Abstract

Recent clinical reports suggest that overexposure to light emissions generated from cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) color monitors after topical or systemic administration of a photosensitizer could cause noticeable skin phototoxicity. In this study, we examined the light emission profiles (optical irradiance, spectral irradiance) of CRT and LCD monitors under simulated movie and video game modes. Results suggest that peak emissions and integrated fluence generated from monitors are clinically relevant and therefore prolonged exposure to these light sources at a close distance should be avoided after the administration of a photosensitizer or phototoxic drug.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. M. Murphy, “Diseases associated with photosensitivity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64, 93–98 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Roelandts, “The diagnosis of photosensitivity,” Arch. Derm. 136, 1152–1157 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. S. Yashar and H. W. Lim, “Classification and evaluation of photodermatoses,” Derm. Ther. 16, 1–7 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Vassileva, G. Mateev, and L. C. Parish, “Antimicrobial photosensitive reactions,” Arch. Intern. Med. 158, 1993–2000(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Huang, “A review of progress in clinical photodynamic therapy,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 283–293 (2005).
  6. E. Bromley, B. Briggs, L. Keltner, and S. S. Wang, “Characterization of cutaneous photosensitivity in healthy volunteers receiving talaporfin sodium,” Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed. 27, 85–89 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Wang, H. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Photosensitization induced by exposure to colour cathode ray tube monitor following topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: a case report,” Acta Derm. Vener. 90, 545–547 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. H. Yuan, J. H. Gao, and Z. Huang, “Adverse effects associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 332–336 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lesar, J. Ferguson, and H. Moseley, “An investigation of the fluorescence induced by topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and methyl aminolaevulinate at different body sites on normal human skin,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 8, 97–103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. G. Roberts, K. M. Smith, J. L. McCullough, and M. W. Berns, “Skin photosensitivity and photodestruction of several potential photodynamic sensitizers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 431–438 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Sandell and T. C. Zhu, “A review of in-vivo optical properties of human tissues and its impact on PDT,” J. Biophoton. 4, 773–787 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

K. H. Yuan, J. H. Gao, and Z. Huang, “Adverse effects associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 332–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. L. Sandell and T. C. Zhu, “A review of in-vivo optical properties of human tissues and its impact on PDT,” J. Biophoton. 4, 773–787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesar, J. Ferguson, and H. Moseley, “An investigation of the fluorescence induced by topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and methyl aminolaevulinate at different body sites on normal human skin,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 8, 97–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Bromley, B. Briggs, L. Keltner, and S. S. Wang, “Characterization of cutaneous photosensitivity in healthy volunteers receiving talaporfin sodium,” Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed. 27, 85–89 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Wang, H. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Photosensitization induced by exposure to colour cathode ray tube monitor following topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: a case report,” Acta Derm. Vener. 90, 545–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Huang, “A review of progress in clinical photodynamic therapy,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 283–293 (2005).

2004

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. S. Yashar and H. W. Lim, “Classification and evaluation of photodermatoses,” Derm. Ther. 16, 1–7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. M. Murphy, “Diseases associated with photosensitivity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64, 93–98 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Roelandts, “The diagnosis of photosensitivity,” Arch. Derm. 136, 1152–1157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Vassileva, G. Mateev, and L. C. Parish, “Antimicrobial photosensitive reactions,” Arch. Intern. Med. 158, 1993–2000(1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. G. Roberts, K. M. Smith, J. L. McCullough, and M. W. Berns, “Skin photosensitivity and photodestruction of several potential photodynamic sensitizers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 431–438 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Allison, R. R.

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

W. G. Roberts, K. M. Smith, J. L. McCullough, and M. W. Berns, “Skin photosensitivity and photodestruction of several potential photodynamic sensitizers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 431–438 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, B.

E. Bromley, B. Briggs, L. Keltner, and S. S. Wang, “Characterization of cutaneous photosensitivity in healthy volunteers receiving talaporfin sodium,” Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed. 27, 85–89 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bromley, E.

