N-bucket algorithm,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. V. Kabshin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Math. Phys. Sci. (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Math. Phys. Sci. 253, 358–379 (1959).

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Qian, “Comparison of some phase-shifting algorithms with a phase step of Π/2,” Proc. SPIE 4596, 310–313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the measurement of differential phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534–3539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 96, 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: Review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for measuring the differential phase between RP and AP beams in an inverted microscope configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Image captured on the CCD. The inner dark ring corresponds to the SPR excitation. (b) RP beam focused on a planar metallic surface enable an evanescent Bessel SP wave. (c) Get six different interferometry images through phase stepping method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase distributions of (a) RP interferogram and (b) AP interferogram. The sample is air. The bottom grayscale figure is the interferogram and the top colorful figure is the corresponding phase distribution. (c) Phase distributions of RP and AP at a line across the center of interferogram; the refractive index of sample is n=1, 1.333 RIU. Phase jump occurs in the position of dark ring. (d) Phase distributions of RP and AP around the phase jump (dark ring) region; the refractive index of sample is n=1.333, 1.3331 RIU.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Differential phase measurements versus refractive index of different solutions mixed of alcohol and water. (b) Real-time measure of the process of bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding reaction with antibody by phase detection.

Equations (1)

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φ(x,y)=atan3I1+4I3I5I04I2+3I4,

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