Abstract

Benthic coverage of the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank is largely unknown. Monitoring of D. vexillum coverage is vital to understanding the impact this invasive species will have on the productive fishing grounds of Georges Bank. Here we investigate using reflectance spectroscopy as a method for remote identification of D. vexillum. Using two different systems, a NightSea Dive-Spec and a combination of LED light sources with a hyperspectral radiometer, we collected in-situ measurements of reflectance from D. vexillum colonies. In comparison to reflectance spectra of other common benthic substrates, D. vexillum appears to have a unique spectral signature between 500 and 600 nm. Measuring the slope of the spectrum between these wavelengths appears to be the most robust method for spectral identification. Using derivative analysis or principal component analysis, the reflectance spectra of D. vexillum can be identified among numerous other spectra of common benthic substrates. An optical system consisting of a radiometer, light source, and camera was deployed on a remotely operated vehicle to test the feasibility of using reflectance to assess D. vexillum coverage. Preliminary results, analyzed here, prove the method to be successful for the areas we surveyed and open the way for its use on large-scale surveys.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. A. Price, J. S. Collie, and D. Smith, “18s ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase gene sequences of Didemnum sp., an invasive colonial tunicate,” GSO Technical Report No. 2006-01, Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program in Oceanography (University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, 2005), Narragansett, RI, pp. 46–53.
  4. N. L. Lengyel, J. S. Collie, and P. C. Valentine, “The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank ecological effects and genetic identification,” Aquat. Invas. 4, 143–152 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Kott, “A complex didemnid ascidian from Whangamata, New Zealand,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 82, 625–628 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Dijkstra, L. G. Harris, and E. Westerman, “Distribution and long-term temporal patterns of four invasive colonial ascidians in the Gulf of Maine,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 61–68 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  9. J. R. V. Zaneveld and E. Boss, “The influence of bottom morphology on reflectance: theory and two-dimensional geometry model,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 374–379 (2003).
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  10. R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
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  13. E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, and F. C. Stephens, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 511–521 (2003).
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  14. H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 444–455 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Y. Noonan, L. A. Tonge, O. S. Fenton, D. B. Damiano, and K. A. Frederick, “Rapid classification of simulated street drug mixtures using raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 742–747 (2009).
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  25. S. Desset, R. Damus, F. Hover, J. Morash, and V. Polidoro, “Closer to deep underwater science with Odyssey IV class hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV),” National Sea Grant Library, MIT-R-05-004 (2005).
  26. J. Eskesen, D. Owens, M. Soroka, J. Morash, F. S. Hover, and C. Chryssostomidis, “Design and performance of Odyssey IV: a deep ocean hover-capable AUV,” National Sea Grant Library, MIT- T-09-006 (2009).
  27. P. C. Valentine, M. R. Carman, D. S. Blackwood, and E. J. Heffron, “Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 109–121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. P. Pisut and J. R. Pawlik, “Anti-predatory chemical defenses of ascidians: secondary metabolites or inorganic acids?” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 270, 203–214 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in-situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. A. Da Silva, D. De Keukeleire, D. R. Cardoso, and D. W. Franco, “Multivariate analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectral data from cachaca wood extracts: a model to classify aged Brazilian cachacas according to the wood species used,” Anal. Methods 4, 642–646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Y. Noonan, L. A. Tonge, O. S. Fenton, D. B. Damiano, and K. A. Frederick, “Rapid classification of simulated street drug mixtures using raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 742–747 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Lengyel, J. S. Collie, and P. C. Valentine, “The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank ecological effects and genetic identification,” Aquat. Invas. 4, 143–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Hunter, A. N. Tyler, M. Presing, A. W. Kovacs, and T. Preston, “Spectral discrimination of phytoplankton color groups: the effect of suspended particulate matter and sensor spectral resolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 1527–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

P. C. Valentine, M. R. Carman, D. S. Blackwood, and E. J. Heffron, “Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 109–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robot. 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijkstra, L. G. Harris, and E. Westerman, “Distribution and long-term temporal patterns of four invasive colonial ascidians in the Gulf of Maine,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 61–68 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Kott, “A new species of Didemnum (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from the Atlantic coast of North America,” Zootaxa 732, 1–10 (2004).

