Abstract

Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Yan and K. W. Bowyer, “Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 1297–1308 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Woodard and P. J. Flynn, “Finger surfaces as a biometric identifier,” Comput. Vis. Image Und. 100, 357–384 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).
  13. D. Zhang, V. Kanhangad, N. Luo, and A. Kumar, “Robust palmprint verification using 2D and 3D features,” Pattern Recogn. 43, 158–168 (2010).
  14. J. Pan, P. Huang, and F. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 023606 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. H. Zhang, “Review of single-shot 3D shape measurement by phase calculation-based fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1097–1106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Zhang, “Recent progresses on real-time 3D shape measurement using digital fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 149–158 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Snapshot color fringe projection for absolute 3D metrology of video sequences,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5947–5953 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Time efficient color fringe projection system for 3D shape and color using optimum 3-frequency interferometry,” Opt. Express 14, 6444–6455 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Phase and color calculation in colour fringe projection,” J. Opt. A 9, S81–S86 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Compensating lateral chromatic aberration of a colour fringe projection system for shape metrology,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 159–165 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. H. Zhang, D. P. Zhang, X. Peng, and X. T. Hu, “Performance analysis of a 3-D full-field sensor based on fringe projection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 341–353 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. H. Zhang, H. Y. Ma, T. Guo, S. X. Zhang, and J. P. Chen, “Simple, flexible calibration of phase calculation-based three-dimensional imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1257–1259 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. K. Yin, X. Peng, A. Li, X. Liu, and B. Z. Gao, “Calibration of fringe projection profilometry with bundle adjustment strategy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 542–544 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Robust colour and shape measurement of full colour artefacts by RGB fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 51, 021109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

Z. H. Zhang, “Review of single-shot 3D shape measurement by phase calculation-based fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1097–1106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Robust colour and shape measurement of full colour artefacts by RGB fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 51, 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Yin, X. Peng, A. Li, X. Liu, and B. Z. Gao, “Calibration of fringe projection profilometry with bundle adjustment strategy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Snapshot color fringe projection for absolute 3D metrology of video sequences,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5947–5953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Compensating lateral chromatic aberration of a colour fringe projection system for shape metrology,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 159–165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, “Recent progresses on real-time 3D shape measurement using digital fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, K. M. Qian, B. Pan, and A. K. Asundi, “Comparison of Fourier transform, windowed Fourier transform, and wavelet transform methods for phase extraction from a single fringe pattern in fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, V. Kanhangad, N. Luo, and A. Kumar, “Robust palmprint verification using 2D and 3D features,” Pattern Recogn. 43, 158–168 (2010).

2009 (3)

A. Kong, D. Zhang, and M. Kamel, “A survey of palmprint recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 42, 1408–1418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Duta, “A survey of biometric technology based on hand shape,” Pattern Recogn. 42, 2797–2806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).

2008 (1)

V. K. Aggithaya, D. Zhang, and N. Luo, “A multimodal biometric authentication system based on 2D and 3D palmprint features,” Proc. SPIE 6944, 69440C (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. K. Jain, “Biometric recognition,” Nature 449, 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Yan and K. W. Bowyer, “Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 1297–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Phase and color calculation in colour fringe projection,” J. Opt. A 9, S81–S86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

D. L. Woodard and P. J. Flynn, “Finger surfaces as a biometric identifier,” Comput. Vis. Image Und. 100, 357–384 (2005).

J. Pan, P. Huang, and F. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 023606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Z. H. Zhang, D. P. Zhang, X. Peng, and X. T. Hu, “Performance analysis of a 3-D full-field sensor based on fringe projection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 341–353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Sanchez-Reillo, C. Sanchez-Avila, and A. Gonzalez-Marcos, “Biometric identification through hand geometry measurements,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1168–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aggithaya, V. K.

V. K. Aggithaya, D. Zhang, and N. Luo, “A multimodal biometric authentication system based on 2D and 3D palmprint features,” Proc. SPIE 6944, 69440C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A. K.

L. Huang, K. M. Qian, B. Pan, and A. K. Asundi, “Comparison of Fourier transform, windowed Fourier transform, and wavelet transform methods for phase extraction from a single fringe pattern in fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, K. W.