E. Bromley, B. Briggs, L. Keltner, and S. S. Wang, “Characterization of cutaneous photosensitivity in healthy volunteers receiving talaporfin sodium,” Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed. 27, 85–89 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Childs, C. J. H.

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cuenca, R.

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Downie, G. H.

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, M.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, J.

A. Lesar, J. Ferguson, and H. Moseley, “An investigation of the fluorescence induced by topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and methyl aminolaevulinate at different body sites on normal human skin,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 8, 97–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. H.

K. H. Yuan, J. H. Gao, and Z. Huang, “Adverse effects associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 332–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Glazner, G. F.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

K. H. Yuan, J. H. Gao, and Z. Huang, “Adverse effects associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 332–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Photosensitization induced by exposure to colour cathode ray tube monitor following topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: a case report,” Acta Derm. Vener. 90, 545–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, “A review of progress in clinical photodynamic therapy,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 283–293 (2005).

Hunter, J. J.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keltner, L.

E. Bromley, B. Briggs, L. Keltner, and S. S. Wang, “Characterization of cutaneous photosensitivity in healthy volunteers receiving talaporfin sodium,” Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed. 27, 85–89 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lei, T. C.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lesar, A.

A. Lesar, J. Ferguson, and H. Moseley, “An investigation of the fluorescence induced by topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and methyl aminolaevulinate at different body sites on normal human skin,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 8, 97–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. W.

S. S. Yashar and H. W. Lim, “Classification and evaluation of photodermatoses,” Derm. Ther. 16, 1–7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mateev, G.

G. Vassileva, G. Mateev, and L. C. Parish, “Antimicrobial photosensitive reactions,” Arch. Intern. Med. 158, 1993–2000(1998).
[CrossRef]

McCullough, J. L.

W. G. Roberts, K. M. Smith, J. L. McCullough, and M. W. Berns, “Skin photosensitivity and photodestruction of several potential photodynamic sensitizers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 431–438 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Merigan, W. H.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, J. I.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, H.

A. Lesar, J. Ferguson, and H. Moseley, “An investigation of the fluorescence induced by topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and methyl aminolaevulinate at different body sites on normal human skin,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 8, 97–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, G. M.

G. M. Murphy, “Diseases associated with photosensitivity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64, 93–98 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parish, L. C.

G. Vassileva, G. Mateev, and L. C. Parish, “Antimicrobial photosensitive reactions,” Arch. Intern. Med. 158, 1993–2000(1998).
[CrossRef]

Pendyala, S.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, W. G.

W. G. Roberts, K. M. Smith, J. L. McCullough, and M. W. Berns, “Skin photosensitivity and photodestruction of several potential photodynamic sensitizers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 431–438 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roelandts, R.

R. Roelandts, “The diagnosis of photosensitivity,” Arch. Derm. 136, 1152–1157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandell, J. L.

J. L. Sandell and T. C. Zhu, “A review of in-vivo optical properties of human tissues and its impact on PDT,” J. Biophoton. 4, 773–787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scherrer, L.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sibata, C. H.

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

W. G. Roberts, K. M. Smith, J. L. McCullough, and M. W. Berns, “Skin photosensitivity and photodestruction of several potential photodynamic sensitizers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 431–438 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sparrow, J. R.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vassileva, G.

G. Vassileva, G. Mateev, and L. C. Parish, “Antimicrobial photosensitive reactions,” Arch. Intern. Med. 158, 1993–2000(1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

X. Wang, H. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Photosensitization induced by exposure to colour cathode ray tube monitor following topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: a case report,” Acta Derm. Vener. 90, 545–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. W.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

E. Bromley, B. Briggs, L. Keltner, and S. S. Wang, “Characterization of cutaneous photosensitivity in healthy volunteers receiving talaporfin sodium,” Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed. 27, 85–89 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, H. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Photosensitization induced by exposure to colour cathode ray tube monitor following topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: a case report,” Acta Derm. Vener. 90, 545–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yashar, S. S.

