Abstract

We present terahertz (THz) lenses made of highly refracting polymeric compounds which provide a better focusing performance and an increased functionality in comparison to conventional THz lenses. Using mixtures consisting of polypropylene (PP) and alumina as well as PP and zinc sulfide allows a significant increase of the refractive index while simultaneously keeping a low extinction and dispersion. With these new material combinations, lenses with an increased focusing capability are realized. This is evaluated by focal plane measurements using a fiber coupled THz time-domain spectrometer.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Falconer and A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of peptides and proteins,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 973–988 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Vieweg, B. M. Fischer, M. Reuter, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, M. A. Celik, G. Frenking, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 28249 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “Molecular terahertz polarizability of PCH5, PCH7, and 5OCB,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1367–1370 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Theuer and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1267–1284 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 143–171 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Astley, K. S. Reichel, J. Jones, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz multichannel microfluidic sensor based on parallel-plate waveguide resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 231108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Jördens, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47, 037003 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Brenner, C.-S. Friedrich, and M. R. Hofmann, “Semiconductor diode lasers for terahertz technology,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1253–1266 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Tani, K. Horita, T. Kinoshita, C. T. Que, E. Estacio, K. Yamamoto, and M. I. Bakunov, “Efficient electro-optic sampling detection of terahertz radiation via Cherenkov phase matching,” Opt. Express 19, 19901–19906 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 553–555 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Mendis and D. M. Mittleman, “An investigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE_1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A6–A13 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Wichmann, B. Scherger, S. Schumann, S. Lippert, M. Scheller, S. F. Busch, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Brewster lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 25151–25160 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Scheller, S. F. Dürrschmidt, M. Stecher, and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi-time-domain spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1884–1888 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging—modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D 42, 065415 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, “All-fiber terahertz time-domain spectrometer operating at 1.5 μm telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 16, 9565–9570 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 34, 1–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. J. Falconer and A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of peptides and proteins,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 973–988 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Vieweg, B. M. Fischer, M. Reuter, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, M. A. Celik, G. Frenking, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 28249 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Astley, K. S. Reichel, J. Jones, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz multichannel microfluidic sensor based on parallel-plate waveguide resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 231108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “Molecular terahertz polarizability of PCH5, PCH7, and 5OCB,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1367–1370 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1267–1284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, S. T. Cundiff, and M. Koch, “Paper terahertz wave plates,” Opt. Express 19, 24884–24889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express 19, 4528–4535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Scheller, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Terahertz lenses made by compression molding of micropowders,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2256–2262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wichmann, B. Scherger, S. Schumann, S. Lippert, M. Scheller, S. F. Busch, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Brewster lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 25151–25160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Brenner, C.-S. Friedrich, and M. R. Hofmann, “Semiconductor diode lasers for terahertz technology,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1253–1266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, K. Horita, T. Kinoshita, C. T. Que, E. Estacio, K. Yamamoto, and M. I. Bakunov, “Efficient electro-optic sampling detection of terahertz radiation via Cherenkov phase matching,” Opt. Express 19, 19901–19906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, S. Wietzke, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Wichmann, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Characterization of micro-powders for the fabrication of compression molded THz lenses,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 943–951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. F. Dürrschmidt, M. Stecher, and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi-time-domain spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1884–1888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging—modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Mendis and D. M. Mittleman, “An investigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE_1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A6–A13 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, and M. Koch, “Liquid crystal based electrically switchable Bragg structure for THz waves,” Opt. Express 17, 7377–7382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D 42, 065415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26, 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Jin and G. Kim, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

2004

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1990

Al-Naib, I.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Al-Naib, I. a. I.

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Astley, V.

V. Astley, K. S. Reichel, J. Jones, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz multichannel microfluidic sensor based on parallel-plate waveguide resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 231108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakunov, M. I.

Bastian, M.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bollaert, S.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Böttcher, J.

Boyd, J. E.

J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, C.

C. Brenner, C.-S. Friedrich, and M. R. Hofmann, “Semiconductor diode lasers for terahertz technology,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1253–1266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Briskman, A.

J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Busch, S. F.

Cappy, A.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Celik, M. A.

Chee, K. L.

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Colvin, V.

J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging—modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

Dabrowski, R.

Dürrschmidt, S. F.

Estacio, E.

Falconer, R. J.

R. J. Falconer and A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of peptides and proteins,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 973–988 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

Fischer, B. M.