K. L. Smith, M. D. Steven, and J. J. Colls, “Use of hyperspectral derivative ratios in the red-edge region to identify plant stress response to gas leaks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 92, 207–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

P. J. Werdell and C. S. Roesler, “Remote assessment of benthic substrate composition in shallow waters using multispectral reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 557–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, and F. C. Stephens, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld and E. Boss, “The influence of bottom morphology on reflectance: theory and two-dimensional geometry model,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

P. Kott, “A complex didemnid ascidian from Whangamata, New Zealand,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 82, 625–628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Manolakis and G. Shaw, “Detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 29–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Pisut and J. R. Pawlik, “Anti-predatory chemical defenses of ascidians: secondary metabolites or inorganic acids?” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 270, 203–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. A. Bennet and J. J. Leonard, “A behavior-based approach to adaptive feature detection and following with autonomous underwater vehicles,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 25, 213–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Tsai and W. Philpot, “Derivative analysis of hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 41–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. C. Price, “How unique are spectral signatures?” Remote Sens. Environ. 49, 181–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in-situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Asch, R. G.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, A. A.

A. A. Bennet and J. J. Leonard, “A behavior-based approach to adaptive feature detection and following with autonomous underwater vehicles,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 25, 213–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, J. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D. S.

P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Valentine, M. R. Carman, D. S. Blackwood, and E. J. Heffron, “Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 109–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonnell, R. B.

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

J. R. V. Zaneveld and E. Boss, “The influence of bottom morphology on reflectance: theory and two-dimensional geometry model,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 374–379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. J.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bullard, S. G.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Byrnes, J.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calvin, W. M.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in-situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cardoso, D. R.

A. A. Da Silva, D. De Keukeleire, D. R. Cardoso, and D. W. Franco, “Multivariate analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectral data from cachaca wood extracts: a model to classify aged Brazilian cachacas according to the wood species used,” Anal. Methods 4, 642–646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carman, M. R.

P. C. Valentine, M. R. Carman, D. S. Blackwood, and E. J. Heffron, “Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 109–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chryssostomidis, C.

J. Eskesen, D. Owens, M. Soroka, J. Morash, F. S. Hover, and C. Chryssostomidis, “Design and performance of Odyssey IV: a deep ocean hover-capable AUV,” National Sea Grant Library, MIT- T-09-006 (2009).

Clark, R. N.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, A. N.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collie, J. S.

N. L. Lengyel, J. S. Collie, and P. C. Valentine, “The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank ecological effects and genetic identification,” Aquat. Invas. 4, 143–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Price, J. S. Collie, and D. Smith, “18s ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase gene sequences of Didemnum sp., an invasive colonial tunicate,” GSO Technical Report No. 2006-01, Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program in Oceanography (University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, 2005), Narragansett, RI, pp. 46–53.

Colls, J. J.

K. L. Smith, M. D. Steven, and J. J. Colls, “Use of hyperspectral derivative ratios in the red-edge region to identify plant stress response to gas leaks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 92, 207–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, A. A.

A. A. Da Silva, D. De Keukeleire, D. R. Cardoso, and D. W. Franco, “Multivariate analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectral data from cachaca wood extracts: a model to classify aged Brazilian cachacas according to the wood species used,” Anal. Methods 4, 642–646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, J. B.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Damiano, D. B.

Damus, R.

S. Desset, R. Damus, F. Hover, J. Morash, and V. Polidoro, “Closer to deep underwater science with Odyssey IV class hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV),” National Sea Grant Library, MIT-R-05-004 (2005).

Davis, C. O.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Keukeleire, D.

A. A. Da Silva, D. De Keukeleire, D. R. Cardoso, and D. W. Franco, “Multivariate analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectral data from cachaca wood extracts: a model to classify aged Brazilian cachacas according to the wood species used,” Anal. Methods 4, 642–646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Des Marais, D. J.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Desset, S.

