The native fluorescence spectra of human cancerous and normal breast tissues were investigated using the selected excitation wavelength of 340 nm to excite key building block molecules, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), collagen, and flavin. The measured emission spectra were analyzed using a non-negative constraint method, namely multivariate curve resolution with alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS). The results indicate that the biochemical changes of tissue can be exposed by native fluorescence spectra analysis. The MCR-ALS-extracted components corresponding to the key fluorophores in breast tissue, such as collagen, NADH, and flavin, show differences of relative contents of fluorophores in cancerous and normal breast tissues. This research demonstrates that the native fluorescence spectroscopy measurements are effective for detecting changes of fluorophores composition in tissues due to the development of cancer. Native fluorescence spectroscopy analyzed by MCR-ALS may have the potential to be a new armamentarium.
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