Abstract

This paper presents an optical system called MacPI, which implements a two-color reflectance technique in combination with various hardware and software tools to assess objectively the macular pigment (MP) optical density in vivo. The system consists of a bespoke optical design, a control architecture, driver electronics, a collection of image-processing techniques, and a graphical user interface. The deficiencies of the technique employed and the solutions implemented in the MacPI system to confront those inherent frailties are presented. An overview of the effective interpretation of the acquired data and the techniques employed by MacPI in the acquisition of that data is discussed. The result of a comparison trial with an alternative device is also presented. We suggest that appropriate design of the hardware and an efficient interpretation of the acquired data should produce a system capable of consistent, accurate, and rapid measurements, while retaining the distinction of ease of use, portability, comfort for the subject, and a design that is economic to produce. Its versatility should allow both for a clinical screening application and for further investigation and establishment of the physiological role of the MP in a laboratory-based environment.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Buzzi, “Nuove sperienze fatte sulli occhio umano,” Opuscoli Scetti Sulle Scienze e Sulle Arti5, (1782).
  2. J. C. Maxwell, “On the unequal sensibility of the Foramen Centrale to light of different colours,” Report of the British Association, 1856.
  3. M. Schultze, “Uber den gelben Fleck der Retina, seinen Einflussauf normales Sehen und auf FarbenBlindheit,” (On the yellow spot of the retina: its influence on normal vision and on colour blindness), (Von Cohen, 1866), pp. 1–5.
  4. S. Soemmering, “De foramina centrali limbo luteo cincto retinae humanae,” Comment Soc Reg Sci Goetting13 (1799).
  5. E. Home, “An account of the orifice in the retina of the human eye, discovered by Professor Soemmering: to which are added proofs of this appearance being extended to the eyes of other animals,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London2 (1798).
  6. G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Taris, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
  8. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).
  9. F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).
  10. O. Sommerburg, J. E. Keunen, A. C. Bird, and F. J. Kuijk, “Fruit and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907–910 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. T. Landrum and R. A. Bone, “Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 28–40 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Macular pigment in Henle fiber membranes: a model for Haidinger’s brushes,” Vis. Res. 24, 103–108 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).
  14. W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Antioxidant activity of carotenoids,” Mol. Aspects Med. 24, 345–351 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Khachik, P. S. Bernstein, and D. L. Garland, “Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1802–1811 (1997).
  16. J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, and M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” in Vol. 38 of Advances in Pharmacology, H. Sies, ed. (Academic, 1996), pp. 537–556.
  17. J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitive Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).
  24. P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, and E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flcker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and P. S. Bernstein, “Raman imaging of human macular pigments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 833–835 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172–1180 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).
  32. J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. Lou, “Selective peripheral fading: evidence for inhibitory sensory effect of attention,” Perception 28, 519–526 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment and the edge hypothesis of flicker photometry,” Vis. Res 44, 3045–3051 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. S. Inthanayothin, J. F. Boyce, H. L. Cook, and T. H. Williamson, “Automated localization of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital color fundus images,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 902–910 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. P. Lewis, “Fast template matching,” in Vision Interface 95 (Canadian Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Society, 1995), pp. 120–123.
  37. D. Fraser, A. J. Lambert, and M. R. S. Jahromi, “Position-varying tip-tilt estimation and region-of-interest PSF derivation by Wiener filter,” Proc. SPIE 5562, 50–57 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  38. D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  39. D. Tomaẑeviĉ, B. Likar, and F. Pernuŝ, “Comparative evaluation of retrospective shading correction methods,” J. Microsc. 208, 212–223 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  40. C. Leahy, A. O’Brien, and C. Dainty, “Illumination correction of retinal images using Laplace interpolation,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8383–8389 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  41. H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  42. B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  44. M. Bland, An Introduction to Medical Statistics (Oxford University, 2000).
  45. H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  46. D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  47. R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Leahy, A. O’Brien, and C. Dainty, “Illumination correction of retinal images using Laplace interpolation,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8383–8389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Fraser, A. J. Lambert, and M. R. S. Jahromi, “Position-varying tip-tilt estimation and region-of-interest PSF derivation by Wiener filter,” Proc. SPIE 5562, 50–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment and the edge hypothesis of flicker photometry,” Vis. Res 44, 3045–3051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Antioxidant activity of carotenoids,” Mol. Aspects Med. 24, 345–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Tomaẑeviĉ, B. Likar, and F. Pernuŝ, “Comparative evaluation of retrospective shading correction methods,” J. Microsc. 208, 212–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and P. S. Bernstein, “Raman imaging of human macular pigments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 833–835 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172–1180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1999 (4)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

L. Lou, “Selective peripheral fading: evidence for inhibitory sensory effect of attention,” Perception 28, 519–526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Inthanayothin, J. F. Boyce, H. L. Cook, and T. H. Williamson, “Automated localization of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital color fundus images,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

O. Sommerburg, J. E. Keunen, A. C. Bird, and F. J. Kuijk, “Fruit and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907–910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. Khachik, P. S. Bernstein, and D. L. Garland, “Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1802–1811 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Taris, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

1987 (1)

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, and E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Macular pigment in Henle fiber membranes: a model for Haidinger’s brushes,” Vis. Res. 24, 103–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).

