Abstract

We developed an integrated dual-modal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography (PA-OCT) system using a single near-infrared supercontinuum laser source to simultaneously provide both optical absorption and scattering contrasts. A pulsed broadband supercontinuum source was generated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a photonic-crystal fiber. When we imaged two colored hairs, the black hair was visible in both PA and OCT images, whereas the white hair was only mapped in the OCT image. The single laser source will potentially allow us to implement relatively simple, cheap, and compact dual-modal PA-OCT systems, which are key criteria for fast clinical translation and commercialization.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2756–2782 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33, 929–931 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848–851 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Heijblom, D. Piras, W. Xia, J. C. van Hespen, J. M. Klaase, F. M. van den Engh, T. G. van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Visualizing breast cancer using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope: what do we learn from twelve new patient measurements?” Opt. Express 20, 11582–11597 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of total blood flow and potential imaging of cancer angiogenesis and hypermetabolism,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301–307 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Laufer, E. Zhang, G. Raivich, and P. Beard, “Three-dimensional noninvasive imaging of the vasculature in the mouse brain using a high resolution photoacoustic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 48, D299–D306 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. W. Stein, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of blood-oxygenation dynamics within the mouse brain using photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 020502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Jeon and C. Kim, “Multimodal photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, in press.
  11. C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 4644–4650 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255, 442–450 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Z. Zhang, B. Povazay, J. Laufer, A. Alex, B. Hofer, B. Pedley, C. Glittenberg, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Beard, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2202–2215 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional combined photoacoustic and optical coherence microscopy for in vivo microcirculation studies,” Opt. Express 17, 16450–16455 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Jiao, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Simultaneous multimodal imaging with integrated photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2961–2963 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. N. Billeh, M. Liu, and T. Buma, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy using a photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 18, 18519–18524 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12, 299–309 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. C. Santos Nogueira and I. Joekes, “Hair color changes and protein damage caused by ultraviolet radiation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 109–117 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Yang, X. Li, T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for ovarian tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2551–2561 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Jeon, J. Kim, U. Jung, C. Lee, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1158–1163 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 139–141 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. Heijblom, D. Piras, W. Xia, J. C. van Hespen, J. M. Klaase, F. M. van den Engh, T. G. van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Visualizing breast cancer using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope: what do we learn from twelve new patient measurements?” Opt. Express 20, 11582–11597 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of total blood flow and potential imaging of cancer angiogenesis and hypermetabolism,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 4644–4650 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Z. Zhang, B. Povazay, J. Laufer, A. Alex, B. Hofer, B. Pedley, C. Glittenberg, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Beard, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2202–2215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, X. Li, T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, A. Aguirre, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Integrated optical coherence tomography, ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for ovarian tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2551–2561 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeon, J. Kim, U. Jung, C. Lee, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, “Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1158–1163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255, 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Billeh, M. Liu, and T. Buma, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy using a photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 18, 18519–18524 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12, 299–309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Santos Nogueira and I. Joekes, “Hair color changes and protein damage caused by ultraviolet radiation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 109–117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Achilefu, S.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A.

Akers, W. J.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aldrich, R. C.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alex, A.

Au, L.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

Berezin, M.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Billeh, Y. N.

Birks, T.

Boppart, S. A.

Brewer, M.

Buma, T.

Burke, J. M.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E. C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cobley, C. M.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cox, B.

Daltrozzo, E.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Erpelding, T. N.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 4644–4650 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Favazza, C.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, G. M.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrhop, R.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255, 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glittenberg, C.

Guo, K.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heijblom, M.

Hofer, B.

Hu, S.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33, 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jankovic, L.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 4644–4650 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M.

Jiao, S.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiao, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Simultaneous multimodal imaging with integrated photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2961–2963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joekes, I.

A. C. Santos Nogueira and I. Joekes, “Hair color changes and protein damage caused by ultraviolet radiation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 109–117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N.

Jung, U.

Jung, W.

Kim, C.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 4644–4650 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255, 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeon and C. Kim, “Multimodal photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, in press.

Kim, J.

Klaase, J. M.

Knight, J.

Ku, G.