P. Yan and K. W. Bowyer, “Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 1297–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. P.

Chiang, F.

J. Pan, P. Huang, and F. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 023606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duta, N.

N. Duta, “A survey of biometric technology based on hand shape,” Pattern Recogn. 42, 2797–2806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, P. J.

D. L. Woodard and P. J. Flynn, “Finger surfaces as a biometric identifier,” Comput. Vis. Image Und. 100, 357–384 (2005).

Gao, B. Z.

Gonzalez-Marcos, A.

R. Sanchez-Reillo, C. Sanchez-Avila, and A. Gonzalez-Marcos, “Biometric identification through hand geometry measurements,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1168–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

Hu, X. T.

Z. H. Zhang, D. P. Zhang, X. Peng, and X. T. Hu, “Performance analysis of a 3-D full-field sensor based on fringe projection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 341–353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, K. M. Qian, B. Pan, and A. K. Asundi, “Comparison of Fourier transform, windowed Fourier transform, and wavelet transform methods for phase extraction from a single fringe pattern in fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

J. Pan, P. Huang, and F. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 023606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A. K.

A. K. Jain, “Biometric recognition,” Nature 449, 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kakadiaris, I. A.

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamel, M.

A. Kong, D. Zhang, and M. Kamel, “A survey of palmprint recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 42, 1408–1418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanhangad, V.

D. Zhang, V. Kanhangad, N. Luo, and A. Kumar, “Robust palmprint verification using 2D and 3D features,” Pattern Recogn. 43, 158–168 (2010).

Karam-Patziakis, N.

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, A.

A. Kong, D. Zhang, and M. Kamel, “A survey of palmprint recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 42, 1408–1418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

D. Zhang, V. Kanhangad, N. Luo, and A. Kumar, “Robust palmprint verification using 2D and 3D features,” Pattern Recogn. 43, 158–168 (2010).

Li, A.

Li, W.

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition using structured light imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

W. Li, D. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on System, Man and Cybernetics (2009), pp. 4847–4852.

Liu, X.

Lu, G.

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition using structured light imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

Lu, Y. L.

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, N.

D. Zhang, V. Kanhangad, N. Luo, and A. Kumar, “Robust palmprint verification using 2D and 3D features,” Pattern Recogn. 43, 158–168 (2010).

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).

V. K. Aggithaya, D. Zhang, and N. Luo, “A multimodal biometric authentication system based on 2D and 3D palmprint features,” Proc. SPIE 6944, 69440C (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition using structured light imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

Ma, H. Y.

Murtuza, M. N.

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, B.

L. Huang, K. M. Qian, B. Pan, and A. K. Asundi, “Comparison of Fourier transform, windowed Fourier transform, and wavelet transform methods for phase extraction from a single fringe pattern in fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.

J. Pan, P. Huang, and F. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 023606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Passalis, G.

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

Y. K. Yin, X. Peng, A. Li, X. Liu, and B. Z. Gao, “Calibration of fringe projection profilometry with bundle adjustment strategy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, D. P. Zhang, X. Peng, and X. T. Hu, “Performance analysis of a 3-D full-field sensor based on fringe projection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 341–353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qian, K. M.

L. Huang, K. M. Qian, B. Pan, and A. K. Asundi, “Comparison of Fourier transform, windowed Fourier transform, and wavelet transform methods for phase extraction from a single fringe pattern in fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Avila, C.

R. Sanchez-Reillo, C. Sanchez-Avila, and A. Gonzalez-Marcos, “Biometric identification through hand geometry measurements,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1168–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Reillo, R.

R. Sanchez-Reillo, C. Sanchez-Avila, and A. Gonzalez-Marcos, “Biometric identification through hand geometry measurements,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1168–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Theoharis, T.

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toderici, G.

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Towers, C. E.

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Robust colour and shape measurement of full colour artefacts by RGB fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 51, 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Snapshot color fringe projection for absolute 3D metrology of video sequences,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5947–5953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Compensating lateral chromatic aberration of a colour fringe projection system for shape metrology,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 159–165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Phase and color calculation in colour fringe projection,” J. Opt. A 9, S81–S86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Time efficient color fringe projection system for 3D shape and color using optimum 3-frequency interferometry,” Opt. Express 14, 6444–6455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Towers, D. P.