1963 (1)

K. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. J.

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, and E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, C. P.

F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).

Ahmadi-Lari, S.

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ajani, U. A.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akkali, M.

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, H.

H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, S.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. J. M.

T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, P. S.

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172–1180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, R. W. McClane, and P. S. Bernstein, “Raman imaging of human macular pigments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 833–835 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Khachik, P. S. Bernstein, and D. L. Garland, “Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1802–1811 (1997).

Bird, A. C.

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Sommerburg, J. E. Keunen, A. C. Bird, and F. J. Kuijk, “Fruit and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907–910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blair, N.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bland, M.

M. Bland, An Introduction to Medical Statistics (Oxford University, 2000).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment and the edge hypothesis of flicker photometry,” Vis. Res 44, 3045–3051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Landrum and R. A. Bone, “Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 28–40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Taris, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Macular pigment in Henle fiber membranes: a model for Haidinger’s brushes,” Vis. Res. 24, 103–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, and M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” in Vol. 38 of Advances in Pharmacology, H. Sies, ed. (Academic, 1996), pp. 537–556.

Bouzoukis, D.

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyce, J. F.

C. S. Inthanayothin, J. F. Boyce, H. L. Cook, and T. H. Williamson, “Automated localization of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital color fundus images,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

Burton, T. C.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buzzi, F.

F. Buzzi, “Nuove sperienze fatte sulli occhio umano,” Opuscoli Scetti Sulle Scienze e Sulle Arti5, (1782).

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, T.

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carden, D.

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A. M.

W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).

Cook, H. L.

C. S. Inthanayothin, J. F. Boyce, H. L. Cook, and T. H. Williamson, “Automated localization of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital color fundus images,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coppens, J. E.

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Davison, P.

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dawczynski, J.

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Brouwere, D.

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Moura, F. F.

F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).

Delori, F. C.

Ermakov, I. V.

Esperjesi, F.

H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farber, M. D.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Taris, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Ficek, T.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franssen, L.

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, D.

D. Fraser, A. J. Lambert, and M. R. S. Jahromi, “Position-varying tip-tilt estimation and region-of-interest PSF derivation by Wiener filter,” Proc. SPIE 5562, 50–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garland, D. L.

F. Khachik, P. S. Bernstein, and D. L. Garland, “Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1802–1811 (1997).

Gellermann, W.

Gibert, J. C.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment and the edge hypothesis of flicker photometry,” Vis. Res 44, 3045–3051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ginis, H.

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goger, D. G.

Gragoudas, E. S.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, M.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haller, J.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).

Hammer, M.

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, B. R.

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flcker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hendrikse, F.

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, R.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hime, G. W.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).

Home, E.

E. Home, “An account of the orifice in the retina of the human eye, discovered by Professor Soemmering: to which are added proofs of this appearance being extended to the eyes of other animals,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London2 (1798).

Howells, O.

H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inthanayothin, C. S.

C. S. Inthanayothin, J. F. Boyce, H. L. Cook, and T. H. Williamson, “Automated localization of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital color fundus images,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jahromi, M. R. S.

D. Fraser, A. J. Lambert, and M. R. S. Jahromi, “Position-varying tip-tilt estimation and region-of-interest PSF derivation by Wiener filter,” Proc. SPIE 5562, 50–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jentsch, S.

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keunen, J. E.

O. Sommerburg, J. E. Keunen, A. C. Bird, and F. J. Kuijk, “Fruit and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907–910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khachik, F.

F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).

F. Khachik, P. S. Bernstein, and D. L. Garland, “Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1802–1811 (1997).

Kilburn, M. D.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, and M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” in Vol. 38 of Advances in Pharmacology, H. Sies, ed. (Academic, 1996), pp. 537–556.

Kuijk, F. J.

O. Sommerburg, J. E. Keunen, A. C. Bird, and F. J. Kuijk, “Fruit and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907–910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, A. J.

D. Fraser, A. J. Lambert, and M. R. S. Jahromi, “Position-varying tip-tilt estimation and region-of-interest PSF derivation by Wiener filter,” Proc. SPIE 5562, 50–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Land, R. I.