Kuai, D.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumavor, P. D.

Lanza, G. M.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J.

Lee, C.

Li, L.

Li, X.

Liu, M.

Liu, T.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, S.

Marshall, W. J.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K.

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Stein, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of blood-oxygenation dynamics within the mouse brain using photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 020502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional combined photoacoustic and optical coherence microscopy for in vivo microcirculation studies,” Opt. Express 17, 16450–16455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33, 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of total blood flow and potential imaging of cancer angiogenesis and hypermetabolism,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pedley, B.

Piras, D.

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

Raivich, G.

Rao, B.

Rockwell, B. A.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, R. J.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

Sanders, M.

Santos Nogueira, A. C.

A. C. Santos Nogueira and I. Joekes, “Hair color changes and protein damage caused by ultraviolet radiation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 109–117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shung, K. K.

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255, 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, W.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

Stein, E. W.

E. W. Stein, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of blood-oxygenation dynamics within the mouse brain using photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 020502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Treeby, B.

Tsytsarev, V.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van den Engh, F. M.

van Hespen, J. C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of total blood flow and potential imaging of cancer angiogenesis and hypermetabolism,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 4644–4650 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255, 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Stein, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of blood-oxygenation dynamics within the mouse brain using photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 020502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional combined photoacoustic and optical coherence microscopy for in vivo microcirculation studies,” Opt. Express 17, 16450–16455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33, 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, W.

Xia, Y.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Yang, Y.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of total blood flow and potential imaging of cancer angiogenesis and hypermetabolism,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, E.

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhang, H. F.

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiao, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Simultaneous multimodal imaging with integrated photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2961–2963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33, 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Zhu, Q.

Zimmerman, S. A.

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (2)

C. Kim, E. C. Cho, J. Chen, K. H. Song, L. Au, C. Favazza, Q. Zhang, C. M. Cobley, F. Gao, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo molecular photoacoustic tomography of melanomas targeted by bioconjugated gold nanocages,” ACS Nano 4, 4559–4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Akers, C. Kim, M. Berezin, K. Guo, R. Fuhrhop, G. M. Lanza, G. M. Fischer, E. Daltrozzo, A. Zumbusch, X. Cai, L. V. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “Noninvasive photoacoustic and fluorescence sentinel lymph node identification using dye-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 173–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. (1)

Y. Wang, K. Maslov, C. Kim, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Integrated photoacoustic and fluorescence confocal microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Bio-med. Eng. 57, 2576–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, Q. Wei, T. Liu, D. Kuai, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “Integrating photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography for a multimodal retinal imaging platform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Stein, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of blood-oxygenation dynamics within the mouse brain using photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 020502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl. (1)

R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. J. Marshall, R. C. Aldrich, S. A. Zimmerman, and R. J. Rockwell, “A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for safe use of lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 57–66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

A. C. Santos Nogueira and I. Joekes, “Hair color changes and protein damage caused by ultraviolet radiation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 109–117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (1)

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, and L. V. Wang, “Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 4644–4650 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats—volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255, 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of total blood flow and potential imaging of cancer angiogenesis and hypermetabolism,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 11, 301–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Jeon and C. Kim, “Multimodal photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, in press.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental schematic of supercontinuum light generation. AL, aspherical lens; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; OL, objective lens; SC, supercontinuum; and OA, optical adaptor. (b) Optical spectrum of the generated supercontinuum light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental diagram of an integrated PA-OCT system with a supercontinuum laser source. L, lens; BS, beam splitter; OL, objective lens; M, mirror; PD, photodiode; UT, ultrasonic transducer; LS, linear stage; SP, spectrometer; AMP, amplifier; DIZ, digitizer; and COM, computer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spatial resolution of the PA-OCT system. (a) and (b) Axial and transverse resolutions of the PAM system, respectively. (c) and (d) Axial and transverse resolutions of the OCT system, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simultaneous PA-OCT imaging of human hairs. (a), (b), and (c) PA, OCT, and optical microscopic (OM) images of two crossed black hairs, respectively. (e), (f), and (g) PA, OCT, and OM images of two crossed black and white hairs, respectively.

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