S. Desset, R. Damus, F. Hover, J. Morash, and V. Polidoro, “Closer to deep underwater science with Odyssey IV class hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV),” National Sea Grant Library, MIT-R-05-004 (2005).

Dierssen, H. M.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dijkstra, J.

J. Dijkstra, L. G. Harris, and E. Westerman, “Distribution and long-term temporal patterns of four invasive colonial ascidians in the Gulf of Maine,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 61–68 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ehlmann, B. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eskesen, J.

J. Eskesen, D. Owens, M. Soroka, J. Morash, F. S. Hover, and C. Chryssostomidis, “Design and performance of Odyssey IV: a deep ocean hover-capable AUV,” National Sea Grant Library, MIT- T-09-006 (2009).

Evans, N. R.

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robot. 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fenton, O. S.

Franco, D. W.

A. A. Da Silva, D. De Keukeleire, D. R. Cardoso, and D. W. Franco, “Multivariate analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectral data from cachaca wood extracts: a model to classify aged Brazilian cachacas according to the wood species used,” Anal. Methods 4, 642–646 (2012).
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Frederick, K. A.

Gent, C. A.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goel, P. K.

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guida, V. G.

P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, L.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, L. G.

J. Dijkstra, L. G. Harris, and E. Westerman, “Distribution and long-term temporal patterns of four invasive colonial ascidians in the Gulf of Maine,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 61–68 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heffron, E. J.

P. C. Valentine, M. R. Carman, D. S. Blackwood, and E. J. Heffron, “Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 109–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinonen, K.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
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S. Desset, R. Damus, F. Hover, J. Morash, and V. Polidoro, “Closer to deep underwater science with Odyssey IV class hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV),” National Sea Grant Library, MIT-R-05-004 (2005).

Hover, F. S.

J. Eskesen, D. Owens, M. Soroka, J. Morash, F. S. Hover, and C. Chryssostomidis, “Design and performance of Odyssey IV: a deep ocean hover-capable AUV,” National Sea Grant Library, MIT- T-09-006 (2009).

Hunter, P. D.

P. D. Hunter, A. N. Tyler, M. Presing, A. W. Kovacs, and T. Preston, “Spectral discrimination of phytoplankton color groups: the effect of suspended particulate matter and sensor spectral resolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 1527–1544 (2008).
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R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
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P. Kott, “A new species of Didemnum (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from the Atlantic coast of North America,” Zootaxa 732, 1–10 (2004).

P. Kott, “A complex didemnid ascidian from Whangamata, New Zealand,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 82, 625–628 (2002).
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P. D. Hunter, A. N. Tyler, M. Presing, A. W. Kovacs, and T. Preston, “Spectral discrimination of phytoplankton color groups: the effect of suspended particulate matter and sensor spectral resolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 1527–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, G.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landry, J. A.

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lengyel, N. L.

N. L. Lengyel, J. S. Collie, and P. C. Valentine, “The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank ecological effects and genetic identification,” Aquat. Invas. 4, 143–152 (2009).
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A. A. Bennet and J. J. Leonard, “A behavior-based approach to adaptive feature detection and following with autonomous underwater vehicles,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 25, 213–226 (2000).
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Livo, K. E.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Louchard, E. M.

E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, and F. C. Stephens, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 511–521 (2003).
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Manolakis, D.

D. Manolakis and G. Shaw, “Detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 29–43 (2002).
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C. H. Mazel, “In-situ measurement of reflectance and fluorescence spectra to support hyperspectral remote sensing and marine biology research,” Oceans 2006 Conference, 1–4.

McDougal, R. R.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McNaught, D. C.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. R.

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milliken, R. E.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moline, M. A.

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robot. 24, 461–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morash, J.

J. Eskesen, D. Owens, M. Soroka, J. Morash, F. S. Hover, and C. Chryssostomidis, “Design and performance of Odyssey IV: a deep ocean hover-capable AUV,” National Sea Grant Library, MIT- T-09-006 (2009).