S. S. Yashar and H. W. Lim, “Classification and evaluation of photodermatoses,” Derm. Ther. 16, 1–7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, K. H.

K. H. Yuan, J. H. Gao, and Z. Huang, “Adverse effects associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 332–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T. C.

J. L. Sandell and T. C. Zhu, “A review of in-vivo optical properties of human tissues and its impact on PDT,” J. Biophoton. 4, 773–787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Acta Derm. Vener.

X. Wang, H. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Photosensitization induced by exposure to colour cathode ray tube monitor following topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: a case report,” Acta Derm. Vener. 90, 545–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Derm.

R. Roelandts, “The diagnosis of photosensitivity,” Arch. Derm. 136, 1152–1157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Intern. Med.

G. Vassileva, G. Mateev, and L. C. Parish, “Antimicrobial photosensitive reactions,” Arch. Intern. Med. 158, 1993–2000(1998).
[CrossRef]

Derm. Ther.

S. S. Yashar and H. W. Lim, “Classification and evaluation of photodermatoses,” Derm. Ther. 16, 1–7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophoton.

J. L. Sandell and T. C. Zhu, “A review of in-vivo optical properties of human tissues and its impact on PDT,” J. Biophoton. 4, 773–787 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

G. M. Murphy, “Diseases associated with photosensitivity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64, 93–98 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

W. G. Roberts, K. M. Smith, J. L. McCullough, and M. W. Berns, “Skin photosensitivity and photodestruction of several potential photodynamic sensitizers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 431–438 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed.

E. Bromley, B. Briggs, L. Keltner, and S. S. Wang, “Characterization of cutaneous photosensitivity in healthy volunteers receiving talaporfin sodium,” Photoderm. Photoimmun. Photomed. 27, 85–89 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther.

K. H. Yuan, J. H. Gao, and Z. Huang, “Adverse effects associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 332–336 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesar, J. Ferguson, and H. Moseley, “An investigation of the fluorescence induced by topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and methyl aminolaevulinate at different body sites on normal human skin,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 8, 97–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Allison, G. H. Downie, R. Cuenca, X. Hu, C. J. H. Childs, and C. H. Sibata, “Photosensitizers in clinical PDT,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 1, 27–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Lei, G. F. Glazner, M. Duffy, L. Scherrer, S. Pendyala, B. H. Li, X. L. Wang, H. W. Wang, and Z. Huang, “Optical properties of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), a PDT photosensitizer,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 9, 232–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retinal Eye Res.

J. J. Hunter, J. I. Morgan, W. H. Merigan, D. H. Sliney, J. R. Sparrow, and D. R. Williams, “The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 28–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.

Z. Huang, “A review of progress in clinical photodynamic therapy,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 283–293 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Irradiance profile of white screen of CRT, LCD, and LED monitor. Insert: relative fluence—normalized to CRT (100%).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time course of total optical irradiance (μM/cm2) measured in the 200–1100 nm range and over a 10 min period. (a) Movie stream and (b) game stream on CRT and LCD monitors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Histograms of optical irradiance generated by CRT, LCD, and LED over a period of 10 min. Movie stream on (a) CRT, (b) LCD, and (c) LED monitor. Game stream on (d) CRT and (e) LCD monitor. The 50% points of the cumulative ratio and corresponding median irradiance were marked on each histogram.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral irradiances measured over 10 min of the movie stream on (a) CRT, (b) LCD, and (c) LED monitor, and the prerecorded video game on (d) CRT and (e) LCD monitor.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral fluences from integrating the spectral irradiances over the 10 min of playback time for the movie stream on (a) CRT, (b) LCD, and (c) LED monitor, and for the prerecorded video game on (d) CRT and (e) LCD monitor.

Metrics