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment and the edge hypothesis of flicker photometry,” Vis. Res 44, 3045–3051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Landrum and R. A. Bone, “Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 28–40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Taris, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Macular pigment in Henle fiber membranes: a model for Haidinger’s brushes,” Vis. Res. 24, 103–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, and M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” in Vol. 38 of Advances in Pharmacology, H. Sies, ed. (Academic, 1996), pp. 537–556.

Leahy, C.

Lewis, J. P.

J. P. Lewis, “Fast template matching,” in Vision Interface 95 (Canadian Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Society, 1995), pp. 120–123.

Likar, B.

D. Tomaẑeviĉ, B. Likar, and F. Pernuŝ, “Comparative evaluation of retrospective shading correction methods,” J. Microsc. 208, 212–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lou, L.

L. Lou, “Selective peripheral fading: evidence for inhibitory sensory effect of attention,” Perception 28, 519–526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loughman, J.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Major, P.

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makridaki, M.

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mares, J. A.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell, “On the unequal sensibility of the Foramen Centrale to light of different colours,” Report of the British Association, 1856.

McClane, R. W.

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moon, M. E.

W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).

Murray, I. J.

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naoumidi, I.

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, J.

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, J. M.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, E.

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, and E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, A.

O’Dwyer, V.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oxton, L.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pallikaris, I.

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pauleikhoff, D.

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pease, P. L.

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, and E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pentari, I.

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pernus, F.

D. Tomaẑeviĉ, B. Likar, and F. Pernuŝ, “Comparative evaluation of retrospective shading correction methods,” J. Microsc. 208, 212–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruddock, K.

K. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ruffolo, J. J.

W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).

Scanlon, G.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, “Uber den gelben Fleck der Retina, seinen Einflussauf normales Sehen und auf FarbenBlindheit,” (On the yellow spot of the retina: its influence on normal vision and on colour blindness), (Von Cohen, 1866), pp. 1–5.

Schweitzer, D.

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, J. M.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sies, H.

W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Antioxidant activity of carotenoids,” Mol. Aspects Med. 24, 345–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Snodderly, D. M.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flcker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soemmering, S.

S. Soemmering, “De foramina centrali limbo luteo cincto retinae humanae,” Comment Soc Reg Sci Goetting13 (1799).

Sommerburg, O.

O. Sommerburg, J. E. Keunen, A. C. Bird, and F. J. Kuijk, “Fruit and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907–910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sperduto, R. D.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stack, J.

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, W.

W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Antioxidant activity of carotenoids,” Mol. Aspects Med. 24, 345–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stainer, L.

H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitive Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Stringham, J. M.

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taris, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Taris, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Toma?evic, D.

D. Tomaẑeviĉ, B. Likar, and F. Pernuŝ, “Comparative evaluation of retrospective shading correction methods,” J. Microsc. 208, 212–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, R. L. P.

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Kuijk, F. J. G. M.

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Norren, D.

T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wald, G.

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Willett, W.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, T. H.

C. S. Inthanayothin, J. F. Boyce, H. L. Cook, and T. H. Williamson, “Automated localization of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital color fundus images,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, S.

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolf-Schnurrbusch, U. E. K.

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, B. R.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitive Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Yannuzzi, L. A.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zamor, J.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).

Zhao, D. Y.

F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).

Acta Ophthalm. (1)

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalm. 90, e90–e97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2)

J. T. Landrum and R. A. Bone, “Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 28–40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

C. S. Inthanayothin, J. F. Boyce, H. L. Cook, and T. H. Williamson, “Automated localization of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital color fundus images,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Sommerburg, J. E. Keunen, A. C. Bird, and F. J. Kuijk, “Fruit and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907–910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartlett, L. Stainer, S. Singh, F. Esperjesi, and O. Howells, “Clinical evaluation of the MPS 9000 Macular Pigment Screener,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 753–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

J. Mellerio, S. Ahmadi-Lari, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, and J. Marshall, “A portable instrument for measuring macular pigment with central fixation,” Curr. Eye Res. 25, 37–47 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (7)

F. Khachik, P. S. Bernstein, and D. L. Garland, “Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1802–1811 (1997).

W. T. Ham, J. J. Ruffolo, H. A. Mueller, A. M. Clarke, and M. E. Moon, “Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wavelength light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1029–1035 (1978).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Taris, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, G. W. Hime, A. Cains, and J. Zamor, “Stereochemistry of the Human Macular Carotenoids,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 2033–2040 (1993).

F. Khachik, F. F. de Moura, D. Y. Zhao, C. P. Aebischer, and P. S. Bernstein, “Transformations of selected carotenoids in plasma, liver, and ocular tissues of humans and in nonprimate animal models,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3383–3392 (2002).