Frenking, G.

Friedrich, C.-S.

C. Brenner, C.-S. Friedrich, and M. R. Hofmann, “Semiconductor diode lasers for terahertz technology,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1253–1266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Hasek, T.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hochrein, T.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M. R.

C. Brenner, C.-S. Friedrich, and M. R. Hofmann, “Semiconductor diode lasers for terahertz technology,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1253–1266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horita, K.

Jansen, C.

M. Wichmann, B. Scherger, S. Schumann, S. Lippert, M. Scheller, S. F. Busch, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Brewster lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 25151–25160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Scheller, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Terahertz lenses made by compression molding of micropowders,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2256–2262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D 42, 065415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26, 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

N. Vieweg, B. M. Fischer, M. Reuter, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, M. A. Celik, G. Frenking, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 28249 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging—modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin and G. Kim, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Jones, J.

V. Astley, K. S. Reichel, J. Jones, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz multichannel microfluidic sensor based on parallel-plate waveguide resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 231108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jördens, C.

B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express 19, 4528–4535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

C. Jördens, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47, 037003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kim, G.

Y. Jin and G. Kim, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

Kinoshita, T.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

N. Vieweg, B. M. Fischer, M. Reuter, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, M. A. Celik, G. Frenking, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 28249 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “Molecular terahertz polarizability of PCH5, PCH7, and 5OCB,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1367–1370 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wichmann, B. Scherger, S. Schumann, S. Lippert, M. Scheller, S. F. Busch, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Brewster lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 25151–25160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Scheller, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Terahertz lenses made by compression molding of micropowders,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2256–2262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express 19, 4528–4535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, S. T. Cundiff, and M. Koch, “Paper terahertz wave plates,” Opt. Express 19, 24884–24889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. F. Dürrschmidt, M. Stecher, and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi-time-domain spectroscopy imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1884–1888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging—modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, S. Wietzke, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Wichmann, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Characterization of micro-powders for the fabrication of compression molded THz lenses,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 943–951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, and M. Koch, “Liquid crystal based electrically switchable Bragg structure for THz waves,” Opt. Express 17, 7377–7382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D 42, 065415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26, 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kopschinski, O.

Kretschmer, K.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kula, P.

Künzel, H.

Li, J.-S.

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 34, 1–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lippert, S.

Lusakowski, J.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

R. J. Falconer and A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of peptides and proteins,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 973–988 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Melinger, J. S.

M. Theuer and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1267–1284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

Mikulics, M.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26, 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

V. Astley, K. S. Reichel, J. Jones, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz multichannel microfluidic sensor based on parallel-plate waveguide resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 231108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. M. Mittleman, “An investigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE_1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A6–A13 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 34, 1–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Parenty, T.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peik, S.

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Peters, O.

Popov, V. V.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pupeza, I.

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Que, C. T.

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 34, 1–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, K. S.

V. Astley, K. S. Reichel, J. Jones, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz multichannel microfluidic sensor based on parallel-plate waveguide resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 231108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, M.

Roehle, H.

Rutz, F.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26, 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salhi, M.

Sartorius, B.

Sayes, C. M.

J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scheiman, J.

Schell, M.

Scheller, M.

Scherger, B.

Schlak, M.

Schumann, S.

Shakfa, M. K.

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “Molecular terahertz polarizability of PCH5, PCH7, and 5OCB,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1367–1370 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stanze, D.

Stecher, M.

Tani, M.

Theuer, M.

M. Theuer and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1267–1284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Venghaus, H.

Vieweg, N.

N. Vieweg, B. M. Fischer, M. Reuter, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, M. A. Celik, G. Frenking, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 28249 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “Molecular terahertz polarizability of PCH5, PCH7, and 5OCB,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1367–1370 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, S. Wietzke, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Wichmann, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Characterization of micro-powders for the fabrication of compression molded THz lenses,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 943–951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, S. T. Cundiff, and M. Koch, “Paper terahertz wave plates,” Opt. Express 19, 24884–24889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, N. Vieweg, O. Kopschinski, and M. Koch, “Liquid crystal based electrically switchable Bragg structure for THz waves,” Opt. Express 17, 7377–7382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenke, G.

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

Wichmann, M.