S. Desset, R. Damus, F. Hover, J. Morash, and V. Polidoro, “Closer to deep underwater science with Odyssey IV class hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV),” National Sea Grant Library, MIT-R-05-004 (2005).

Murchie, S. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mustard, J. F.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noonan, K. Y.

Owens, D.

J. Eskesen, D. Owens, M. Soroka, J. Morash, F. S. Hover, and C. Chryssostomidis, “Design and performance of Odyssey IV: a deep ocean hover-capable AUV,” National Sea Grant Library, MIT- T-09-006 (2009).

Patel, R. M.

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pawlik, J. R.

D. P. Pisut and J. R. Pawlik, “Anti-predatory chemical defenses of ascidians: secondary metabolites or inorganic acids?” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 270, 203–214 (2002).
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Pederson, J.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in-situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Philpot, W.

F. Tsai and W. Philpot, “Derivative analysis of hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 41–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pisut, D. P.

D. P. Pisut and J. R. Pawlik, “Anti-predatory chemical defenses of ascidians: secondary metabolites or inorganic acids?” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 270, 203–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
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Polidoro, V.

S. Desset, R. Damus, F. Hover, J. Morash, and V. Polidoro, “Closer to deep underwater science with Odyssey IV class hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV),” National Sea Grant Library, MIT-R-05-004 (2005).

Poulet, F.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasher, S. O.

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Presing, M.

P. D. Hunter, A. N. Tyler, M. Presing, A. W. Kovacs, and T. Preston, “Spectral discrimination of phytoplankton color groups: the effect of suspended particulate matter and sensor spectral resolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 1527–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Preston, T.

P. D. Hunter, A. N. Tyler, M. Presing, A. W. Kovacs, and T. Preston, “Spectral discrimination of phytoplankton color groups: the effect of suspended particulate matter and sensor spectral resolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 1527–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Price, A.

A. Price, J. S. Collie, and D. Smith, “18s ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase gene sequences of Didemnum sp., an invasive colonial tunicate,” GSO Technical Report No. 2006-01, Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program in Oceanography (University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, 2005), Narragansett, RI, pp. 46–53.

Price, J. C.

J. C. Price, “How unique are spectral signatures?” Remote Sens. Environ. 49, 181–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reid, R. N.

P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reid, R. P.

E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, and F. C. Stephens, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roach, L. H.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

P. J. Werdell and C. S. Roesler, “Remote assessment of benthic substrate composition in shallow waters using multispectral reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 557–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in-situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roush, T. L.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, G.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G.

D. Manolakis and G. Shaw, “Detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 29–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

A. Price, J. S. Collie, and D. Smith, “18s ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase gene sequences of Didemnum sp., an invasive colonial tunicate,” GSO Technical Report No. 2006-01, Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program in Oceanography (University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, 2005), Narragansett, RI, pp. 46–53.

Smith, K. L.

K. L. Smith, M. D. Steven, and J. J. Colls, “Use of hyperspectral derivative ratios in the red-edge region to identify plant stress response to gas leaks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 92, 207–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soroka, M.

J. Eskesen, D. Owens, M. Soroka, J. Morash, F. S. Hover, and C. Chryssostomidis, “Design and performance of Odyssey IV: a deep ocean hover-capable AUV,” National Sea Grant Library, MIT- T-09-006 (2009).

Stephens, F. C.

E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, and F. C. Stephens, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steven, M. D.

K. L. Smith, M. D. Steven, and J. J. Colls, “Use of hyperspectral derivative ratios in the red-edge region to identify plant stress response to gas leaks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 92, 207–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutley, S. J.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swayze, G. A.

B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tonge, L. A.

Tsai, F.

F. Tsai and W. Philpot, “Derivative analysis of hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 41–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, A. N.

P. D. Hunter, A. N. Tyler, M. Presing, A. W. Kovacs, and T. Preston, “Spectral discrimination of phytoplankton color groups: the effect of suspended particulate matter and sensor spectral resolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 1527–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, P. C.