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413–1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, J. Dawczynski, M. Hammer, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, and S. Wolf, “Simple and objective method for routine detection of the macular pigment xanthophyll,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. Tomaẑeviĉ, B. Likar, and F. Pernuŝ, “Comparative evaluation of retrospective shading correction methods,” J. Microsc. 208, 212–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mol. Aspects Med. (1)

W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Antioxidant activity of carotenoids,” Mol. Aspects Med. 24, 345–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. (2)

H. Ginis, I. Pentari, D. De Brouwere, D. Bouzoukis, I. Naoumidi, and I. Pallikaris, “Narrow angle light scatter in rabbit corneas after excimer laser surface ablation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. P. van der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perception (1)

L. Lou, “Selective peripheral fading: evidence for inhibitory sensory effect of attention,” Perception 28, 519–526 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Fraser, A. J. Lambert, and M. R. S. Jahromi, “Position-varying tip-tilt estimation and region-of-interest PSF derivation by Wiener filter,” Proc. SPIE 5562, 50–57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 653–658 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment and the edge hypothesis of flicker photometry,” Vis. Res 44, 3045–3051 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (5)

K. Ruddock, “Evidence for macular pigmentation from colour matching data,” Vis. Res. 3, 417–429 (1963).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, and E. Nuccio, “Optical density of human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 27, 705–710 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Loughman, M. Akkali, S. Beatty, G. Scanlon, P. Davison, V. O’Dwyer, T. Cantwell, P. Major, J. Stack, and J. Nolan, “The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance,” Vis. Res. 50, 1249–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Macular pigment in Henle fiber membranes: a model for Haidinger’s brushes,” Vis. Res. 24, 103–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, and M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” in Vol. 38 of Advances in Pharmacology, H. Sies, ed. (Academic, 1996), pp. 537–556.

F. Buzzi, “Nuove sperienze fatte sulli occhio umano,” Opuscoli Scetti Sulle Scienze e Sulle Arti5, (1782).

J. C. Maxwell, “On the unequal sensibility of the Foramen Centrale to light of different colours,” Report of the British Association, 1856.

M. Schultze, “Uber den gelben Fleck der Retina, seinen Einflussauf normales Sehen und auf FarbenBlindheit,” (On the yellow spot of the retina: its influence on normal vision and on colour blindness), (Von Cohen, 1866), pp. 1–5.

S. Soemmering, “De foramina centrali limbo luteo cincto retinae humanae,” Comment Soc Reg Sci Goetting13 (1799).

E. Home, “An account of the orifice in the retina of the human eye, discovered by Professor Soemmering: to which are added proofs of this appearance being extended to the eyes of other animals,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London2 (1798).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitive Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

J. P. Lewis, “Fast template matching,” in Vision Interface 95 (Canadian Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Society, 1995), pp. 120–123.

M. Bland, An Introduction to Medical Statistics (Oxford University, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized absorption spectrum of the MP as measured by Ruddock [22], Wyszecki and Stiles [23], Pease et al. [24], Bone et al. [25], and Brown (taken from data in [26]).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the optical layout for the measurement of MPOD. The device is mounted on an adjustable XYZ mount.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Illustration demonstrating the utilization of the illumination light corneal reflex to avoid contamination of the retinal image.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of patient view looking into the MacPI system. Real images (green and blue) obtained from the MacPI system displaying macular regions and scattering struts.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Typical image acquired under blue illumination. (b) Same image with overlay of grid section designations. Valid sections for the parafoveal calculation are determined by virtue of their relative structure content. Note that the macular and strut regions are excluded from this process, as they inherently contain structure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Illustration of the scatter mask utilized in the MacPI system and (b) example of contaminating of scatter data by flare light.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Illustration of the implementation of the visual estimate. This figure illustrates (a) a false hole, (b) a false peak, and (c) a noisy profile. Each graphic is a screen grab from the MacPI software. The dashed line in the upper line profile plots represents the visual estimate of the MPOD.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Repeated measurements using MacPI and the M|POD (ZeaVision) devices.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Intercorrelation of Densitometer results.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Coefficient of Repeatability for Three Devicesa

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Dmp(x,y)=0.5κmp,Gκmp,B[log10(RP,GSGRF,G(x,y)UG(x,y)SG)log10(RP,BSBRF,B(x,y)UB(x,y)SB)].
G(x,y)=dc2(112ex2+y22σ2)
RIG(u,v)=k,l[I(k,l)IG][G(uk,vl)G]k,l[I(k,l)IG]2k,l[G(uk,vl)G]2,
I(x,y)=U(x,y)It(x,y).
I¯=1πR2(x2+y2)RI(x,y)dxdy,
Seq=k=1MwkI¯kk=1Nwk,
μw=ΩDmp(x,y)W(x,y)dxdyΩW(x,y)dxdy,

Metrics