Abstract

A new flag/masking scheme has been developed for identifying stray light and cloud shadow pixels that significantly impact the quality of satellite-derived ocean color products. Various case studies have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new cloud contamination flag/masking scheme on ocean color products derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). These include direct visual assessments, detailed quantitative case studies, objective statistic analyses, and global image examinations and comparisons. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Multisensor Level-1 to Level-2 (NOAA–MSL12) ocean color data processing system has been used in the study. The new stray light and cloud shadow identification method has been shown to outperform the current stray light flag in both valid data coverage and data quality of satellite-derived ocean color products. In addition, some cloud-related flags from the official VIIRS–SNPP data processing software, i.e., the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), have been assessed. Although the data quality with the IDPS flags is comparable to that of the new flag implemented in the NOAA–MSL12 ocean color data processing system, the valid data coverage from the IDPS is significantly less than that from the NOAA–MSL12 using the new stray light and cloud shadow flag method. Thus, the IDPS flag/masking algorithms need to be refined and modified to reduce the pixel loss, e.g., the proposed new cloud contamination flag/masking can be implemented in IDPS VIIRS ocean color data processing.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 1. Satellite algorithm development,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 32–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 2. Study of sea ice seasonal and interannual variability,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 41–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 3280–3292 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Ramachandran and M. Wang, “Near-real-time ocean color data processing using ancillary data from the Global Forecast System model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1485–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Detection of ice and mixed ice-water pixels for MODIS ocean color data processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2510–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651–5663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44, 241–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693–2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (4)

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

P. J. Shaw and D. J. Rawlins, “The point-spread function of a confocal microscope: its measurement and use in deconvolution of 3-D data,” J. Microsc. 163, 151–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, S. A.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ardanuy, P. E.

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. P.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, and W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” , Vol. 31 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland1995).

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Clement, J. E.

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeLuccia, F.

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eplee, R. E.

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, and W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” , Vol. 31 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland1995).

Evans, R. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

Frey, R. A.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, G.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44, 241–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gumley, L. E.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, and W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” , Vol. 31 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland1995).

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, W. A.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Letelier, R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

G. Meister and C. R. McClain, “Point-spread function of the ocean color bands of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6276–6285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meister, G.

Menzel, W. P.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Minnet, P. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, C. C.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

Mueller, J. L.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran and M. Wang, “Near-real-time ocean color data processing using ancillary data from the Global Forecast System model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1485–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rawlins, D. J.

P. J. Shaw and D. J. Rawlins, “The point-spread function of a confocal microscope: its measurement and use in deconvolution of 3-D data,” J. Microsc. 163, 151–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W. D.

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sayed, S. T. E.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schueler, C. F.

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P. J.

P. J. Shaw and D. J. Rawlins, “The point-spread function of a confocal microscope: its measurement and use in deconvolution of 3-D data,” J. Microsc. 163, 151–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 3280–3292 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 1. Satellite algorithm development,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 32–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 2. Study of sea ice seasonal and interannual variability,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 41–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Detection of ice and mixed ice-water pixels for MODIS ocean color data processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2510–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “The NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach for MODIS ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 15, 15722–15733 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Detection of turbid waters and absorbing aerosols for the MODIS ocean color data processing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 149–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196–3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Son, S.

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Strabala, K. I.

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strum, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, H.

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 2. Study of sea ice seasonal and interannual variability,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 41–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 3280–3292 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 1. Satellite algorithm development,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 32–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran and M. Wang, “Near-real-time ocean color data processing using ancillary data from the Global Forecast System model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1485–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Detection of ice and mixed ice-water pixels for MODIS ocean color data processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2510–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1535–1547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Detection of turbid waters and absorbing aerosols for the MODIS ocean color data processing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 149–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “The NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach for MODIS ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 15, 15722–15733 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196–3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8951–8963 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4122–4128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651–5663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693–2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Welsch, C.

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (1)

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1535–1547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8951–8963 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister and C. R. McClain, “Point-spread function of the ocean color bands of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6276–6285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and G. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44, 241–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4122–4128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part II (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (6)

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145–153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196–3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 3280–3292 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran and M. Wang, “Near-real-time ocean color data processing using ancillary data from the Global Forecast System model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1485–1495 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Detection of ice and mixed ice-water pixels for MODIS ocean color data processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2510–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693–2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651–5663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ackerman, K. I. Strabala, W. P. Menzel, R. A. Frey, C. C. Moeller, and L. E. Gumley, “Discriminating clear sky from clouds with MODIS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32141–32157 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Syst. (2)

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 1. Satellite algorithm development,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 32–40 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Sea ice properties in the Bohai sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 2. Study of sea ice seasonal and interannual variability,” J. Mar. Syst. 95, 41–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