N. L. Lengyel, J. S. Collie, and P. C. Valentine, “The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank ecological effects and genetic identification,” Aquat. Invas. 4, 143–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, R. N. Reid, R. G. Asch, V. G. Guida, and D. S. Blackwood, “The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 179–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Valentine, M. R. Carman, D. S. Blackwood, and E. J. Heffron, “Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 109–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Viau, A. A.

P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell and C. S. Roesler, “Remote assessment of benthic substrate composition in shallow waters using multispectral reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 557–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Westerman, E.

J. Dijkstra, L. G. Harris, and E. Westerman, “Distribution and long-term temporal patterns of four invasive colonial ascidians in the Gulf of Maine,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 61–68 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whitlatch, R. B.

S. G. Bullard, G. Lambert, M. R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R. B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R. J. Miller, L. Harris, P. C. Valentine, J. S. Collie, J. Pederson, D. C. McNaught, A. N. Cohen, R. G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen, “The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology, and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 342, 99–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, D. L.

M. A. Moline, D. L. Woodruff, and N. R. Evans, “Optical delineation of benthic habitat using an autonomous underwater vehicle,” J. Field Robot. 24, 461–471 (2007).
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Wray, J. J.

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A. A. Da Silva, D. De Keukeleire, D. R. Cardoso, and D. W. Franco, “Multivariate analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectral data from cachaca wood extracts: a model to classify aged Brazilian cachacas according to the wood species used,” Anal. Methods 4, 642–646 (2012).
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N. L. Lengyel, J. S. Collie, and P. C. Valentine, “The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank ecological effects and genetic identification,” Aquat. Invas. 4, 143–152 (2009).
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P. K. Goel, S. O. Prasher, J. A. Landry, R. M. Patel, R. B. Bonnell, A. A. Viau, and J. R. Miller, “Potential of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing to detect nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation in corn,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 38, 99–124 (2003).
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B. L. Ehlmann, J. F. Mustard, S. L. Murchie, F. Poulet, J. L. Bishop, A. J. Brown, W. M. Calvin, R. N. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, R. E. Milliken, L. H. Roach, T. L. Roush, G. A. Swayze, and J. J. Wray, “Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars,” Science 322, 1828–1832 (2008).
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P. Kott, “A new species of Didemnum (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from the Atlantic coast of North America,” Zootaxa 732, 1–10 (2004).

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A. Price, J. S. Collie, and D. Smith, “18s ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase gene sequences of Didemnum sp., an invasive colonial tunicate,” GSO Technical Report No. 2006-01, Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program in Oceanography (University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, 2005), Narragansett, RI, pp. 46–53.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Image of D. vexillum taken by the ROV. The red circle marks the field of view of the radiometer. Axis labels denote pixel number.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(A) Mean in-situ reflectance spectra for D. vexillum using the DiveSpec ( n = 10 ) and (B) the HyperOCR ( n = 7 ). All spectra are referenced to a 95% reflectance standard. Dashed lines show 95% confidence interval.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of D. vexillum spectra with other common substrates measured using (A) the HyperOCR and (B) the DiveSpec. Spectra are not area normalized and have been left as fractional reflectance ( L ( λ ) / L * ( λ ) ) to allow for easier visual comparison.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

First derivative spectra of D. vexillum (gray) and all other substrates measured (black). The box encloses the unique wavelengths (510–520 nm) that were used in the detection algorithm. Inside the box there is large separation between D. vexillum spectra and all other spectra collected.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Score plot from a PCA of first derivative spectra from 490 to 557 nm. The first two principal components are plotted, accounting for 95% of the variation within the data. All substrates are easily distinguishable. The two distant D. vexillum groups were spectra collected under low illumination.

Equations (2)

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R ˜ ( λ ) = ( L ( λ ) 425 nm 700 nm L ( λ ) d λ ) / ( L * ( λ ) 425 nm 700 nm L * ( λ ) d λ ) ,
S = ( 510 nm 520 nm R ˜ ( λ ) 11 ) * 1000 ,

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