B. Scherger, S. Wietzke, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Wichmann, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Characterization of micro-powders for the fabrication of compression molded THz lenses,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 943–951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wichmann, B. Scherger, S. Schumann, S. Lippert, M. Scheller, S. F. Busch, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Terahertz Brewster lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 25151–25160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wiesauer, K.

B. Scherger, M. Scheller, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Terahertz lenses made by compression molding of micropowders,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2256–2262 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, S. Wietzke, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Wichmann, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Characterization of micro-powders for the fabrication of compression molded THz lenses,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 943–951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wietzke, S.

B. Scherger, S. Wietzke, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Wichmann, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Characterization of micro-powders for the fabrication of compression molded THz lenses,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 943–951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49, E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D 42, 065415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26, 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, R.

Withayachumnankul, W.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Astley, K. S. Reichel, J. Jones, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz multichannel microfluidic sensor based on parallel-plate waveguide resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 231108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, V. Astley, D. M. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Mechanically flexible polymeric compound one-dimensional photonic crystals for terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millimeter Waves

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 34, 1–27 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Brenner, C.-S. Friedrich, and M. R. Hofmann, “Semiconductor diode lasers for terahertz technology,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1253–1266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Falconer and A. G. Markelz, “Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of peptides and proteins,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 33, 973–988 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “Molecular terahertz polarizability of PCH5, PCH7, and 5OCB,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1367–1370 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer and J. S. Melinger, “High resolution waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 1267–1284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, K. L. Chee, I. a. I. Al-Naib, I. Pupeza, S. Peik, G. Wenke, and M. Koch, “Dielectric fibres for low-loss transmission of millimeter waves and its application in couplers and splitters,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 31, 214–220 (2010).

B. Scherger, S. Wietzke, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Wichmann, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Characterization of micro-powders for the fabrication of compression molded THz lenses,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 32, 943–951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

Y. Jin and G. Kim, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513–517 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. E. Boyd, A. Briskman, C. M. Sayes, D. Mittleman, and V. Colvin, “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6346–6353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D 42, 065415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging—modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Jördens, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47, 037003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Polym. Test.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes inline with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28, 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, “Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 26, 614–618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

THz–TDS measurements on PP/Al2O3 and PP/ZnS for the employed volume concentrations of 36% and 32.4%, respectively. The THz properties of the pure filler substances are shown as well.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ray tracing diagrams for the (a) f=30mm and (b) f=60mm bestform lens assuming a refractive index of 2.0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ray fan plot for the bestform lenses based on (a) PP/Al2O3 and (b) PP/ZnS. The plots show the transverse aberration as function of the normalized pupil position of the incoming ray for both employed focal lengths. The colored lines refer to the wavelengths as indicated in the figure. Px and Py refer to the relative x- and y-pupil coordinate of the ray. ex and ey denote the x and y component of the aberration, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Lens characterization setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement results for the bestform lens made of PP/36 vol.% Al2O3 with f=30mm: (a) frequency-averaged intensity distribution along the beam propagation axis (xz plane), (b) frequency-averaged intensity distribution in the focal plane at z=0. The slightly asymmetric shape in the interior is an artefact due to the color interpolation of the single pixels, (c) shows the corresponding cross section plots along the x and y axis including Gaussian fit curves. For clarity, we introduced a slight offset between the curves, (d) depicts a frequency-resolved analysis of the focal FWHM for the x- and y-direction, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Frequency-resolved FWHM of the focal spot for (a) the bestform lens made of PP/32.4 vol.% ZnS with f=33mm, (b) the bestform lens made of PP/36 vol.% Al2O3 with f=60mm, and (c) the conventional plano–convex lens made of HDPE with f=60mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of measured THz lenses in terms of refractive index, focal length, thickness, and averaged FWHM for 150 and 350 GHz, respectively. The corresponding numbers refer to the lenses as following: (1) HDPE plano-convex, f=60mm, (2) bestform lens PP/36 vol.% Al2O3, f=30mm, (3) bestform lens PP/32.4 vol.% ZnS, f=33mm, and (4) bestform lens PP/36 vol.% Al2O3, f=60mm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulated transmission through all investigated lenses, taking into account reflection losses as well as extinction. The corresponding numbers refer to the lenses as follows: (1) HDPE plano-convex f=60mm, (2) bestform lens PP/36 vol.% Al2O3, f=60mm, (3) bestform lens PP/36 vol.% Al2O3, f=30mm, and (4) bestform lens PP/32.4 vol.% ZnS, f=33mm.

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