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Robust colour and shape measurement of full colour artefacts by RGB fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 51, 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Snapshot color fringe projection for absolute 3D metrology of video sequences,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5947–5953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Compensating lateral chromatic aberration of a colour fringe projection system for shape metrology,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 159–165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Phase and color calculation in colour fringe projection,” J. Opt. A 9, S81–S86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Time efficient color fringe projection system for 3D shape and color using optimum 3-frequency interferometry,” Opt. Express 14, 6444–6455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodard, D. L.

D. L. Woodard and P. J. Flynn, “Finger surfaces as a biometric identifier,” Comput. Vis. Image Und. 100, 357–384 (2005).

Yan, P.

P. Yan and K. W. Bowyer, “Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 1297–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y. K.

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, V. Kanhangad, N. Luo, and A. Kumar, “Robust palmprint verification using 2D and 3D features,” Pattern Recogn. 43, 158–168 (2010).

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).

A. Kong, D. Zhang, and M. Kamel, “A survey of palmprint recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 42, 1408–1418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Aggithaya, D. Zhang, and N. Luo, “A multimodal biometric authentication system based on 2D and 3D palmprint features,” Proc. SPIE 6944, 69440C (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition using structured light imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

W. Li, D. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on System, Man and Cybernetics (2009), pp. 4847–4852.

Zhang, D. P.

Z. H. Zhang, D. P. Zhang, X. Peng, and X. T. Hu, “Performance analysis of a 3-D full-field sensor based on fringe projection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 341–353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition using structured light imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

W. Li, D. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “Three dimensional palmprint recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on System, Man and Cybernetics (2009), pp. 4847–4852.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, “Recent progresses on real-time 3D shape measurement using digital fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. X.

Zhang, Z. H.

Z. H. Zhang, “Review of single-shot 3D shape measurement by phase calculation-based fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1097–1106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Robust colour and shape measurement of full colour artefacts by RGB fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 51, 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, H. Y. Ma, T. Guo, S. X. Zhang, and J. P. Chen, “Simple, flexible calibration of phase calculation-based three-dimensional imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1257–1259 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Compensating lateral chromatic aberration of a colour fringe projection system for shape metrology,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 159–165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Snapshot color fringe projection for absolute 3D metrology of video sequences,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5947–5953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Phase and color calculation in colour fringe projection,” J. Opt. A 9, S81–S86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Time efficient color fringe projection system for 3D shape and color using optimum 3-frequency interferometry,” Opt. Express 14, 6444–6455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, D. P. Zhang, X. Peng, and X. T. Hu, “Performance analysis of a 3-D full-field sensor based on fringe projection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 341–353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Vis. Image Und. (1)

D. L. Woodard and P. J. Flynn, “Finger surfaces as a biometric identifier,” Comput. Vis. Image Und. 100, 357–384 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (3)

I. A. Kakadiaris, G. Passalis, G. Toderici, M. N. Murtuza, Y. L. Lu, N. Karam-Patziakis, and T. Theoharis, “Three-dimensional face recognition in the presence of facial expressions: an annotated deformable model approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 640–649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Yan and K. W. Bowyer, “Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29, 1297–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Reillo, C. Sanchez-Avila, and A. Gonzalez-Marcos, “Biometric identification through hand geometry measurements,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1168–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

D. Zhang, G. Lu, W. Li, L. Zhang, and N. Luo, “Palmprint recognition using 3-D information,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 39, 505–519 (2009).

J. Opt. A (1)

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Phase and color calculation in colour fringe projection,” J. Opt. A 9, S81–S86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. K. Jain, “Biometric recognition,” Nature 449, 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Pan, P. Huang, and F. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 023606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, C. E. Towers, and D. P. Towers, “Robust colour and shape measurement of full colour artefacts by RGB fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 51, 021109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (5)

Z. H. Zhang, “Review of single-shot 3D shape measurement by phase calculation-based fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1097–1106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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