P. J. Shaw and D. J. Rawlins, “The point-spread function of a confocal microscope: its measurement and use in deconvolution of 3-D data,” J. Microsc. 163, 151–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. F. Schueler, J. E. Clement, P. E. Ardanuy, C. Welsch, F. DeLuccia, and H. Swenson, “NPOESS VIIRS sensor design overview,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 11–23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (4)

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Detection of turbid waters and absorbing aerosols for the MODIS ocean color data processing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 149–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. T. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

IOCCG, “Why ocean colour?,” in Reports of International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, , T. Platt, N. Hoepffner, V. Stuart, and C. Brown, eds. (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada, 2008).

IOCCG, “Mission requirements for future ocean-colour sensors,” in Reports of International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, , C. R. McClain and G. Meister, eds. (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada, 2012).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, and W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” , Vol. 31 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland1995).

B. A. Franz and G. Meister, “MODIS/Aqua Straylight Flagging and Masking,” OceanColor WEB, 2005, http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/REPROCESSING/Aqua/R1/modisa_repro1_stlight.html .

, Joint Polar Satellite System VIIRS Cloud Mask Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (NASA/GSFC, 2012).

, Joint Polar Satellite System VIIRS Radiometric Calibration Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (NASA/GSFC, 2012).

IOCCG, “Atmospheric correction for remotely-sensed ocean-colour products,” in Reports of International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, , M. Wang, ed. (IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada, 2010).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Rayleigh-corrected TOA radiance at the wavelength of 410 nm in the North Atlantic centered at (21.6°N, 31.8°W) from VIIRS acquired at 1510 UTC on October 31, 2012.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

In the same location as Fig. 1, VIIRS nLw(410) from the NOAA–MSL12 with (a) no flag applied, (b) the old flag applied and masked in pink, (c) IDPS flags applied, and (d) the new flag applied and masked in pink. Panel (a) indicates four section lines for further quantitative evaluations. In panel (c), IDPS flags with cloud shadow, adjacent pixel not confidently clear, bright target, and unflagged pixels are indicated in black, pink, yellow, and green, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

VIIRS nLw(410) and nLw(551) at four line sections indicated in Fig. 2(a) for (a) and (b) scans along the pixel 1500, (c) and (d) scans along the pixel 1365, (e) and (f) pixels along the scan 465, and (g) and (h) pixels along the scan 370.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

VIIRS nLw(410) from the NOAA–MSL12 near the MOBY site on October 26, 2012 with (a) the old flag applied and masked in pink and (b) the new flag applied and masked in pink. In panel (a), the MOBY site (20.8°N, 157.2°W) is shown in a black square with a line A passing through it.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Line plots for nLw(410) and nLw(551) at the scan line passing through the MOBY site (20.8°N, 157.2°W) shown in Fig. 4(a) on (a) and (b) October 25, 2012, (c) and (d) October 26, 2012, and (e) and (f) October 27, 2012.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

VIIRS nLw(410) global composite images for (a) and (b) daily (March 9, 2013) and 8-day (March 6–13, 2013) images with no flags applied, (c) and (d) daily (March 9, 2013) and 8-day (March 6–13, 2013) images with the old stray light flag applied, and (e) and (f) daily (March 9, 2013) and 8-day (March 6–13, 2013) images with the new flag applied.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

VIIRS chlorophyll-a global 8-day composite images from March 6–13, 2013 for (a) from the NOAA–MSL12 with neither new and old flags applied, (b) from the NOAA–MSL12 with the old flag applied, (c) from the IDPS (ADL) with cloud shadow, adjacent pixel not confidently clear, and bright target flags applied, and (d) from the NOAA–MSL12 with the new flag applied.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Mean Ratios between VIIRS-Derived and MOBY-Measured in situ nLw(λ) Data and Error STD Statistics for Valid Pixels after Application of Various Flags with the NOAA–MSL12 and IDPS Ocean Color Data Processing

Tables Icon

Table 2. Mean Ratios between VIIRS-Derived and MOBY-Measured in situ nLw(λ) Data and Error STD Statistics for Flagged Pixels with Various NOAA–MSL12 and IDPS Flag Options

Equations (4)

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nLw(551)<0.75nLw(Mean)(551)ornLw(551)>1.25nLw(Mean)(551),
nLw(551)<0.75nLw(Clim)(551)ornLw(551)>1.25nLw(Clim)(551).
0.75nLw(Mean)(551)nLw(551)1.25nLw(Mean)(551),
0.75nLw(Clim)(551)nLw(551)1.25nLw(Clim)(551).

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